Заболевания hearts: список, симптомы,the signs

Update: February 2019

Cardiac pathology ranks first in the statistics of all
diseases of the Russians. Its high prevalence and high
смертность заставляют обращать внимание на основные the signs и
symptoms of heart disease.

The list of heart diseases includes:

  1. Coronary artery disease, including forms: rhythm disturbances
    heart, angina, acute myocardial infarction,
    postinfarction cardiosclerosis.
  2. Inflammatory diseases: endocarditis, myocarditis,
    pericarditis.
  3. Chronic heart failure.
  4. Tumors (myxoma) and metastases of malignant tumors of other
    localizations.
  5. Cardiomyopathy (hypertrophic, dilated,
    restrictive).
  6. Traumatic injury (bruise, rupture of the wall).
  7. Toxic effects (anticancer drugs).

Symptoms of cardiac pathology

To the list of signs by which one can be suspected
heart disease include:

  1. Chest pain.
  2. Feeling of intense or rapid heartbeat.
  3. The feeling of “fading” in the work of the heart, interruptions of the correct rhythm
    hearts.
  4. Shortage of air together with increased breathing rate –
    dyspnea.
  5. Swelling in the lower limbs, combined with a feeling of heaviness in
    right hypochondrium.
  6. Dizziness, flashing flies or circles in front of his eyes,
    confusion before losing it.

Each of the symptoms does not always occur in isolation. Usually
there is a combination of symptoms that can tell about simultaneous
the existence of several heart diseases or about complex
manifestation of one. Most patients are comorbid, i.e. have
many diseases at the same time, and cardiac pathology
almost always included in their list.

Cardiac pain

Chest pain as a symptom of heart disease
may manifest as:

  • Attacks of anginal pain.
  • Cardialgia

Angina pain

The first is the main symptom of stable angina
stress as one of the most common forms of ischemic
heart disease (CHD). For anginal attacks characterized
localization of pain behind the sternum, but they can also
�”Give” in the left upper limb, the left half of the neck, lower
jaw but never right. Reflected pain same aching
or pulling, it is often confused with cervical osteochondrosis or
pathology of the nerves of the upper limb.

Pain, constricting, squeezing, forcing to stop
and stand still. Often it is compared to a burning sensation, “tying up a knot
ropes, as if behind the breastbone, cutting, whining, pinching or breaking.
It occurs when the heart begins to feel an acute shortage.
oxygen and nutrients, and coronary vessels cannot
ensure adequate blood flow due to incomplete closure
atherosclerotic plaque or spasm (for variant angina
Princemetal).

Provoked an attack:

  • peak physical exertion
  • hypothermia
  • emotional stress
  • smoking,

therefore, the person notices her while awake.

In case of variant angina, on the contrary, pain appears in
predawn hours Angina pain обычно снимается за 5 минут
(maximum 15 minutes), nitroglycerin is effective in
spray doses or tablets under the tongue.

Angina pain сопровождает и другие формы ИБС:

  • heart rhythm disturbances,
  • acute myocardial infarction,
  • unstable exertional angina.

Only the nature of the painful attack differs. Feelings are sharp,
колющие, стреляющие, have более четкую локализацию (больной может
indicate the place of pain with a finger), can “give away” to any place
right half of the chest, keeping the same characteristics.
Nitroglycerin is not effective for even 15 minutes.
Among the reasons for the occurrence of such a clinic is most likely
myocardial infarction or unstable angina of exertion that in
during the first days since the onset of characteristic symptoms
referred to as “acute coronary syndrome” (ACS).

Cardialgia

This is the opposite group of pain, the causes of which can
perform heart and extracardiac diseases:

Heart reasons:

  • Myocarditis and pericarditis (pain has no clear localization and
    combined with an inflammatory response of the immune system
    for inflammation in the heart tissues – general malaise, weakness,
    increase in body temperature, inflammatory picture in the general analysis
    blood).
  • Heart contusion (due to chest injury in projection
    hearts; if there is a rupture of the ventricular wall, the pain is acute
    nature and remains at rest, not subject to action
    analgesics; threatens the rapid development of heart compression due to
    pericardial blood outflow).

Extracardiac causes:

  • Peptic ulcer of the stomach (initially the pain is localized in the left
    hypochondrium and epigastria, subsides after eating, can
    accompanied by belching sour).
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease – GERD (pain appears
    after eating, due to the reflux of the acidic contents of the stomach
    in the esophagus, also accompanied by a sour taste in the mouth,
    heartburn).
  • Diaphragmatic hernia, especially in children (a characteristic of pain
    coincides with GERD).
  • TELA – pulmonary thromboembolism arteries (acute pain,
    periodic, accompanied by cough with possible admixture of streaks
    blood, dyspnea, increasing cyanosis of the skin).
  • Dry and exudative pleurisy (clear connection with respiratory
    movements decreases with decreasing mobility “sick”
    parties).
  • Pneumothorax (sharp pain, development due to
    injury, clear connection with respiratory movements).
  • Intercostal herpetic neuralgia (pain along the intercostal
    nerves on the lower edge of the ribs, are shooting, burning character,
    accompanied by characteristic vesicles can
    appear after experiencing herpes on the lips or external genital
    bodies).
  • Syndromes compression of the brachial plexus bundles (accompanied by
    dysfunction of the corresponding nerves with loss
    motor, sensitive, trophic function).
  • Cervical and (very rarely) chest osteochondrosis (together with
    pain is observed local pain when
    pressure on the vertebrae, limiting the mobility of the corresponding
    spine, neurological symptoms).
  • Overeating – gastrocardial syndrome.

Heartbeat change

List of heart diseases for which changes
right heart rate, includes various types of arrhythmias. Fine
the person does not feel the heartbeat, or may feel weak
rhythmic pushes. The perceived insignificant is normal.
slowing the frequency of contractions of the heart during inhalation. therefore
various rhythm interruptions, accompanied by the fear of death, loss
consciousness, chest pains, autonomic reactions (redness
persons, cold extremities, etc.) may well be the first
signs of arrhythmia.

In such patients, after ECG removal and Holter performance
ECG monitoring reveals one of three types of arrhythmias:

  1. Impulse formation disorders:
    • Sinus tachycardia (heart rate over 90 per minute
      with normal sinus rhythm).
    • Sinus bradycardia (heart rate less than 60 per minute
      with normal sinus rhythm).
    • Sick sinus syndrome.
    • Extrasystole (extraordinary abbreviations).
    • Paroxysmal tachycardia (attacks of rapid
      heartbeat).
    • Atrial flutter / ventricular flutter.
    • Atrial / ventricular fibrillation (fibrillation).
  2. Disorders of the impulse through the cells of the conducting system
    hearts:

    • Sinoatrial blockade (violation of the signal through
      sinus node of the right atrium).
    • Atrio-ventricular blockade (violation of the signal
      through the atrio-ventricular node in the interatrial septum).
    • Intra atrial blockade (violation of the signal through
      fibers connecting both atria).
  3. The combination of disorders (parasystole, the formation of additional
    rhythms, atrioventricular dissociation).

Dyspnea

As one of the main symptoms and characteristic signs
heart disease, shortness of breath. It is clinically expressed in
feeling of lack of air, the body tries more intensely
consume oxygen. Dyspnea может иметь два происхождения –
heart and lung. In the first case, the lack of adequate
gas exchange in the lung tissue is caused by heart disease, namely
disturbance of the normal heartbeat cycle with blood stasis
in the left chambers and pulmonary veins. In the second case, shortness of breath
due to lung disease (chronic obstructive disease,
pneumoconiosis, pneumonia, bronchiectasis). It is important
clinical sign of developing pulmonary embolism with simultaneous pain
in the chest, blood streak in the outgoing sputum.

�”Heart” dyspnea is inspiratory in nature, that is,
arises while inhaling. It can be found in men and women with:

  • Myocardial infarction.
  • Cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, valvular heart defects,
    severe angina pectoris leading to chronic heart disease
    insufficiency (CHF).
  • Breaking the right heart rate.

Patients develop a so-called “pulmonary edema”, having
two stages – interstitial and alveolar. In the first phase
stagnant blood in the pulmonary vessels (its liquid part) begins
overcome the barrier in the form of the vascular wall and falls into
extracellular space of the lungs. Именно тогда пациента  может
disturb dry cough with heart disease in lungs
dry rales are heard. In the second phase, the liquid enters
directly into the alveoli of the lungs, contributing to the aggravation
condition, increase in shortness of breath, moist distant wheezing.

Edematous syndrome and hepatomegaly

Formation of edema and enlargement of the liver in combination with
shortness of breath – signs of CHF. They characterize the presence of blood stasis in
big circulation due to the inability of the heart to fully
shrink, “pumping” the entire volume of blood. Swelling appear closer
by the evening hours, they are localized symmetrically on both lower
limbs, have a dense texture.

Severe heart failure leads to edema in
body cavities:

  • ascites (fluid in the abdominal cavity),
  • hydrothorax (fluid in the pleural cavity),
  • hydropericardium (fluid in the pericardial cavity).

Swelling of renal origin, by contrast, is more pronounced in
morning hours, soft, warm, prevail in the facial area and in
during the day under the action of gravity descend through the subcutaneous
adipose tissue in the lower parts of the body.

As a rule, an increase in size appears parallel to edema.
liver, which may be asymptomatic for the patient or
debut with heaviness or dull pain in the right hypochondrium.
In hepatomegaly, it is necessary to exclude liver pathology (cirrhosis,
hepatitis, tumor lesion, parasitosis) by
biochemical analysis of blood (ALT, AST, bilirubin, alkaline
phosphatase, total cholesterol), analysis on specific
pathogens, ultrasound of the abdominal organs.

The worsening of CHF symptoms occurs after physical
activity, which greatly affects the quality of life
patients and limits their daily mobility. More often
heart failure is diagnosed after 40 years, especially
the elderly, however, and the young are subject to this pathology.
Lead to CHF can:

  • Arrhythmias.
  • Postinfarction cardiosclerosis.
  • Angina pressure.
  • Myocarditis.
  • Cardiomyopathy.
  • Valvular heart defects.
  • Prolonged severe anemia.

Loss of consciousness, dizziness, “flies” before the eyes

They are the main signs of reduced perfusion of head tissues.
brain, i.e. lack of glucose and oxygen in neurons. States
accompanied by these symptoms occur with a lack of
blood circulation in a large circle of the heart. This in turn is related
with a low cardiac output due to:

  • Myocardial infarction.
  • Aortic aneurysm dissection, heart wall.
  • Stenosis (narrowing) of the aortic valve, including
    rheumatic origin.
  • Aortic stenosis.
  • Constrictive or exudative pericarditis.
  • Myocarditis.
  • Arrhythmias.

Cardiac and extracardiac causes of loss should be differentiated.
of consciousness. So to a temporary decrease in the level of consciousness or its loss
with preceding dizziness, flickering “fly” or balls
light before your eyes can cause:

  • Transient ischemic attacks (accompanied by neurological
    disorders – movement disorders, sensitivity, speech,
    swallowing, eyeball movements, etc.).
  • Vegetative-vascular dystonia with a fall in the level of arterial
    pressure.
  • Different types of shock (hypovolemic, anaphylactic,
    infectious-toxic).
  • Collapse with a sharp significant drop in arterial
    pressure.
  • Vertebral artery syndrome.
  • Injury of the cervical spine.
  • Toxic effects.
  • Generalized attack of occipital epilepsy.
  • Postural hypotension (after a sharp change of position
    body).

Symptoms of heart disease in women do not differ from the symptoms
heart disease in men. If there is one or another sign,
which it is possible to suspect cardiac pathology should
consult a therapist or cardiologist. If necessary, treating
the doctor involves a neurologist, a gastroenterologist,
pulmonologist. Only early detection of the disease is practically
all cases leads to its most favorable outcome.

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