Update: December 2018 Prevalence of various helminth infections
among some categories of the population is incredibly large: among children
– pinworms, among hunters – trichinosis, among fishermen and lovers
fish – difilobotrioz. The fact that many diseases would seem
not associated with the presence of worms in the body, may occur
against the background and due to helminthic invasion in humans – this is proved
Today, numerous studies, especially relevant theory
communication oncology and parasitic diseases.
Moreover, in the presence of worms in humans, the symptoms are not always
appear, if they arise, then masking themselves under other diseases
liver, gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, etc. From
who can be treated for years and not know the true cause
such ailments, and after 1 or more courses
antihelminthic drugs recovering. In our article we
tell about the common and specific signs of worms in humans.
How can you get worms?
How do worms enter the human body? There are 4 main
source of helminth eggs in the body:
- STH – through the soil, (and then water), in which
there are mature eggs of many helminths that penetrate
землю с фекалиями человека или of animals, а также при прямом
contact with animals and through the transfer of eggs by flies to food
- Contact – from person to person transmitted such well-known
and the most common worms like pinworms, this is the highest
risk of infection
- Biohelminthoses – by eating raw, half-baked or
poorly heat-treated meat (pork, beef) or fish,
infected with worms (sushi, kebab, dried fish, bacon with
streaks of meat, etc.)
- Some parasites invade the body with bites.
The main mechanism of any infection is most often
oral fecal, that is, the person’s worm eggs is simply swallowing
along with food, water, less often some helminthic invasions occur
при укусах зараженных insects. With raw meat and raw
fish is understandable, but how can you get worms
household contact and through the soil?
- Through the soil
After any contact with the ground, sand, you should not just wash
hands, and carefully clean the nails, it is better to have a short cropped
nails, especially children. Продукты power supply, которые растут в земле —
vegetables, greens, fruits, berries, mushrooms, everything related to the ground
requires thorough washing under running water and scalding
boiling water. Pets, especially dogs and cats,
walking in the street brings a lot of sewage into the house, and children playing
with them are at maximum risk of infection, the animal may
it is easy to infect with any kind of worms. Flies are also
the main carriers of helminths, being in public
toilets, places where livestock lives,
мухи затем преспокойно садятся на продукты power supply, разнося яйца на
their wings and legs.
- Person to person
With острицах инфицирование окружающих происходит очень легко.
When the female pinworm crawls out of the intestines at night, she sets aside
about 5,000 eggs near the anus, what causes itching, baby
combing an itchy place, they seed their hands, nails, panties,
linens. Without washing your hands right away, on all items that
he touches remain hundreds of eggs – door handles, clothes, food,
toys Further, the process of infection is clear, in the hands of another child
or an adult using these items also eggs are deposited, and
without washing their hands before eating, they get into the mouth of a healthy
- Through the water
A huge number of worms eggs fall into open ponds, in
well water. Therefore, those who live in the countryside or on
cottage, you should use a germicidal filter and be sure
boiling water is also dangerous to swallow water when swimming in open
Everyone knows that worms are basically a problem of children.
Firstly, because they are most susceptible to development
helminth infections, as the protective barriers in the children’s body are not
formed in due measure, the acidity of the stomach is lower than that of
an adult. Во-вторых малыши дошкольного age, осваивая
world, try all the surrounding objects not only with their hands, but also on
taste. And parents, with all their desire, can teach their child to
strict compliance with the rules of personal hygiene, without reminders, only to
3-6 years, which puts at risk of infection (pinworms) not only
most of the baby, but all family members.
It should be remembered that no worms can multiply and
multiply in the human body, each species has its own period
the time after which they die, for example, in pinworms, it’s all
a few weeks, ascaris about a year. Delayed by adults
individuals eggs, must necessarily leave the body either with feces,
or (in the case of pinworms) on the skin near the anus, to the external environment,
into the soil, and only then, matured outside the human body and getting into
him again, they begin to become more active and parasitic.
Since multiply in the body human worms can not
increase in the number of adults in the intestines of an already infected
human, possible only with repeated infection, when the eggs again
ingested by mouth. That is, if you exclude re
infection that is possible only if strict rules are not followed
hygiene and some preventive measures, then in the case of
with pinworms, for example, a person could get rid of worms through
3-4 weeks without any treatment (see Pinworms in adults,
treatment, symptoms). But it’s not so easy to follow these rules.
kids and children of primary school age.
What are the common signs of worms in humans?
One of the most prominent symptoms, signs of worms in humans
is – drastic weight loss, pallor of the skin (anemia), emaciated
view, as well as itching in the anus. But these are only the most obvious and
popular signs, known to all, which are massive
infection. However, there are many other symptoms that
person perceives for the manifestation of other diseases and turning to
the doctor often unsuccessfully treats them, not knowing the indirect cause of their
occurrence or aggravation.
- Dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract
If the worms are localized in the intestine, not in the tissues and
organs of the body, the main signs of the presence of worms in
human are disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, such as permanent
diarrhea, chronic constipation, nausea, or occasional vomiting,
pain in the abdomen, especially near the navel, pain in the right hypochondrium,
flatulence (bloating). These symptoms of the presence of worms in humans
may be weakly expressed, and be more intense and
long, it depends on the massiveness of the infection or
re-invasion (self-infection). Some types of worms in the process of growth
produce hormone-like substances that cause diarrhea, while
massive growth of large worms may partially overlap
intestine causing constipation.
- Nervous system disorders and malaise
In the course of their life, the worms release a lot
toxic substances, and the stronger the infection, the more intense
symptoms of intoxication, negative
actions on the nervous system of children and adults.
This is manifested by headache, dizziness in combination with
nausea – in these cases a person may perceive it as
migraine and treat it with painkillers (see migraine,
symptoms, treatment, and triptans for migraine). Can also
joint pains rise, body temperature rises to
low-grade numbers or even fever.
Also lack of vitamins and nutrients, which
people lose because of helminthiasis, in combination with depression
nervous system lead to the development of chronic fatigue syndrome,
constant drowsiness and weakness, anemia appears, children can
becomes more capricious, irritable, they have broken
sleep, sleeplessness (see how to quickly fall asleep), screams at night,
nightmares, because of distraction and inattention, children can
fall behind in school.
- Allergic reactions and skin manifestations
When the worms in humans worsens the condition of the skin.
The products of the life of worms desensitize the body and become
the reason that proteins similar to them are already perceived as
allergens, which is manifested by skin reactions. Skin rashes –
the result of the release of histamine from mast cells and the accumulation of liquid
parts of blood in the tissue with a partial lifting of the epidermis. According to
For the same reasons, various allergic reactions can occur as well.
local – urticaria, itchy skin, and common – allergic rhinitis,
dry cough, bronchial asthma. In a person infected with worms,
the symptom may be nail foliation, brittle hair and nails,
- Reduced immunity and as a consequence the development of infectious
Such toxic effects, as well as depriving a person of parts
nutrients, vitamins and minerals, leads to
a significant reduction in host immunity. This may occur
либо обострением имеющихся хронических diseases, либо начинаются
various inflammatory processes in the nasopharynx – sinusitis, antritis,
stomatitis (stomatitis in children, stomatitis in adults), even in girls and
women may develop various inflammatory processes in
genital organs – vulvovaginitis, bacterial vaginosis (discharge from
the smell of fish), even inflammation of the uterine appendages in girls is considered
possibly due to prolonged worm infestation with pinworms. (cm.
pinworms in children, symptoms).
It is believed that snoring and gnashing of teeth at night also
are a symptom of worms in humans, however, this is only
What organs can live worms?
Depending on where the worms are located in the body
Bone worms occupy mostly the small and large intestines
human, there are almost 100 different helminth species that
live in different parts of the intestines. Species such as roundworm,
hookworms, wide tapeworms, are localized in the small intestine, and
pinworms, dwarf tapeworm – in the lower third of the small intestine, whipworm
inhabits the colon.
Fabric гельминтозы — проживают не в кишечнике, а в тканях и
the organs of the human body in the muscles, lungs (paragonimiasis),
brain (cysticercosis), liver (echinococcosis), and even in lymphatic
vessels (filariasis), etc. Ascaris are both luminous and
tissue, because in the primary phase of development they may be by blood in
виде личинок поражать любой орган (cm. Roundworm, симптомы,
Symptoms of worms depending on the type of helminth
The symptoms of helminthiasis directly depend on the type of parasite, its
localization in the body and the intensity of infection. How fast
Are there signs of worms after infection? So, for example, already on
2-3 days after infection with ascaris, a person may experience
deterioration of general health in most cases
infection with other types of helminthiasis – the first symptoms of worms
a person occurs after 2-3 weeks, and diseases such as
filariasis has an incubation period of 6 to 18 months.
The danger of infection with intestinal worms is that with
the presence of a single individual in the intestine, helminthiasis often proceeds
asymptomatic. Any symptoms can only appear when
huge sizes of a worm, for example, a wide tapeworm or ascaris,
либо при массивном infection.
Pinworms or enterobiasis – except for typical, basic signs
any helminthiasis, the most characteristic symptoms of enterobiosis are
itching in the anus, worse at night. Also
factor in the presence of a small number of pinworms is
the frequency of such an itch, if it occurs only 1-2 days, then
passes and a couple of weeks again repeated. This is an important feature.
presence of pinworms, with severe invasion itching may be more
Trichocephalosis, ankilostomidozy, diphyllobothriasis, schistosomiasis –
contribute to the development of avitaminosis and anemia, since the poison
the worms, their metabolic products, greatly change
intestinal microflora, causing intestinal dysbiosis, contributing to
reproduction of conditionally pathogenic microorganisms.
Ascaris – symptoms of ascariasis depend on the phase of development
helminths if this initial phase is when the larvae by blood
migrate to the lungs and other organs, then helminthiasis is manifested
first low-grade fever, weakness, dry cough with
mucopurulent sputum, possibly even with blood, on an x-ray
lung infiltrates appear in the lungs for 1-2 weeks, which
then disappear. Blood tests have a high percentage of eosinophils,
Allergic reactions appear. With strong invasion possible
development of bronchitis with asthma, pneumonia. In the second phase
– кишечной, уже возникают нарушения функции ЖКТ. Roundworm
release substances that neutralize human digestive enzymes
– pepsin and trypsin, without which protein digestion is impossible,
therefore, with ascariasis, the person becomes very thin. Complications
ascariasis may be mechanical jaundice, pancreatitis, intestinal
obstruction, acute appendicitis.
Virtually all helminth infections are characterized by disorders of the central nervous system –
headaches, dizziness, irritability,
Trichinosis – most often manifested by muscle pain,
fever, swelling of the face and eyelids
Фасциолез, описторхоз, клонорхоз – трематодозы печени,
появляются возникновением желтушного синдрома (cm. симптомы и
causes of jaundice), also enlargement of the spleen, liver,
pancreatitis, neurological disorders, cholecystocholangitis,
pathologies of the digestive tract.
Strongyloidiasis – characterized by a large variety
симптомов – и аллергические реакции, и патологии
biliary tract, and dyspeptic disorders.
Мочеполовой шистосомоз – вызывает диуретические
frustration, it is shown by release of blood at the end
Test for the determination of possible worm infestation
To check for possible helminthic invasion, you can count
the number of positive responses to the following signs of appearance
worms in humans:
- Periodically or constantly itching in the anus
- There are skin rashes
- Often there is a headache, dizziness
- There is nausea, or nausea, vomiting
- Often there is bloating, flatulence, constipation, diarrhea
- Restless sleep, insomnia, cry in a dream
- Feet swell (cause)
- Allergic reactions – urticaria, bronchial asthma,
allergic rhinitis, allergic cough
- Lymph nodes are enlarged
- There are abdominal pains, self-arresting
- There is bitterness in the mouth
- Fatigue, constant fatigue
- Work in a kindergarten or in a family have children of preschool
- There is an unmotivated increase in body temperature.
- Yellow skin and mucous membranes
- Animal related work or household
- There are muscle and joint pain without load
- You snore or grit your teeth at night
- Love to eat meat with blood, dried fish, veined lard
- Your weight has decreased due to a decrease or increase
- You often eat raw fruits, vegetables, herbs, berries, not washed
or not scalding them with boiling water before drinking
With 7 positive answers – the risk of helminthic invasion exists,
with 15 or more positive answers – very high probability
helminthiasis and you should consult an infectious diseases doctor or
to the parasitologist, to give thrice a calla on eggs of a worm, complete blood count,
blood test for giardiasis, scraping for enterobiosis (three times). Read
also worms in children, symptoms and treatment, where you can learn in detail
about manifestations of all types of worm infestations, and also Ostritsa
adults, symptoms, treatment.
How to get rid of worms man?
To date, in the arsenal of a parasitologist over 10
anthelmintic drugs that have their own specific
activity in relation to various types of worms, there are also
drugs for worms narrow and broad-spectrum. In Russia
there are over 70 different helminth species, like nematodes
(roundworms), and cestodes (tape) and trematodes (flukes,
flat) and each type should be displayed only special
drugs (for more information, see Tablets for worms in humans with
list of the most frequent worm infestations in Russia).
Only on the basis of tests, diagnosis, the doctor prescribes treatment.
worms in humans, since the antihelminthic drugs are sufficient
toxic, as well as with various helminthiases are necessary and different
courses, and treatment regimens, takes into account the age, weight of the person. With
identifying nematodes (pinworms, ascaris) of the most common worms
in humans, treatment is prescribed by the following medicinal
- Piperazin 10-30 rub.
- Pyrantel – Helmintox (80-120r.), Pyrantel (30-50 r.). Necide,
- Mebendazole – Vermox 90 rub., Vermacar, Mebex,
Vero-Mebendazole, Termoks, Vormin 20 rub.,
- Албендазол — Немозол (цена 120-150 руб), Гелмодол-ВМ,
- Levamisole – Dekaris (70-90 r)
- Carbendacim – Medamin
- Pyrvinium Embonat – Pyrivinium, Pyrcon, Wanquin
Since some agents do not act on the larvae and eggs
worms, as well as a high risk of re-invasion (self-infection with pinworms),
the treatment is repeated after 2-3 weeks. Among the popular methods
Old time-tested methods are considered the most effective.
It is consuming pumpkin seeds and tansy herb. That seed
pumpkin is a good anthelmintic agent known since long
pores, it is best to buy uncleaned seeds, clean them
independently, keeping and eating a thin film between the seed
and skinned, and consumed in the morning 300 gr. In one hour,
pre-ground and mixed with honey or jam. Then not
eat 3-4 hours and make an enema, you can repeat this treatment
In 2 weeks.