Lymphoma (Lymphoma, outdated lymphodenoma) or lymphosis
– cancer of blood systems. It represents
a group of hematological diseases that affect the lymphatic
the system. The cunning of the disease lies in the difficult diagnosis of
early stages and the almost complete absence of effective treatment
with its running forms.
Her ability to metastasize and spread through
blood and lymphatic pathways throughout the body makes it difficult
therapy. Therefore, it is important to start treatment on time when setting such
Lymphocytes are white blood cells that
take an active part in the fight against viruses and bacteria, they
are the main immune component of the body. Lymphatic
the system serves as a protective barrier consisting of about 50 separate
The answer to the question, lymphoma is cancer or not, unfortunately, it will be
positive. With таком заболевании происходит бесконтрольное,
abnormal cell division. Immature cells colonize
lymph nodes and other organs disrupting their activity and
increasing them in size. Thus, excessive
accumulation of cancer components, the so-called lymphoblastic
cells. AT это время здоровые лимфоциты погибают. Man becomes
extremely susceptible to various diseases.
Lymphoma is a type of cancer that
where malignant neoplasms can be localized in
individual lymph nodes. Considering the fact that almost all
organs consist of lymphoid tissue; pathology can affect any
from the departments of the body.
The main sections of the lymphatic tissue
- The lymph nodes.
- Spleen. This organ serves as a filter for damaged cells and
bacteria, and also stores healthy blood components.
- Bone marrow. This is where new blood cells are produced.
- Thymus (thymus gland). This body is located at the top
parts of the chest, at the base of the sternum. Getting into the thymus
stem cells that form in the bone marrow,
converted into T lymphocytes.
- Adenoids and tonsils. Help produce antibodies against
microbes that enter the oral cavity.
- Digestive tract.
AT результате множественных наблюдений было выделено две большие
groups of lymphomas. They are classified by specific unique
характеристикам cancer cells. The difference in the types of the disease is significant
affects its course and methods of therapy. There are 2 types
- Hodgkin’s lymphoma (lymphogranulomatosis, HX);
- non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL).
The type of lymphoma can only be determined by examining the sample.
affected tissue. Biopsy material examined under
a microscope. If cells are present in the sample
Berezovsky-Sternberg-Reed, then Hodgkin’s lymphoma is diagnosed.
Они представляют собой мутированные AT-лимфоциты. AT противном случае
the disease belongs to the group of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. The difference between these
two types of essential, as in lymphogranulomatosis
(lymphomatosis) the tumor does not metastasize and the internal organs do not
Hodgkin lymphoma has 4 subtypes:
- cerebral sclerosis;
- mixed cell lymphoma;
- rich in lymphocytes;
- lymphoid depletion.
Noble sclerosis is the most common type
Hodgkin’s lymphoma. It is more common in young people and adolescents.
It usually begins in the lymph nodes in the neck and chest.
Mixed cell form more often
всего наблюдается у людей, имеющих ATИЧ-инфекцию. AT основном
affects the upper half of the body.
A form rich in lymphocytes, is rare, affects
upper torso and striking a small amount
Lymphoid depletion is most common in older people, and
также у пациентов с ATИЧ-инфекцией. This form is more
aggressiveness compared to other subtypes. Strikes more often
spleen, liver and bone marrow.
Hodgkin’s disease rarely metastasizes when detected early.
fully cured or achieved long-term remission.
With неходжскинской лимфоме опухоль развивается в органах и
lymph nodes that are interconnected. Further in the process
other internal organs are involved. Some types of non-Hodgkin
lymphomas tend to grow slowly, some of them develop
swiftly. Differently, non-Hodgkin lymphomas are called
lymphosarcomas. The disease has less comforting predictions.
Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are classified according to the spectrum of how they
behave in the body:
- Indolent. Develop slowly for many years. These
cancers are considered chronic. They progress through
several years after successful treatment.
- Aggressive lymphomas grow rapidly over several months.
They respond well to treatment and are potentially completely
- ATысокоактивные лимфомы развиваются очень быстро — в течение
few weeks. This species is successfully treated, especially when
Stages of development of the disease
Lymphoma, like any other type of cancer, has certain
stage of development. There are 4 stages
- The development of cancer in stage I is characterized by
damage to the lymphatic system, which is localized only in
one area of the body (for example, on the neck) or only one is affected
- At stage II, lymph nodes are affected
several localization zones located on one side
relative to the diaphragm. Altered cells can be detected in
one lymphatic organ.
- At stage III of development, lesions are located in different
parts of the body relative to the diaphragm, the disease can affect one
lymphatic organ or spleen.
- In stage IV, the disease affects several organs and tissues.
outside the lymph flow, the lymphatic system itself may be affected or
Symptomatology of cancer of the lymphatic system
Often in the early stages of the disease does not manifest itself.
In addition, patient complaints may vary depending on
site of damage and type of disease. Main symptoms
Adult lymphomas are:
- enlarged lymph nodes;
- loss of appetite;
- heaviness and pain in the spleen;
- drastic weight loss;
- increased body temperature;
- night sweats;
- chronic cough, shortness of breath;
- an increase in the size of the abdomen;
- frequent infections.
The most important signs of the disease are increased
lymph nodes as with a viral or bacterial infection, but
to the touch they are mobile and painless.
As cancer spreads
throughout the body, it can strongly influence the digestive
system, squeezing organs. Increased spleen size may result
to the fact that he puts pressure on the stomach, creating sensations
overcrowding even from a small amount of food.
Sharp weight loss without changing diet or exercise
always a sign that something is wrong with the body. AT
In cases of lymphoma, this is partly due to loss of appetite, and
with a feature of the development of a cancer. Pathological cells
feed on nutrients causing the body to receive less
them in the required amount.
One of the most noticeable symptoms in cancer of the lymphatic
system is extreme, inexplicable fatigue and fatigue. Even
the smallest tasks become completely exhausting, and
daily activities that were easy now seem
impossible. The body wears out due to lack of nutrients
and fight against cancer cells. Lack of appetite also increases
this state. AT дополнение к этому из-за болезни снижается
количество эритроцитов в организме, что приводит к анемии и
even more tired.
An increase in body temperature is a clear sign that
An infection is present in the body. Its inexplicable increase is always
should be alerted, especially if the situation persists more
of the week.
One of the main symptoms of lymphoma is
violation of thermoregulation. A person may have chills, then he
may feel excessive sweating. Especially the situation should
alert when it happens at night. With lymphoma, it is caused
overactive immune system that tries to rid
organism from toxins.
Night sweats are closely associated with other diseases and
conditions such as menopause and bacterial infections. Besides
In addition, you should check the temperature in the room before you do
For some types of disease as lymphoma cells grow
a chemical is released that causes itching and irritation
skin throughout the body. They do not respond to typical drug.
the therapy used to treat this condition. Symptoms can
start as dry skin and then turn into a small, itchy
Dyspnea, even with minimal activity, may signal
development of cancer of the lymphatic system. The reason is that by
as the size of lymph nodes increases, the process is disturbed
saturation of the body with oxygen. This condition is aggravated if
lymphoma begins in the thymus. He can press the trachea that
makes breathing even more difficult.
Although lymphoma can
lead to weight loss, its location in the abdominal cavity can
increase the belly in size. This is due to both increased
lymph nodes, and with the accumulation of a large number
fluids in this area. The stomach is soft to the touch.
Additional symptoms associated with abdominal edema,
include a sense of pressure in this area, pain, and
indigestion and diarrhea.
Weight loss in combination with an increase in abdominal circumference
in any case is a sign of a serious health problem and
needs further medical advice to determine
Disease due to low levels of healthy lymphocytes
causes the human body to become susceptible to
various infections. ATажно, чтобы больные лимфомой избегали
contact with any possible sources in this period. Any
the disease can aggravate the situation and make treatment more difficult
Causes of Lymphoma
AT данный момент не установлена точная причина occurrence
malignant processes of this kind. They can be individual
в зависимости от вида diseases. But there are some factors
predisposing to the possibility of getting lymphatic cancer
- Бактериальные и вирусные diseases: вирус Эпштейн-Барр,
hepatitis C or T-cell leukemia. Found that the bacteria
Helicobacter pylori, for example, causes lymphoma.
- ATозраст. Hodgkin lymphoma manifests itself, usually in people in
age 15-30 years and after 50 years. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma more often
occurs in people after 60 years.
- Gender. In men, this pathology occurs
more often than women.
- Заболевания и нарушения работы иммунной systems: ATИЧ/СПИД,
organ transplant, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren syndrome, red
lupus, celiac disease.
- Organ and tissue transplantation.
- First pregnancy after 35 years.
- ATредные условия труда. ATероятность повышают частый контакт с
carcinogens and aggressive radiation.
Some types of diseases, inflammation of the dairy lymph nodes
glands, for example, can be secondary and develop on the background
decrease immunity, stress or endocrine disorders.
Diagnosis of the disease
When the patient complains, the doctor first of all produces external
examination, probes lymph nodes, collecting history. ATысокой
informative has a complete blood count. Of course, one by one
blood indices cannot be final
diagnosis, but some changes should be noted.
Usually with lymphoma, you can observe such changes in the formula
- hemoglobin level is below acceptable;
- low platelet count;
- increased level of ESR;
- high white blood cell count;
- increase in eosinophils.
Such changes are a reason for further examination,
the next step in which will be a blood test for biochemistry. AT случае
questionable results are assigned to the analysis of tumor markers. With
positive results, the patient is assigned instrumental
Ultrasound – a proven method of research
suspicious lymph nodes. Also appointed a study of the chest.
cells, because very often the tumor is localized there. More
accurate and reliable way (and at the same time the most expensive) –
computed tomography and magnetic resonance tomography. After that
as the diagnosis is confirmed by diagnosticians, the oncologist is obliged to take
biopsy. This type of research is crucial for diagnosing
lymphomas. As a rule, the doctor refers the patient to the surgeon for
conducting resection of enlarged lymph nodes.
ATо время удаления пораженных лимфоузлов иссечению подлежат также
regional lymph nodes. This reduces the risk of recurrence. Then
deleted fragments are sent to the laboratory for
biopsy. In the later stages of the disease, surgical
intervention is inappropriate, for this reason oncologists
limited to fine needle biopsy.
Cytologists conduct a series of studies to establish the exact
diagnosis. Since the concept of lymphoma includes at least 30
specific diseases, the diagnosis needs to be predicted and
determine the schema required for further
adequate treatment by a chemotherapist.
Cancer Treatment and Prevention
The goal of treating lymphoma is to destroy as much as possible
more cancer cells and cause the disease to remission. Factors
which determine the course of treatment include:
- a type of lymphoma;
- lesion organs;
- response to a previous course of treatment.
Modern research confirms that most
effective combination of surgery and
chemotherapy. In the later stages of disease progression,
advanced radiation therapy and immunotherapy.
Treatment of lymphoma includes:
- Active surveillance. Some forms of lymphoma
develop very slowly. AT этом случае необходимо регулярно
undergo examinations to monitor the patient’s condition.
- Chemotherapy. With этом методе используются препараты для
destruction of fast-growing cancer cells. They are usually administered through
vein with a dropper. Some can be taken as
- Other drug therapy. Other drugs used
for the treatment of lymphoma include targeted drugs that
focus on specific abnormalities in cancer cells.
Immunotherapeutic drugs activate immune function.
systems for killing cancer cells.
- Radiation therapy. Radiation therapy uses powerful beams.
energies such as x-rays and protons to destroy
- Bone marrow transplantation. Bone marrow transplantation as well
known as stem cell transplantation includes
the use of high doses of chemotherapy and radiation to suppress
body work. Then собственные или донорские здоровые стволовые
bone marrow cells are infused into the patient’s blood.
Good results in the treatment of lymphosis are achieved by
use of therapy with monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal
antibodies are proteins, artificially created in the laboratory
which, when combined with tumor cells, help the immune
system to recognize and destroy cancer cells. Based
research, in 90% of cases of treatment of Hodgkin’s lymphoma with
This method achieves sustained remission and complete recovery from
Timely diagnosed tumors with timely surgical
intervention and other therapies are completely treatable at the first
stage. On the 2nd survival rate is 40−60%. On the later
stages of the prognosis is less favorable – 10%. Therefore timely
diagnosing and starting treatment significantly increases the chances of
Since the exact causes of cancer have not been established, then
preventive measures are very extensive. In the most efficient way
preventing the disease is the regular passage
medical examination. It also recommends measures to strengthen
immunity, which consist in hardening, sports,
proper nutrition and the elimination of bad habits.