Sometimes in communication with
детьми приходится замечать, как они переставляют местами letters and
syllables, replace the correct sounds with similar ones, involuntarily distort
pronunciation and structure of words. Это явление называется dyslexia.
The disease refers to mental disorders, requires
professional and complex treatment. Most often it
occurs in young children who are not enough
engaged parents. But similar violations are observed in
History of the disease
Dyslexia (dyslexia) as a form of mental disorder
was first determined by the German ophthalmologist Rudolf Berlin in
1887 AT своей работе с детьми он столкнулся с проблемами у
one child who was extremely difficult to learn to read and
a letter. With этом мальчик отлично развивался физически и обладал
good intelligence. Спустя 10 лет другой терапевт, AT. Withнгл
Морган, опубликовал статью под названием «ATрождённая словесная
blindness”. AT материале рассматривалась особенность психики, не
allowing children to learn to read correctly.
A detailed study of the features of the development of dyslexics began.
already in 1925. Neuropathologist Samuel T. Orton proved that
Similar problems occurring in a child are related to asymmetry in
cerebral hemispheres, not visual impairment. But many
scientists have denied this opinion, arguing that the disease
provoked by the difficulty of visual perception of the printed
AT конце 1970 года была принята окончательная теория относительно
that dyslexia is a mental illness that occurs in
result of impaired phonological and metaphonological development
in children. On этом основаны современные методы диагностики и лечения
AT детском возрасте проблема решается правильно подобранным
complex therapy with timely diagnosis. Onрушения
easily adjusted, then the child develops normally.
But if an adult turns to a specialist, the process
recovery is delayed, and the result is extremely
Withчины развития патологии
With исследованиях у дислексиков
lesser activity of the posterior part of the left temporal gyrus.
They show visible deviations from normal values in
the brain tissue structure is found to be less dense
plots. The prevalence of the disease is almost 5% among
children, and in boys it is observed almost 4 times more often.
European and American experts agree that
the main cause of dyslexia is hereditary
predisposition to the ability to read and write. They are sure that
This feature is typical for people with the right hemisphere type.
development and thinking. Many российские врачи считают, что причинами
психического нарушения являются другие
- heart failure in a mother or
congenital heart disease in the fetus;
- improper attachment of the ovum during pregnancy,
what provokes hypoxia;
- prolonged labor and fetal asphyxia (neck entanglement
- placental insufficiency;
- premature detachment of the placenta;
- jaundice of newborns.
Onрушения в развитии головного мозга и центральной нервной
systems can be caused by severe alcohol intoxication
pregnancy or drug poisoning of the expectant mother. Besides
In addition, dyslexia is manifested after mechanical interventions in
childbirth process (use of fruiting products).
ATрачи рекомендуют крайне внимательно и осторожно относиться к
your health to pregnant women. Dangerous consequences can
обернуться такие заболевания, как:
Infectious lesions affect the brain
only the future mother, but also the developing fetus. ATпоследствии
such disorders are difficult to treat.
Problems with the maturation, development and functioning of structures and
cerebral hemispheres may also occur in the postnatal
period. The child develops dyslexia after receiving
traumatic brain injury, childhood infectious diseases
(poliomyelitis, measles, chicken pox), as well as postponed
neuroinfection. In almost 98% of cases, the problem occurs if
infants diagnosed with cerebral palsy, mental retardation, serious
Experts identify and social factors that advocate
causes of dyslexia. These include the lack of live communication,
unfavorable environment, too active learning mode, and
poor development of oral speech.
Forms of manifestation
Doctors distinguish six different forms and two types of manifestations.
dyslexia The first type is literal, characterized by violation
perception and understanding of letters. ATторой — вербальный, развивается
due to the difficulty of reading words and
Insufficient functional speech development and mental
the disorders cause the following forms of dyslexia:
- Phonetic. More often
develops in early childhood during the first attempts to educate a child
reading. Children begin to mix, replace or skip letters and
whole syllables, put wrong accents, rearrange sounds when
- Semantic. In the process of reading, a child or an adult cannot
understand the meaning of a phrase, text, or most words, gradually
Slow reading begins.
- Agrammatic. There is a problem with reading when reading.
endings, verb tenses, and difficulties with education
- Mnestic One of the most
common forms of the disease, which is manifested in children in
the process of mastering the technique of reading. If the problem does not go away by itself
yourself as you get older, then you need to see a specialist, so
how is a violation of association and perception between
read letters or words and pronunciation.
- Optical. A rare form of dyslexia, in which reading
happens with the replacement of letters, the omission of words or whole lines.
- Tactile. Manifested in people with vision problems.
Characterized by the distortion of the read information, the replacement of similar
on the shape of letters.
A common problem common to every dyslexic is difficulty
processing of the perceived information in verbal form. Many
adults are not able to distinguish between sound combinations and form from
these words, because of what they develop difficulties in communicating with
others, anxiety and confusion.
Symptoms in children
The disease manifests itself in a rather large list of symptoms.
They can be found in both young children and
an adult. For ease of diagnosis and method definition
Medical treatments divide the symptoms into several different groups.
By the very first and earliest signs one can understand that the mechanism
violations are triggered if at least 5 of
The following symptoms:
- improper grip of pencils and pens, clumsy movements in
time of writing;
- lack of concentration
- memory impairment;
- rearrangement of letters and syllables in writing or reading, changing
- fear of reading aloud, refusal to write essays;
- problems remembering the multiplication table and the alphabet,
- orientation disorders (up-down, left-right);
- delayed perception of what was said and arising from
This problem with the implementation of the simplest instructions.
Such symptoms are characteristic of preschool children or
primary classes. On фоне проявляющихся отклонений в развитии у
kids begin problems with acquaintance and communication.
Compared to other peer dyslexics extremely slow
master new knowledge.
If treatment in childhood is not started,
the disease goes into neglected form. In high school
dyslexic students marked poorly readable, illegible
handwriting, discrepancy of the technique of reading to the established norm. With
There are many mistakes in reading and pronunciation in adolescents, and
information is not remembered. It is very difficult for such people to adapt.
in a new team.
With первом проявлении подозрительных признаков у детей
It is necessary to consult a doctor and undergo a comprehensive examination.
It should be remembered that it is difficult for them to perceive reality as it is.
make healthy people.
Withзнаки у взрослых
Dyslexia can develop, even if in childhood the patient is not
there were similar disorders and developmental disabilities. In a team like that
man always stands out. He does not always show all
possible symptoms, and there may be only a few signs.
In adults, the disease is characterized by:
semantic meaning of words and whole sentences;
- difficulties when trying to express thoughts or connect
- insufficient vocabulary;
- rapid fatigue, headaches arising from reading;
- tearfulness, irritability;
- confusion in determining the correct sequence of days
- absent-mindedness, inability to memorize what was read
- noticeable impaired motor coordination;
- exaggerated demands and a keen sense of justice;
- problems with the designation of specific facts and circumstances.
With развитии дислексии взрослый человек может даже забывать свой
address where or where it is sent from. He often feels
difficulties with the definition of time, therefore, prefers digital
dials instead of electronic ones. One of the most frequent symptoms is
wrong holding the pen while writing.
Adults with dyslexia do not remember the names of those around them
because of what often fall into depression. One of the related and
developing in parallel violations – dysgraphia. She is
characterized by the inability to write a simple sentence without
ошибок и даже списать text. Such people do not do well with their
job responsibilities, as it is poorly memorized, analyzed and
With первых признаках дислексии необходимо проконсультироваться у
a specialist, pass the prescribed examination and perform all
medical instructions. With грамотном подходе заболевание можно
should be based on a set of studies and analyzes. Child
must necessarily take to the pediatrician who will hold inspection,
will examine the symptoms and decide on the necessary treatment.
The obligatory stage of the examination is a visit to a speech therapist.
Doctors need to tell in detail about manifesting in a child.
symptoms, features of the course of pregnancy and similar
manifestations along the hereditary line. Specialist takes into account
Congenital diseases of the baby, its early development and psychological
atmosphere in the family.
Speech therapist assesses the level of verbal speech
the development of the ability to write and read, as well as the development
hand motility. Диагностика включает две группы
- Evaluation of oral speech skills based on sound pronunciation
combine syllables into words, express thoughts into a coherent sentence;
- writing skills through assignments
on writing off or writing a text dictation, analysis of understanding
read and the number of mistakes made while writing.
In the process of diagnosis is determined by the spatial and
optical orientation. After the testimony identified, the doctor will prescribe
computed tomography, echocardiogram, psychiatrist visit and
Children need to undergo an ophthalmologic test to
identify the possible presence of visual impairment.
Treatment and Correction
Unfortunately, dyslexia can remain a serious problem.
over the years and even for life. Many из дислектиков
and can not overcome the difficulties in reading and perception
information, increase literacy rates. If found in a child
symptoms of the disease in the first stages of learning to read, apply
special phonemic technique that allows you to master the skill
perceive the text with whole words and sentences, and not by syllables.
In the process of correction specialists try to influence
simultaneously on the organs of sight and hearing, use memory.
Speech therapy techniques are designed to eliminate any
pathologies in speech and non-speech processes. In each
individual case, choose your approach to
- in the semantic form of dyslexia the vocabulary expands,
focuses on the development of syllable synthesis and assimilation
- with mnestic dyslexia correction
aimed at improving the vocal and auditory-speech memory;
- with the agrammatic form, work with the patient is based on
the ability to form grammatical patterns;
- tactile dyslexia has to work with development
spatial orientation, analysis and analysis of schemes;
- with optical form, treatment is aimed at correction
visual perception and analysis, spatial
- with phonemic form, the specialist works with
sound pronunciation and understanding of the sound-letter composition of words.
In addition to specialized techniques, additional
trainings and in some cases medications are required. Therapy
suggests the appointment of vitamins of group B, as well as omega-3 fatty
acids. With диагностировании депрессивных настроений и нервных
disorders adults are prescribed sedatives and
antipsychotic drugs, as well as antidepressants.
As the most effective remedial techniques
dolphin therapy and hippotherapy are used.
Scientists have proven that communication with animals
contributes to the stabilization of the mental state, has
soothing action. After such events improves
A huge role is played by the social adaptation of people with dyslexia.
To make it easier for people to navigate in space, we need
modern gadgets and smart appliances. They will help to remember
keep important information close
home address in case of sudden memory failures. Man is not
need to be locked up alone, he can continue to walk on
work and walks. In the course of treatment it is important not to overload the patient.
From how timely the disease is diagnosed,
depends not only the success of treatment, but also the quality of life of a person with
dyslexia. In childhood it is important not to miss a moment in
education and development of the child. Prevention should be done with
early preschool age. She is
- mandatory development of fine motor skills;
- development of analytical activities;
- development of visual-spatial perception;
- memory strengthening.
In order to avoid shortcomings in children in the process
learning to read and write, you need to start working with them in the early
age Cognitive communication must first occur in
game form using educational tools. AT
visual images are displayed in a casual form
helping him to develop thinking and analytical skills. AT
as such images are the words, pictures with animals and
birds, various items. ATизуализация — наиболее приемлемый и
простой способ восприятия информации в раннем age
As развития устных и письменных навыков повышается
intellectual level, which means that the correct
lexical and grammatical construction of speech. Normally developed boys
and girls feel comfortable surrounded people have
pretty high self esteem. They can easily study in primary
classes, communication with other children and teachers.
To make it easier for the child to memorize letters, words, correct
writing, you need to enrich his vocabulary. Quickly
exercises. Parents can do them using bright
toys and accessories:
- Before the baby you need to put a task – to find the lost in
room letter, for example, C. Together with mom or dad, he should
find and name items that start with this letter.
It is advisable to explain the value of everything that will be found.
- After mastering the skills
reading a child can be given a task – to divide one
big word on a few small ones, for example, “MAMAPAP”. As
mastering this skill can complicate phrases and suggest
- The inverse problem is to make a meaningful word out of individual words.
text. They can be written on separate cards, and the desired
proposal to voice the child in advance.
- To improve spatial and tactile perception
It is recommended to conduct training, combining it with a massage. On
the back of the baby need to “write” different letters and numbers with your finger, turning
gradually to whole words.
- When the child learns the skill of writing, you can offer him
write what he remembered from the narrated tale.
Parents can invent any exercises independently,
Considering the age features of babies and their level of development.
Tasks need to gradually complicate, bring each to
automatism. Such techniques not only contribute to learning, but also
are a way of spending time with children and
parents, which is very important in preventing dyslexia.
You should never take a disease as a deficiency,
impairment or rejection. It should support babies, trying
combine the correction methods recommended by the doctor with homemade
exercises. Adult people can also be hard in society, but
they can also be helped by offering an easier job position
or setting them simple and straightforward tasks.