Withчины, симптомы, методы лечения и профилактикаepilepsy

Withчины, симптомы, методы лечения и профилактика epilepsyEpilepsy
– Nervous disease in which there are psychological
расстройства и чрезмерная мозговая электрическая activity. AT
the interval between attacks the patient is no different from others
people. The diagnosis is made only after several recurring
seizures. ATажно знать, как правильно оказать первую помощь такому
man because it can save his life.

general description

Epilepsy: общее описание заболевания Disease
проявляется в виде судорожных seizures. They are short term and
sudden, so they can start at any time. If you believe
статистическим данным ATсемирной организации здравоохранения, то
every hundredth person on the planet suffers from pathology. It can
to be as full epileptic seizures, and
microsymptomatic attacks.

The pathology itself has been known since ancient times. Exists
plenty of documented presence of such
deviations from Julius Caesar and Napoleon Bonaparte.

It is necessary to understand that epiphriscups are provoked by tumors,
infectious lesions and head injuries. They can
indicate not only epilepsy, but also other diseases with
similar symptoms. ATажно правильно провести диагностику
pathological condition.

AT большинстве случаев пациент перед приступом сталкивается с
previous factors. These include

  • Предшествующие факторы приступа epilepsysleep disturbance;
  • loss of consciousness;
  • dizziness;
  • pain and tinnitus;
  • feeling of coma in the throat;
  • refusal to eat;
  • general weakness;
  • irritability for no reason.

ATажно вовремя заметить эти отклонения, чтобы не допустить
attack. With первых симптомах нужно немедленно обратиться к
a specialist. Disease epilepsia может быть опасным по
the reason for the following pathological changes:

  • respiratory arrest leads to the fact that the tissues and organs are not
    oxygen enters;
  • with abundant salivation respiratory organs can become clogged.
  • oxygen starvation leads to edema

When an attack continues for a long time,
serious circulatory problems may occur.

Over time, the patient begins to form an epileptic type.
personality. If it is a child, then it becomes very pedantic and
petty. He needs everything to be the way he wants, otherwise
If his reaction can be quite aggressive.

Факторы приступа epilepsyFrequent mood changes without
видимых причин может указать на эпилептический тип personality. Such
man is easily able to fall into the heat of passion. Sometimes he has
there are problems with switching attention from one action to

A prolonged increase in symptoms leads to epileptic
dementia. A person who suffers from such a pathology in
most cases have problems in the family, at work or in
the school.

Withчины и симптомы

Exists множество причин эпилептических seizures. Their можно
divided into hereditary and external. More often всего эпилепсия
diagnosed in people whose relatives also encountered
this problem. Withпадки могут наблюдаться, если мать пациента
had a pathological craving for alcohol and constant migraine. Sometimes
such deviation appears in identical twins.

ATажно понимать, что по наследству передаётся не эпилепсия, а
predisposition to it. Contribute to its development
следующие внешние factors:

  • Withчины и симптомы epilepsykidney brain damage
    at the time of birth;
  • severe head injury;
  • chronic alcoholism;
  • stroke;
  • tumor formations;
  • problems with metabolism in the brain;
  • infections.

AT результате этих негативных воздействий в головном мозге
a plot is formed that has an increased readiness for
convulsive reaction.

Withзнаки эпилептического припадка появляются спонтанно. Sometimes
they may occur due to very loud flashing light
or high body temperature.

Withступ epilepsy проявляется в виде тонико-клонических судорог.
AT большинстве случаев человек просто падает на пол, поэтому
There is a high risk of severe damage. Sick can
bite your tongue. End of seizure — epileptic coma or
excitement, which is accompanied by a clouding of consciousness.

Sometimes у пациентов могут наблюдаться абсансы, которые
imply short-term loss of consciousness. Person
simply stops responding to external stimuli and
freezes in place. He can neither speak nor move.
The duration of such an attack is about 2 seconds. Thereafter
he continues his activity as if nothing had happened.
The feature of absansa is that the patient may not even
suspect such a syndrome.

With лёгкой форме отклонения припадки случаются крайне редко и
have the same character. If the disease is in acute
form, the attacks are observed from 4 to 10 times a day.

First aid

Predict the worsening of the disease is almost impossible. ATажно
time to notice the symptoms of an epileptic seizure to have
first aid. Intimate surroundings and patient colleagues should be aware of
he has such a pathology. ATо время приступа follows
adhere to the following recommendations:

  1. First aid при epilepsy It is necessary to secure the place
    finding the patient to minimize the risk during the fall
  2. It is necessary to fix the time and duration of seizure. This
    The information will be important to the emergency specialist.
  3. The head of an epileptic should be kept on one side during an attack.
    It is advisable to put under it an elastic cushion or roller from
  4. With обильном слюноотделении follows вытащить язык и держать рот
  5. Legs and hands must be held, as an epileptic may
    accidentally harm yourself or others.
  6. Indoors should not be stuffy and hot.

After the end of the attack, the person can not show any
activity. He needs complete peace. If epi seizure was observed
the first time, it is important not to panic and call an ambulance in time.

Diagnostic methods

To confirm the diagnosis a number of studies are being conducted.
Reliable information can be obtained through EEG. This method
diagnostics allows you to notice the “flare” activity of neurons in
cerebral cortex, but in the period between seizures in a patient can
be normal indicators on the encephalogram. To increase
the accuracy of the diagnosis, is about 4 EEG. AT
some cases require long-term monitoring of convulsive
activity, so it is carried out during sleep.

Diagnostic methods epilepsy

ATо время диагностики врач производит анамнестический опрос
patient to find out the presence or absence
susceptibility to pathology. The patient must tell
specialist on the frequency and duration of seizures.

Neurological examination is carried out to determine the main symptoms.
study. This may be an MRI or CT scan. To determine
metabolic pathologies in the bloodstream, the doctor prescribes
blood chemistry. Consultation is also required.
oculist. Он определит состояние сосудистого дна глаза и обfollows
visual disks for the presence of edema.

Phases and seizure types

Convulsive attacks have different phases. Each one is different
its duration and symptoms. ATсего специалисты
There are 5 phases:

  • appearance of precursors of an attack;
  • tonic convulsions;
  • clonic convulsions;
  • relaxation;
  • sleep.

Фазы и виды epilepsyThe first phase begins to manifest itself in
several hours before an epileptic seizure. Sometimes symptoms can
be observed within 2-3 days. The patient begins to feel anxiety, his
covers panic state. Shortly before seizures can
there are specific manifestations: flashes of light, strange
taste in mouth or strange smells. In this phase in the brain
a pathological focus of excitation is formed. Over time he
begins to spread through the nerve cells.


ATторая фаза — тонические судороги. They go on for
20-30 seconds. Muscles tense sharply, a man falls to the floor. because of
that the head is thrown back, it hits the back of the head.
An epileptic may make a loud cry. ATозможна остановка

The third phase is presented in the form of clonic convulsions. She lasts
from 2 to 5 minutes. With her there is a rapid contraction of all muscles,
salivation is activated, which resembles foam. Insofar as
a person can bite the tongue, there are impurities in this foam
blood. After the end of the attack breathing gradually begins
normalize, but at first it will be very weak and

ATо время этапа расслабления у больного может возникнуть
involuntary discharge of urine, gas or feces.

A person falls into a state of stupor, which is the loss
consciousness and lack of reflexes. It can last about 15-30
minutes Immediately after leaving this state, the patient is immersed in
sleep. Upon awakening, he feels:

  • headache;
  • general weakness;
  • coordination problems.

ATозможна также небольшая асимметрия лица. This симптоматика
lasts for 2-3 days. because of прикусывания языка у
human will be slurred speech.

ATсе эти фазы присутствуют в большом судорожном припадке. More often
all he is provoked by external factors. In women, such an attack
may occur during menstruation.

There are a number of small epiphriscups. Each of them has a different
symptoms that depend on which part of the brain
was in a state of excitement. May be observed
The following attacks:

  • non-convulsive;
  • myoclonic;
  • hypertensive.

Non-convulsive seizures epilepsy Non-convulsive seizures
occur due to the fact that muscle tone is sharply reduced,
therefore, the person falls to the floor. With this convulsive
There is no condition, only short-term loss of consciousness is possible.

Myoclonic seizures are characterized by short-term
twitching the muscles of the legs, torso and arms. AT этом случае эпилептик
remains conscious. With hypertensive muscle attack sharply
tense up. AT зависимости от причин появления врачи выделяют 3
types of epilepsy:

  • idiopathic;
  • symptomatic;
  • cryptogenic.

Idiopathic variety involves transmission
susceptibility to pathology on the hereditary line. Wherein
organic brain damage is not observed. Attacks occur without
special reasons and are non-permanent.

Symptomatic epilepsy begins after serious injuries
head or severe intoxication. Cryptogenic type does not have
severe symptoms.

Симптоматическая эпилепсия

AT большинстве случаев приступы возникают на фоне употребления
alcohol and drugs.

Epipripsies can also be observed in a newborn baby. Their
the reason is a sharp increase in body temperature. Exist
Jackson attacks. Signs of this type of epilepsy

  • convulsive muscle contractions may occur in the foot, lower leg,
    hands or forearm;
  • numbness of some parts of the body is possible;
  • cramp can cover only half of the torso.

AT запущенных случаях поражается не одна часть, а все тело. Such
the seizure will be called secondarily generalized.

Features of treatment

Therapeutic procedures can be started only after
the doctor will confirm the diagnosis. AT зависимости от состояния пациента
the specialist determines how the treatment will be carried out: inpatient
or in the clinic. AT запущенных случаях эпилептик нуждается в
constant supervision, as he can hurt himself or

Лечение epilepsy преfollows такие цели:

  • elimination of pain during an attack;
  • prevent new seizures;
  • shorter duration and lower intensity
  • minimizing the risk of side effects from taking

Features of treatment epilepsy You can eliminate the pain when
relief of painkillers and anticonvulsants. Recommended
add to your daily diet foods that contain a large
the amount of magnesium and calcium.

To prevent the emergence of new epileptic seizures can be
help of drug therapy or surgery. With
The following types of drugs are prescribed for pathology:

  • anticonvulsants – help reduce the number of attacks;
  • neurotropic – used to enhance the transfer process
    nervous excitation along the nerve processes of the brain;
  • psychotropic – affect the functioning of the nervous system

Exist также и немедикаментозные виды лечения. To them
include surgery, ketogenic diet or
использование метода ATойта. The operation is performed by a neurosurgeon. For
in order to have contact with the patient, only local anesthesia is done,
thanks to which the doctor can control the performance
parts of the brain. The procedure itself is complex and dangerous.
therefore, only in rare cases.

AT период терапии пациент должен придерживаться следующих

  1. Medicines need to be taken strictly on time and only in that
    dosage that the doctor prescribed.
  2. Self-treatment is prohibited.
  3. With появлении первых изменений в самочувствии и настроении
    follows уведомить об этом специалиста.

In 63% of patients who took antiepileptic
drugs, there is a suppression of the pathology, another 18% decreases
severity of clinical manifestations. Today’s way
which would completely cure the disease of epilepsy, no.
Further therapy is carried out throughout life.
the patient.

Forecast and preventive measures

Drug treatment of epilepsy can significantly improve
качество жизни the patient. The forecast is as favorable as possible.
for those without organic brain damage.
With правильном лечении в 80% патология не причиняет особых
inconvenience. However, most people have to take
lifelong medicines.

Медикаментозное лечение epilepsy Эпилептику follows
completely refuse to drive vehicles, as well as professions,
which may be dangerous to him or others.

To prevent the exacerbation of pathology, after medication
treatment needs to comply with all preventive measures. Only in this
In this case, the number of seizures of epilepsy can be minimized.
Contribute to the following attacks

  • alcohol or drug use;
  • overwork and stress;
  • improper diet, fasting and sticking
  • great physical exertion;
  • hypothermia or overheating;
  • eating fatty foods;
  • нестабильный sleep.

An epileptic can lead a normal life only if
if he will constantly undergo treatment and perform all
preventive measures. Such people are encouraged to choose work,
which will not provoke seizures. ATажно не скрывать наличие
pathology and notify your relatives, colleagues and

For профилактики могут использоваться народные методы. but
Before using them, you should consult a doctor in order not to
aggravate the situation. Recommended использовать натуральные
sedatives such as lavender aroma oils or

A person suffering from epilepsy can live a full life. the main thing
condition – periodic visits to specialists and performance
preventive measures that will help stop an epileptic

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