Worms in children, symptoms, treatment,prevention

Update: December 2018 Most Common Diseases
children, especially younger ones, are helminthiasis. Every third
a man in Europe is affected by worms. Only official data on
Russia announces figures, about 2 million cases of helminthic invasions
in the population. According to many experts, as well as the number
anthelmintic drugs sold annually, this figure
much higher than the official, and is 22 million people, and
80% из них приходится на children. A total of 342 species of worms are known and
only 70 of them most often hit Russians. When appear
worms in children, the symptoms are not always bright and
specific, precisely indicating that the child is infected with parasites.
How to determine that the child has worms – this is our article.

Types of worms affecting a person

All kinds of helminths, parasitic in humans,
divided into 3 groups:

  • Roundworms or nematodes – the most frequent worms in children – this
    pinworms (eterobioz), roundworm (ascariasis), whipworm
    (trichuriasis), trichinosis (trichinosis)
  • Flat, tapeworms or cestodes – tapeworm or bovine
    tapeworm (teniarinhoz), rat or dwarf tapeworm
    (hymenolepiasis), pork tapeworm (teniasis) echinococcus, tapeworm wide
    (diphyllobothriasis)
  • Trematodes or flukes – Siberian and Feline fluke
    (opisthorchiasis), hepatic fluke (fascioliasis), paragonimiasis,
    schistosomiasis, etc.

Also these parasites can be as intestinal, that is
parasitic in the intestines and extraintestinal, that is, in other
organs – the liver, lungs, gall bladder, muscles, heart, brain.
They can penetrate into any organ with blood flow.

How does the infection occur and why?

The main helminthic invasions in Russia and Ukraine make up
nematodes, that is, roundworms and pinworms, less often whipworm. Infection
the remaining tapeworms and flukes make up only 2-5%
all reported cases of helminthiasis, because the infection
they most often occur or after traveling to exotic
tropical and subtropical countries or when consumed
insufficiently roasted meat, contact with infected animals, and
also in case of gross violation of sanitary rules and personal
hygiene. From this group most often infected with a wide tapeworm when
eating poorly roasted river fish.

Глисты у детей Infection острицами и аскаридами происходит
Exclusively in case of non-compliance with hygiene, not careful hand washing
before eating, после прогулок или туалета, при приеме растительной
of food — овощей, ягод, зелени, плохо промытых водой, после контакта с
contact with an infected child or
for adults.

In cases with pinworms, except for a one-time infection, very
high risk of re-invasion, that is, self-infection, when after scratching
itching anus, on hands, underwear are thousands
eggs, then on everything that concerns the child (door handles.
clothes, objects, toys) remain pinworm eggs, infecting and
surrounding, and the very carrier pinworms.

Kids of preschool age learn the world around them, while
trying to taste almost everything that surrounds and falls into their hands.
Therefore, preschool institutions, playgrounds on the streets,
game rooms in children’s and shopping centers –
are the maximum breeding ground for pinworms. Moreover, children are more
susceptible to helminthiasis, because they are still imperfect
protective barriers of the gastrointestinal tract, and strictly and without reminders follow the rules
personal care parents manage to teach a baby somewhere to 4-6
years

Not unimportant fact of such an intensive development of parasitic
diseases in children is not the perfection of the diagnosis of helmintic
invasions. In the presence of worms in children, the symptoms can be
short-term, not pronounced, so often parents
seeing the deterioration of the health of the child, can not establish the true
the cause of the ailments.

The fact is that for example with pinworms, scraping on enterobiosis,
often false-negative, female pinworms not every day
crawls out of the intestines to lay eggs, and the likelihood
timely detection of such helminthiasis is not great. Only when
massive infection and prolonged reinvasion one-time scraping
can reveal pinworms. Therefore, in case of suspected enterobiosis,
Numerous scrapings are recommended, at least 3 through
day and after another 2 weeks.

So that increases the risk of infection with ascaris and pinworms in
children:

  • If the child does not wash his hands every time after the toilet, after
    посещения улицы, непосредственно перед приемом of food, даже перед
    small snack
  • If underwear changes rarely, it is advisable to change
    2 times a day, morning change of linen is especially important
  • If the baby pulls everything in his mouth, toys, pencils, etc.
    objects, has a habit of biting nails, sucking on a finger, etc.
  • The presence of pets – dogs, cats – increases the risk
    worm infestation, as the wool may be worm eggs
  • If a child rarely has nails on his hands
  • If there is no persistent habit to thoroughly wash fruits, vegetables, salads,
    greens directly before eating
  • If in an apartment, private house a large flock of flies and
    cockroaches, unsanitary living conditions

General signs of the presence of worms in the body

Not all types of worms can cause noticeable, palpable symptoms,
there are such parasites that can be in the body for years
not manifesting itself in any way and are activated only when the
host immunity. Back in the 80s, a theory emerged that
the occurrence of many diseases of internal organs. up to
oncology, it is the parasites that are guilty.

Almost every person is a carrier of various
bacterial and viral infections, worms that gradually
parasitizing and existing at the expense of the owner, lead to one or another
diseases throughout his life. About what happens in the body
intoxication from the life of various parasites can
talk when there are some common symptoms of worms like
children and adults:

  • A sharp increase in appetite, increased salivation, but
    while losing weight, or vice versa, lack of appetite,
    nausea
  • Dizziness, headaches, sometimes nausea, constipation or
    diarrhea, recurrent abdominal pain, in the right hypochondrium
  • The appearance of various allergic reactions
  • Fragility of hair and nails (against the development of iron deficiency and
    vitamin B12)
  • The frequent occurrence of various inflammatory diseases
    nasopharynx, genital organs, sinusitis, sinusitis, nasal polyps,
    adenoids in children.
  • When worm invasion in the host’s blood comes a lot
    toxins that act primarily on the nervous system
    child, so the appearance of increased irritability, violation
    sleep, anger, loss of concentration and loss
    plodding can also be symptoms of worms in a child
  • If anemia and eosinophilia occur
    check the child for possible helminthiasis. Even with increased
    appetite worms can cause growth retardation and lag
    in child development
  • Often, after prophylactic vaccinations in children with worms,
    a symptom of their presence may be
    toxic and allergic reactions

What are the symptoms of pinworms in children?

Pinworms – small, no more than 1 cm. Helminths causing
enterobiosis diseases. Pinworm eggs can be found on toys
clothes, household items, door handles, which touched
infected person. They are quite viable in the environment,
sensitive not to all disinfectants, but quickly
perish from boiling and action of an ultraviolet. Eggs get into
The organism is administered orally, then it settles in the intestine, where
larvae that grow into adult individuals are formed, to this
only 2 weeks are needed and the female is ready to lay fresh eggs.
Какие симптомы глистов у детей —  остриц?

For erotibiosis a very indicative sign is itching in
the anus, which most often bothers children at night, with
warming and relaxing the baby under the covers. At this time, the female
pinworm crawls easily to the anus and lays on the skin
near the anus to 5,000 eggs. Extreme irritation and itching, allow
eggs penetrate under the nails of the child, on the skin of the hands, clothes, pastel
underwear. Further, the mechanism of infection is obvious. Therefore, with enterobioze,
the main symptom of infection with worms in children is itching,
Anus scratching and:

  • Itching in the anus at night leads to restless sleep,
    cries, tossing baby, disturbing dreams, insomnia
  • The symptoms of worms in children are always characterized by either
    weight loss or poor weight gain
  • Children quickly get tired, start to be more naughty,
    become overly excitable, restless, may fall behind in
    learning to become inattentive
  • For girls, an additional symptom is enuresis, since
    creeping and irritating the urethra may involuntary
    urination in sleep – this is a signal to parents
    check baby for enterobiasis
  • Pinworms can also penetrate the vagina, causing
    vulvovaginitis, there is an opinion. what they are capable of achieving and
    fallopian tubes causing inflammation in the appendages
    uterus, genital infection
  • Also when a large number of pinworms accumulate in the cecum,
    acute appendicitis may develop
  • One of the suggestions that a symptom of worms in a small
    the child may be gnashing his teeth at night
  • Intestinal dysbacteriosis, prolonged ecutrocolitis, constipation, diarrhea
    (см. лекарства от поноса), боли в животе возле пупка, nausea —
    also enterobiosis satellites
  • Prolonged invasions help reduce nutrient absorption
    substances, vitamins, trace elements, which reduces hemoglobin,
    immunity, the kids begin to get sick often and protractedly
  • The vital activity of pinworms causes toxic poisoning of the whole
    organism, and the more massive and longer the invasion, the stronger
    intoxication, manifested by weakness, weight loss, headaches
    pains, dizziness, nausea.

For more information about Pinworms in children, symptoms and treatment in our
article.

Signs of ascariasis in a child

If only recorded cases are counted
various worms in children laboratory methods, according to statistics
it turns out that 80% of children under 5 years old were either antihelminthic
therapy, or need it now. You can not take helminthic
invasion as not a serious problem, since for the growing
организма, наличие постоянных токсинов, отравляют  организм, а
helminths themselves deprive of its nutrients, and sometimes lead to
serious damage to the internal organs.

One of the dangerous types of helminthiasis is ascariasis – with
powerful parasites can infect any organ
human body – lungs, pancreas, liver,
gall bladder, heart, brain. Infection with ascaris occurs
eggs that are in the soil, that is, again when
non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene, with frequent contact with the soil,
sand, with poor washing of greens, vegetables, berries, in the presence of
mass of flies in the room of man.

After hitting such eggs in the mouth for 3 months
blood migration of larvae from the small intestine to all organs, more often
all they get into the lungs, liver, heart. In this case, the child
there may be subfebrile temperature, fever up to 38 ° C, weakness,
general malaise, dry cough with orange sputum or even with
an admixture of blood at this time on the x-ray of the lungs
found “volatile” infiltrates, that is, during the x-ray
after a few days, their movement is noticeable;
cause obstructive bronchitis or even bronchial asthma,
pleurisy or pneumonia.

Глисты у детей лечение

In children, the primary phase of ascariasis may increase.
lymph nodes, enlarge spleen, liver. Distinctive
a symptom of the presence of worms in a child is the occurrence of skin
allergic reactions, most often it is hives on the hands and
feet and various allergic dermatosis.

3 months after infection, in the late intestinal phase, when
from the lungs with sputum, swallowed by the child, roundworm comes
again in the intestines, dyspeptic disorders appear, i.e.
various violations of the gastrointestinal tract – cramping abdominal pain,
запоры, поносы, покраснение ануса, nausea, иногда рвота, резкая
weight loss, flatulence. Decreased immunity in the background
prolonged invasion leads to various infectious processes
– relapsing stomatitis in children, purulent diseases of mucous membranes and
skin, etc.

As well as any invasion ascariasis poisons the body, rendering
toxic effects on the nervous system, which manifests itself in various
neuropsychiatric disorders in children – insomnia, nightmarish
dreams, epileptic seizures, etc. Rarely, but there are such symptoms
like photophobia, an increase in pupil, a drop in blood pressure,
complications of ascariasis can be very serious – acute
appendicitis, peritonitis, intestinal obstruction, mechanical
jaundice.

More information about ascaris, symptoms and treatment in our
article.

Signs of other helminthic invasions

Trichocephalosis or whipworm – most often it is not asymptomatic;
dyspepsia, bloating may occur periodically
stomach, diarrhea with blood, vomiting, constipation, anemia may develop,
the background of intoxication young children lag behind in mental and
physical development.

Hymenolepidosis or dwarf, rat tapeworm – no different
any characteristic symptoms in children, such worms are also
приводят к желудочно-кишечным расстройствам- nausea, снижение
appetite, heartburn, constipation and diarrhea, abdominal pain,
drooling, fatigue, headache,
dizziness, skin rash, bronchospasm, vasomotor,
allergic rhinitis.

Opisthorchosis or cat, Siberian fluke – a child can
be low-grade fever, skin rashes, various
allergic reactions (increased eosinophils in the blood, anemia, ESR)
persistent catarrhal syndrome, swollen lymph nodes,
liver, pain in the right hypochondrium, pain in the joints, disruption of work
Gastrointestinal tract, pancreatitis, gastritis, unstable chair, constipation, in severe
cases of pneumonia, hepatitis, a change in the myocardium of dystrophic
character

Токсокароз  – передаются собаками, кошками, чаще всего
children under 4 years old are ill with constant contact with infected
animals. Allergic reactions are very pronounced –
allergic cough with suffocation, itchy skin rash,
periodic feverish states, puffiness of the face,
pulmonary infiltrates, joint damage, lymphatic enlargement
nodes, liver, possible development of toxocarotic ophthalmia,
кератита, хориоретинита, up to необратимых повреждений
eye.

Wide tapeworm is diphyllobotriasis caused by tape
червем Diofillobotrium latum. Infection occurs through
uncooked and non-fried fish. Clinic – non-specific
intestinal disorders, abdominal pain, allergization, 12-deficient
anemia.

How to remove worms in a child

To date, there is quite a very effective
anthelmintic drugs that have a pronounced effect,
however, they have a toxic effect and must be prescribed
only by the attending physician, better by a parasitologist, on the grounds
diagnosed helminthiasis. Each drug has its own
specific activity on a specific type of worms, some
drugs have a wide spectrum of action.

In addition to anthelmintic therapy, the doctor may also prescribe
antihistamines, to reduce allergic reactions, in
our article has a list of the most effective and safe
modern allergy pills (Cetrin, Zodac, Loratadine, Zyrtec,
which are in suspensions and drops for children from 2 years)

For the treatment of nematodoses – worms that most often affect
children, in Russia in pharmacy chains today are offered the following
the most effective means (for more details, see Tablets from
worms):

  • Mebendazole – Vormin 20 rub. Vermox 90 rub. ., Vermakar,
    Vero-Mebendazole, Mebex, Termox
  • Pirantel – Kombantrin, Pirantel (30-50 r), Gelmintoks
    (80-120r.), Nemotsid, Pyrvinium
  • Levamisole – Dekaris (70-90 rubles)
  • Albendazole – Nemozol (price 120-150 rubles), Helmodol-VM,
    Worm

Also with pinworms, piperazine may be prescribed, which
has the lowest toxic effect on the child’s body,
the case of a powerful invasion or damage by other worms of the group
nematodes, the most effective is Mebendazole (Vermox),
which has an effect on the larvae and on the eggs of parasites.
Details about all drugs that can be used for
removal of worms in children in our article – Drugs for worms for
children.

Also for children’s worms, the treatment of pinworms implies
conducting repeated courses of helminthic therapy after 2
weeks after the first because the risk of enterobiasis is very high
re-invasion, that is, self-infection.

There are folk methods for removing worms, but their
use should rather be considered preventive,
since in accurate diagnosis of Ascaris or pinworms, it should first
turn to carry out medical, the most effective treatment
worms in children, and then supplement it with popular methods, such
like drinking pumpkin seeds, different varieties of garlic
therapy, enemas, etc.

Prevention of helminthic invasions

  • Wash all fruits, vegetables, berries, greens thoroughly.
  • Meat and fish should be cooked for at least 40-60 minutes
  • It is necessary to fight by any means with flies, mosquitoes,
    cockroaches
  • If you have pets, you should regularly
    anthelmintic, regardless of whether they have symptoms of worms
    or not
  • To accustom the child after any contact with an animal to wash hands with
    soap
  • Monitor the cleanliness of pacifiers, nipples, toys, if the child
    drops them, don’t give them to them without first washing them
  • First, you should constantly make sure that the kid washes his hands
    after the street, the toilet, after the games and the most important thing before any reception
    of food
  • Wean children from the habit of biting their nails, sucking their fingers, taking in
    mouth pens, pencils, markers
  • The child’s nails should always be clean, short
  • In order to avoid reinfection with pinworms, wear a child
    at night tight, tight panties, with pinworm eggs will be
    spread less by bedding
  • After each wash, you should always iron the panties with iron
    jersey
  • It should be in the morning to change the panties and thoroughly wash the ass.
    baby It is advisable to do this in the evening.

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