Why there is a cervical cyst, diagnosisand treatment of pathology

Update: October 2018

Usually, gynecological problems give a woman large
inconvenience and lead her to a specialist. But some diseases are not
make themselves felt throughout life and are random
find when referring to a gynecologist. It is to such diseases
относится киста шейки uterus.

What is a cervical cyst?

By definition, a cyst is a kind of hollow, usually thin-walled.
formation filled with liquid contents. Cysts can
formed in almost all organs and parts of the human body, including
числе и внутри шейки uterus. There is little free in this body.
пространства, поэтому cysts редко вырастают до больших размеров,
often spontaneously opened, and they are not easy to find in the usual
gynecological examination. More often they are found on ultrasound, as all doctors
know what a cyst looks like with this study.

Какие cysts встречаются чаще всего?

There are 2 main causes of cervical cysts:
occlusion of the glands and endometriosis that hit the vaginal part of the cervix.
При первом типе cysts шейки матки симптомы обычно отсутствуют,
therefore, they are rarely found, the true frequency of occurrence
unknown. Extremely rare malignancy can have
type of cystic cavities in the cervical canal. Inflammatory
processes are not the cause, but may be the background of the disease,
therefore, erosion and cervical cyst are often found nearby.

Наботовы cysts

Как образуются наботовы cysts?

The cervix is ​​a 2-3 cm organ connecting the uterus and
vagina. Inside the cervix passes the cervical canal, which
lined with a special layer. This layer of cells, called
cylindrical epithelium, has glands. They excrete cervical
secret or mucus. Under certain conditions, outlets
этих желез закупориваются, и образуется наботова киста шейки uterus.
There are 2 main reasons for the appearance of such cysts:

  • Age changes

The vaginal part of the cervix is ​​lined with epithelium that does not contain
железы и не подвергающимся изменениям во time of menstruation. This
the layer is joined to the cylindrical epithelium of the cervical canal.
It is noteworthy that with age this boundary shifts backwards, i.e.
inside the neck. Many women shift their boundaries.
outwards, an ectopia forms, and one kind of epithelium “crawls” onto
other. With such a layering excretory ducts of glands can
close, and the outflow of a secret is obstructed. Образуются cysts
эндоцервикса на шейке uterus.

  • Hormonal fluctuations

Уровень половых гормонов – еще одна причина cysts на шейке
uterus. The cervical mucus secreted by the endocervical glands plays
very important role in women’s health. It is she who prevents
penetration of pathogens into the uterus and contributes to
sperm penetration there. To implement these two
important functions of the composition and viscosity of mucus varies depending on
day of the menstrual cycle. This процесс контролируется гормонами.
With significant hormonal fluctuations, mucus can become
excessively thick and viscous, which also leads to clogging
duct glands.

Наботовы cysts – явление довольно частое. Seen on the chair
They are found in every tenth woman of childbearing age.
It is believed that after birth the frequency of this pathology increases.
Хотя нужно отметить, что многие врачи такие cysts не считают
pathological phenomenon, as they usually do not affect the health

Симптомы наботовой cysts

В большинстве случаев cysts шейки матки не обнаруживают себя до
visit to the gynecologist. Only sometimes they cause complications,
manifesting symptoms:

  • discomfort and pain during intercourse. Decrease
    working glands leads to dryness
  • discharge from the genital tract. Иногда cysts нагнаиваются и
    lead to inflammatory process (cervicitis). Purulent discharge
    cervical canal enters the vagina, leading to more
    extensive inflammation

Лечение наботовой cysts

Наботовы (ретенционные) cysts – абсолютно безвредные
Education, with which many live, give birth to children and rejoice
life, unaware of the presence of these cysts. If a гинеколог при
examination in the chair finds in the cervix a single cyst of the cervix,
then he can offer to carefully open it. After opening
эндоцервикальной или парацервикальной cysts секрет железы выходит
out. If a cysts множественные, а жалоб у женщины нет, то такие
Education doctor does not touch.

Endometrial cyst

How is it formed?

Endometriosis is a very common disease and at the same time
little studied. It is known that for some reason in different
Foci of the inner layer of the uterine epithelium appear in the organs. Thats
there is that layer that normally exfoliates and leaves the uterus in
form of menstrual bloody discharge. Most often these foci
appear in the thickness of the uterus, ovaries and neck. A few days before
habitual menstruation these sites begin to function as
endometrium, that is, exfoliate and bleed. There is blood in the cervix
может накапливаться, образуя со временем эндометриоидные cysts.

Endometriotic symptoms cysts

  • one week before and during the week after menstruation appear
  • pain in the premenstrual period, especially during sexual
    an act and during a gynecological examination
  • infertility and chronic pelvic pain with extensive


Эндометриоидные цервикальные cysts редко бывают изолированными,
as endometriosis is a hormonal disease. Therefore for
diagnostics use several methods:

Examination of the cervix with the help of mirrors. When gynecological examination is very often possible to see
cavitary red-brown formation with liquid contents,
which extends beyond the cervical canal. They are strong
differ from nabotovyh small cysts of light yellow color. Need to
помнить, что cysts на шейке образуются редко, обычно эндометриоз
looks like small pockets of red-brown color bleeding during
time of menstruation.

Ultrasound of the pelvic organs. With ultrasound you can
увидеть cysts и очаги эндометриоза на шейке, в толще матки,
эндометриальные cysts в яичниках и других областях таза women.
This allows you to make a diagnosis of endometriosis with great accuracy and
start treatment

Biopsy. This is the most accurate, but rarely used method.
making a diagnosis. During the biopsy, a portion of the cervix is ​​taken from
cyst for research under a microscope. If a внешний вид cysts
different from typical endometriosis, the biopsy needs to be done in
mandatory to exclude cancer. Depending on the
the results of the histology, the doctor determines how to treat a cyst of the cervix

Hormonal treatment

Endometriosis is a hormonally caused disease, therefore
There are several treatments that are often used.

Despite the diversity of theories of endometriosis science
exactly figured out one thing: the direct cause of the appearance of endometrioid
foci, including cervical cysts, is an elevated level
estrogen in the blood. Therefore, all treatment is aimed at stabilizing
this level.

  • Combined oral contraceptives (COCs). All COCs are composed
    from 2 components: estrogen and gestagen. The first component can
    differ in the amount of different drugs. Knowing that endometriosis is
    estrogen-dependent disease, you need to choose drugs with
    minimum content of this hormone. These drugs include
    monophasic Jess, Logest, Janine and other means. Important to remember,
    that COCs only help with the initial stages of the disease, preventing
    its progression. If a помимо cysts шейки матки есть другие
    foci of endometriosis, oral contraceptives will not help. Besides
    In addition, there may be an increase in symptoms after drug withdrawal.
    заболевания, поэтому назначать КОК при выраженном endometriosis
    need with caution (see harm to oral contraceptives).
  • Progestins. Progestins containing drugs reduce
    relative level of estrogen, allowing you to get rid of foci
    endometriosis. These drugs include Byzanna.
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists – reliable method
    control of endometrial foci, since at the highest level
    blocks the synthesis of estrogen. Due to side effects
    used with the effectiveness of another treatment or pronounced
    pain syndrome

Хирургическое лечение cysts шейки матки

With single cysts, it is possible to completely remove them

  • Механическое удаление cysts шейки матки путем конизации. If a
    cysts большие, доставляют много неудобств и препятствуют
    pregnancy occurs, the cervix is ​​conizable,
    there is a cutting of its inner layer. This procedure is pretty
    traumatic, but completely eliminates the symptoms. After recovery
    organism can plan pregnancy.
  • Removal by laser. Laser exposure is less traumatic than
    others, it allows you to point to the smallest
  • Cryodestruction (exposure to low temperatures). Coagulation
    (прижигание cysts).

All of these methods are removal or destruction.
foci of the disease, including cysts. But without the subsequent
drug treatment hormone return disease
guaranteed. Therefore, after surgical treatment gynecologist
prescribes appropriate drug therapy.

В каких случаях обязательно удалять цервикальные cysts?

Be sure to remove the cervical cyst is needed if:

  • образовался абсцесс, то есть нагноение cysts
  • cyst looks like a malignant neoplasm
  • large cyst combined with infertility
  • the cyst does not allow to assess the state of the cervix in the patient,
    an HPV-infected oncogenic type with dysplasia or
    oncological processes in the past.

Treatment of cervical cysts by folk methods

It is widely believed among many women that some concoctions
Herbs help to cure all gynecological problems ranging from
endometriosis and ending with infertility. This information is not
supported by facts. Therefore, drink broths boron uterus, red
brushes and use other folk remedies for cervical cyst
useless. Moreover, it is not necessary to douch with herbs and
infusions. Cysts are often formed on the inflamed mucosa, and
herbal decoctions can increase this inflammation and lead to sad
the consequences.

Frequently asked questions to the gynecologist

I plan pregnancy within a month. The doctor on ultrasound determined in
cervical cyst, presumably nabotovu. Do I need to delete it
before pregnancy?

Обычно наботовы cysts не мешают наступлению беременности.
Check with your doctor. If a киста большая или воспаленная,
then for your own peace of mind it is better to open it, since the cyst
cervix during pregnancy may be an occasion for excessive

When viewed for the past few years, they show up
наботовы cysts. Going to install Miren. Is cyst
cervical contraindication for helix?

The main contraindication to the installation of intrauterine device
is an inflammatory process. Making sure that the nabot cyst is not
associated with acute inflammation, you can proceed to the introduction

I am 59 years old, menopause 5 years old. During the routine inspection
The gynecologist found a cervical cyst and referred it to a district oncologist.
Can a cyst be a sign of cancer?

Обычно все cysts шейки матки являются доброкачественными
neoplasms not associated with cancer. But given your
age, it is better to conduct a series of studies: pass a smear and conduct
PAP-тест для определения раковых клеток, провести биопсию cysts,
сделать Ultrasound of the pelvic organs.

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