Zheltushka in newborns is not just often – and it happens almost
is always. Any mother will easily notice the first symptoms. Baby becomes
unusually dark or as if poured yellow, squirrels turn yellow
eye. Is this a disease or a feature of a small child? it
will become clear later, after several days of observation. More often
There is no reason to worry, this condition is due to some
physiological features of the body of the newborn
Why does jaundice appear?
Здесь в первую очередь «виноват» билирубин.
What is it and where does it come from? It’s pretty simple. Have ребёнка, который
not yet born, special blood with special (fetal)
hemoglobin. It transports oxygen through the baby’s blood vessels.
When a child is born, he begins to breathe light. And then it changes
the composition of the blood: it appears “live” hemoglobin, and fetal –
collapses. Вот тут и образуется bilirubin. The child does not need it, and
a small body starts to get rid of it.
For a baby, this is a very difficult thing. Just because bilirubin is not
withdraw. First, it enters the liver and is mixed with special
enzymes, then dissolves in the urine and already then is easily eliminated.
If the liver does not cope and bilirubin in the blood becomes large,
The causes of pathogenic jaundice are completely different.
They чаще всего обусловлены нарушением оттока желчи из организма
due to the following conditions:
- blood group incompatibility;
- rhesus conflict;
- viral damage to the liver;
- genetic metabolic disorders;
- hereditary diseases;
- hormonal disorders;
- механические повреждения желчевыводящих путей или the liver.
In the blood of a newborn baby bilirubin should be from 8.5 to
20.5 µmol / l (micromol per liter). Unit of measure pretty
difficult, but you can not delve into it. If it is really interesting –
blood test occurs at the molecular level. If by results
analysis shows that the bilirubin content is slightly higher than normal, the doctor
understands: the baby’s body does not have time to cope with the load.
A real yellow one comes when the level of bilirubin exceeds 35
μmol / l.
And yet it is different …
Why jaundice appears is already clear. Why at all
Having trouble bilirubin withdrawal? Can it be
a sign of pathology? Unfortunately yes. Doctors distinguish two groups
jaundice – physiological and pathological. Consider all kinds
jaundice from the rarest to the most common.
Pathological types of jaundice
They встречаются редко, но требуют обязательного
наблюдения врачей и лечения. With pathological jaundice
There are always additional symptoms. One may notice mom or
Someone from relatives, others recognizes only doctor.
Among all the babies who get the jaundice of newborns,
less than 1% is due to hemolytic disease. Her
- rhesus-conflict mother and baby (most often);
- blood type mismatch (very rarely);
- antigen incompatibility (almost never occurs).
However, such a yellow one is quickly recognized. Skin and
baby’s sclera turn yellow not in a few days, but almost immediately after
of birth. The child looks sluggish and sleepy. The doctor, examining the crumbs,
почувствует увеличение селезёнки и the liver. All these signs
show that the newborn urgently needs help, and then doctors
start immediate treatment. The worst case is
ядерная желтуха, при которой билирубин отравляет мозг
Rare, but still pathology. Causes of obstructive jaundice
- gall bladder problems;
- violation of the patency of the biliary tract;
- liver problems.
More often к механической желтухе приводят генетические
нарушения или родовые травмы baby Manifestations of this disease
become noticeable when the baby turns two or three weeks. Leather
it does not look just yellow, but with a greenish tint. Chair
baby becomes abnormally light, almost without coloring. Doctor
will feel that the liver is condensed, and the spleen is enlarged. With
suspicions of obstructive jaundice are prescribed various additional
обследования – например, HaveЗИ. The treatment will depend on
There are also borderline states when long
postpartum jaundice goes into pathology:
- Конъюгационная желтуха связана с
плохой работой the liver. Liver enzymes bind bilirubin and
do not cope with the withdrawal of his blood.
- Ядерная желтуха возникает при резком
повышении уровня билирубина во время послеродовой jaundice. With этом
bilirubin penetrates the nervous system and exerts its own
- Печеночная желтуха появляется при
damage to liver cells by viruses or bacteria.
Now all the doctors have recognized that this is not a disease, but
one of the options for the normal state of the newborn child.
However, in this situation you need to carefully monitor the baby,
so as not to miss possible pathologies.
Breast Milk Jaundice
Another rare happening. It occurs when a mother has very much milk
a lot of estrogen (this is a female sex hormone). Then baby’s liver
first of all it starts to bring estrogen, and only then –
bilirubin. In this case, the baby remains jaundiced to three.
месяцев. At the same time the baby develops perfectly – he has
good appetite, sleep and gain in weight and height. This state is not
is dangerous and goes away by itself.
If a baby develops jaundice of breast milk, moms often
they ask: is it not better to wean a child from the breast? The answer may
be only one: not better! Yes, without breast milk, baby
will cease to “turn yellow.” But how much useful and important is he
this will get less? So breastfeeding is necessary
And finally, the most common type. This is jaundice
которая появляется у большинства деток. It does not apply to
diseases and does not require treatment. Such a jaundice of newborns
passes by itself and does not lead to complications. True, there is another
view: if the yellow one appeared, then the baby’s liver is still
overloaded. But you can help the kid.
The main and significant symptom of any type of jaundice is
discoloration of skin and mucous integuments, eye proteins. They
become bright yellow, almost lemon color.
When it takes more than two weeks, and the skin of the baby is not
acquired normal color, it is worth contacting a doctor. Before as
to treat jaundice will be assigned to the analysis of bilirubin level in
composition of blood. The level of bilirubin depends on many factors and
unequivocally interpret the test results can not be. Doctor
draw conclusions about the state of health of the child in the overall picture
Symptoms патологических видов желтухи проявляются в
discoloration of the skin. The differences are in their time
appearance and some features of the manifestation:
- discoloration of the skin appears immediately after birth;
- after three or four days the yellow color becomes brighter, all the symptoms
- The yellowness of the integument lasts more than one month;
- the occurrence of symptoms of jaundice wave: it appears, then
- In addition to yellow, the skin color can also become green.
Plus skin color changes are added.
- feces discolored;
- urine is dark in color;
- spontaneous bruising;
- an increase in the liver and spleen;
- the general well-being of the child is deteriorating.
With nuclear jaundice, sucking is observed.
reflex, severe drowsiness and the occurrence of seizures.
If we are talking about pathology, then any therapy is prescribed by a doctor.
Most often, the baby and mother go to the hospital where they spend
все необходимые процедуры. For example, if mom and baby
different rhesus factor or other signs of blood incompatibility, then
most often prescribed transfusions. In one procedure, the baby can
replace up to 70% of total blood. In difficult cases
transfusions are repeated several times.
These measures help to get rid of the pathological bilirubin, but
can weaken the baby. Therefore, often prescribed additional
therapy: antibiotics, physiotherapy and so on.
Obstructive jaundice often requires surgical
interventions. A reasoned decision is usually made whole.
commission of doctors who carefully examine the child and determine
all necessary measures. Such treatment and rehabilitation are also carried out.
in the conditions of a hospital.
If the yellow one is physiological, then it is more likely
not about treatment, but about helping the baby. The child will cope with his
condition faster if:
- attach the newborn to the breast as soon as possible (this
stimulates metabolic processes);
- full breastfeeding;
- nursing mom’s diet so that the baby does not have problems with
- sun baths;
- walks in the open air.
The last point, unfortunately, does not fulfill, if on the street
coldly. But in the spring, summer or in the warm autumn to carry the baby on
fresh air is a must. In the summer in calm sunny weather
for a few minutes you can open children’s hands and feet. Special
This is useful in light shade – for example, under a tree so that a child can
diffused light. The main thing is that the baby does not freeze.
Such care about the newborn will perfectly help to remove bilirubin.
from a child’s body. As a result, the baby will not only pass
jaundice Another child will become healthier and better self
The main method of treatment and prevention of neonatal jaundice
is breast milk. That is why the newborn is applied
to the chest from the first minute. Colostrum (the first portions of breast milk)
has a pronounced laxative effect. It promotes
removal along with feces and coloring matter (bilirubin).
Baby feeding on demand – this is the best cure for
Sometimes, in addition to breast milk, radiation is prescribed.
a special lamp for the treatment of jaundice – phototherapy. During the procedure
Cover the child’s eyes with a bandage or goggles and place
under the lamp. The course is 96 hours.
With проведении фототерапии могут наблюдаться side effects. Have
drowsiness may appear, the skin begins to peel off and
there is a disorder in the stool.
The same effect has a sun bath. Baby’s body on
Light begins to actively produce vitamin D. It accelerates the process
withdrawal of bilirubin from the blood.
In case of severe jaundice, glucose can be prescribed by a doctor and
activated carbon tablets. Glucose helps to improve
active liver work. Activated carbon absorbs like a sponge
вредные вещества, в том числе и bilirubin. Then coal along with
bilirubin is excreted naturally with feces.
The method of treatment of pathological types of jaundice a doctor develops
depending on the diagnosis. Haveчитываются все факторы и
circumstances of the birth of a child. During childbirth and pregnancy
maternal diseases, ultrasound and test results
research. Sometimes consultation of narrow specialists is required;
surgeon or endocrinologist.
In the treatment of jaundice use different types
They are used both individually and in combination under
close medical supervision. It depends on the reasons.
Consequences and problems
In pathological conditions, it is impossible to predict how fast
baby will recover. First of all, it all depends on the reasons.
заболевания и его тяжести. This is why it is especially important.
watch the baby in the first days of life. What to draw
- Jaundice occurred a few hours after the baby was born
(blood conflicts are possible).
- The child is developing poorly, he is sleepy and lethargic (significant
excess of bilirubin in the blood, including hemolytic
- Jaundice is accompanied by convulsions, a constant cry (it can
be nuclear jaundice). With this diagnosis, the child may develop
hearing impairment, motor pathology, in the most difficult case
the baby may die.
- Have новорождённого отмечены родовые травмы.
As soon as the newborn began the jaundice, it is necessary
careful observation to prevent the development of pathologies.
If the treatment is carried out on time, the baby very soon
поправится и будет расти здоровым.
Physiological jaundice does not cause any complications. She is
may last two to three weeks. Most babies get rid of
zheltushki when they are one month old. If the cause is milk
mother, the state may be delayed for another one or two months. After
this skin and eyes of the baby are completely exempt from the yellow
shade. All this time, the child fully develops. The main thing for
He is the care of his mother, relatives and doctors. And then the baby will grow up
healthy and happy.
Physiological jaundice in healthy children does not harm
body does not affect the further development of the child.
Pathological jaundice increases with age and
development of cirrhosis or liver cancer. Have 90% детей, переболевших в
infancy by hepatitis, the effects of jaundice remain to the full
a life. This is reflected in weakened immunity and poor performance.
Transferred nuclear jaundice can further lead to
deafness, complete or partial paralysis, mental retardation.
Toxic effect of high bilirubin on the nervous system
has the worst consequences.