Update: October 2018
Hearing is an important tool for connecting a person to the outside world. With
impaired hearing capacity is reduced load on the brain
in the temporal lobe, attention is overloaded and cognitive falls
human capabilities (thinking, memory, ability to
In addition, reduced hearing causes problems when communicating with others.
people and limits the adaptive capabilities of the person. If bad
began to hear the ears, should soon turn for
consultation to the otolaryngologist (ENT specialist).
Hearing loss is otherwise called hearing loss. condition
differentiated by degrees, depending on how far
man hears spoken language.
Degree of hearing loss
|Threshold of sound perception||Distance of speaking|
|Easy – 1 degree||26-40 decibel||4-6 meters|
|Medium – 2 degree||41-55 decibel||1-4 meters|
|Heavy – 3 degree||56-70 decibel||0.25-1 meter|
|Deep hearing loss – grade 4||71-90 decibel|
|Deafness||> 91 децибелла|
Why hearing is reduced
About 8% of the world’s population has hearing problems, in fact
In fact, this figure is underestimated. Since not everyone treats this
problem to specialists. Men suffer from hearing loss more often.
women. The most frequently acquired hearing problems begin.
after 50 years.
The organs of hearing are represented by:
- peripheral part (outer, middle ear), conducting
- sensory epithelium of the inner ear, perceiving the signal
- auditory nerve transmitting impulse
- and the central part analyzing the incoming information
(cortical analyzer or part of the cerebral cortex in the temporal
Hearing loss may be due to damage or
diseases of any part of the auditory pathway. In addition, frequent
the reason for reducing hearing
blood supply to the ear or brain.
Conductive hearing loss
Когда причина кроется в нарушении проведения soundа по наружному
and middle ear, talk about conductive hearing loss.
- External auditory canal can be closed by sulfur plugs.
Sulfur is the natural secret of the outer ear, which when bad
hygienic care, frequent inflammatory diseases of the ears or
mechanical stimulations of the ear can accumulate in the form of dense
пробок, препятствующих прохождению soundовой волны. Problem more often
two-sided and directly related to the habit of cleaning the ears with cotton
chopsticks, matches or other unsuitable items. Ears
it is necessary not to clean, but to wash. This rule is advisable to know and
adults and children. Read more about sulfur plugs.
- Foreign body hearing aid
This is a more childish problem. Kids often put small ones in their ears.
balls, berries or parts from LEGO. Process most often
one-sided, although there are craftsmen at once to clog both ears.
Adults are more likely to suffer from insects that get into the ear or
match heads, broken off when cleaning the ears. Easier it
to warn than to try to remove what fell into your ear
Middle catarrhal or purulent otitis media (inflammation of the middle ear)
due to effusion can significantly reduce hearing with both one and
two sides (see otitis symptoms in children). If on the drum
membrane opens the abscess, and a hole is formed, then to
the moment of its healing or operative recovery, hearing can
completely absent on one or both ears. If healing
eardrum will occur with the formation of a large or coarse
then it will cause a persistent hearing loss on
- Mechanical injury of the eardrum
This is the result of mindless tinkering in the ears. Barotrauma this
отдела – следствие удара soundовой волной или высоким давлением.
Most often, it is received by those who are struck on the ear, hunters,
who shot over the ear, as well as divers – losers.
- The furuncles of the auditory canal with significant size and due to
swelling can also lower hearing.
Sensorineural or neurosensory hearing loss – consequence
problems with the host: inner ear, 8 pair
cranial nerve or cortical and
stem centers of the auditory analyzer.
Congenital variants of neurosensory hearing loss – they are most often
appear with underdeveloped sensory epithelium of the inner ear.
The infectious processes transferred
mother during pregnancy.
Congenital hearing loss in a child
- With внутриутробном заражении краснухой ребенок может родиться с
Greg’s triad (deafness, heart disease and eye damage).
- Fetal syphilis also leads to deafness.
- Vertical infection with chlamydia during childbirth can be
cause of hearing loss in the newborn.
- Deep prematurity (up to 32 weeks) does not allow
neurosensory apparatus to develop and leads to hearing loss.
- In alcoholic mothers and drug addicts because of ototoxic
actions taken substances children are often born with reduced
- Congenital Inherited Malformations – Snail Aplasia and
Labyrinth: Mondini Shaybe, Michael, – causes of congenital deafness.
Syndromes of Gervella (hearing loss and heart disease), Pendred
(hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and deafness), Ushera (retinitis and
hearing loss), Wardenburg (eyes of different colors, accrete eyebrows,
gray strand over forehead and hearing loss), Stickler (strong myopia,
gothic sky, early cataract, hearing impairment) – also
hereditary congenital diseases.
- Children with Down syndrome are often deaf already from
Sensorineural hearing loss
Neurosensory hearing loss can be purchased in children’s or
adulthood. In the first place of its causes – hygiene violations
- Продолжительное воздействие громких soundов (громче 90 децибелл)
ведет к нарушению восприятия soundов высокой частоты.
- Elderly people suffer from presbyacusis, that is, degeneration
- The abuse of headphones affects the auditory nerves and is known
as the “telephone operator disease”. Pathology is associated with a violation
myelin sheath of the auditory nerve. It is actually chronic.
neuritis of the auditory nerve in which inflammation interferes with the conduct
the pulses are normal.
- Низкие частоты восприятия soundов выпадают при болезни Меньера,
accompanied by frequent systemic vertigo and loss
equilibrium, hearing loss and tinnitus.
- Traumatic injuries of the temporal bone, snail. 8 pairs
cranial nerves, cerebral cortex in the auditory centers can
cause a secondary neurosensory hearing loss with one or
- Viral infectious diseases (measles, mumps,
herpes, rubella. flu) can damage the auditory nerves.
- Bacterial lesions of the maze, temporal bone, Eustachian
tubes or meninges lead to hearing loss or deafness.
- Autoimmune diseases (eg, Wegener’s granulomatosis)
become the primary cause of otosclerosis and hearing loss.
- Chronic allergic rhinitis causes catarrhal
chronic otitis, which often leads to hearing loss in children
- Otosclerosis or growth of bone and connective tissue in
внутреннем ухе может вести к стойким потерям hearing
- Tumors of the pre-vesicular nerve (neuroma), neoplasm
pectoralis or brain meninges can lead to
A variety of drugs have an ototoxic effect.
- Aminoglycosides (kanamycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, amikacin)
особенно в сочетаниях с фуросемидом дают снижения hearing
- The diuretics themselves are, like the macrolide antibiotics
(josamycin, azithromycin), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory may
cause reversible hearing loss after abolition
Читайте подробнее о симптомах и лечении нейросенсорной
Hearing loss on the background of circulatory disorders
Often to neurologists, in addition to complaints of pain in the head or neck, noise
in the ears and ringing in the temples, sleep and memory disorders can be heard
from patients: “I hear badly with one ear”. A patient with similar
complaints, in addition to a routine inspection of the ENT is shown more in-depth
examination of neck vessels (USDG) and spinal images in two
Vertebrate syndrome may be behind this hearing loss.
arteries, the flow of which worsens osteochondrosis
cervical spine or carotid stenosis, which is
completely threatened with ischemic stroke. With сосудистых нарушениях
hearing patients should receive vasodilator courses twice a year
drugs and antiplatelet agents. With безуспешности консервативной
therapy may be a question about surgery on
With острых нарушениях мозгового кровообращения, в случае
вовлечения в очаг 8 pairs черепных нервов (преддверно-улитковых)
могут наблюдаться стойкие снижения hearing in this case, the patient
conducted according to the standard program of treatment and rehabilitation after
Bad ear hears what to do
ATсе препятствия на пути soundововой волны должны устраняться.
- Sulfur plugs and foreign bodies
They are removed in an outpatient setting at the otolaryngologist.
A few days before the procedure, the doctor may recommend
bury hydrogen peroxide. Next, the doctor blows his ears according to Politzer.
or washes out traffic jams. Foreign bodies from the ear canal also
removes the doctor.
- Otitis media
Otitis на стадии катарального воспаления может лечиться отипаксом
or albucid in drops. Since the purulent process are connected
local (Polydex) or systemic (macrolides. cephalosporins,
fluoroquinolones) antibiotics. Ear drops are prohibited during perforation.
eardrum. Otitis treatment can be supplemented
proitvovospalitelnymi and painkillers. Be sure to parallel with
otitis media to treat a runny nose (Vibrocil, Rinoflumicili). Spirit of camphor
used only in compresses at the stage of catarrhal otitis. AT
his ear does not drip because of the risks of otosclerosis.
- The boil in the ear is treated with antibiotics, antiseptics and
- Resistant or too large perforations of the eardrum
can be restored promptly using tympanoplasty.
Correction of neurosensory hearing loss
Only the acute form of neurosensory can be cured completely.
hearing loss, for example, against the background of auditory neuritis the nerve. Under this
understand the hearing loss that developed acutely within 72 hours and
affected one or both ears. Often patients complain: “I hear badly
after a cold. ”
Although up to two thirds of patients can continue to receive
improvement without therapy, otolaryngologists consider waiting
tactics wrong. With этом с самых первых дней лечения
use glucocrocytic anti-inflammatory drugs in
tablets or injections.
- With остаточных явлениях тугоухости препараты вводят внутрь уха
or transtimpanally. Previously widely used drugs
vascular directivity, dextrans and decongestants on
today they are inferior to glucocorticoids and are prescribed only for acute
hearing loss on the background of circulatory disorders (strokes).
- With болезни Меньера эффективными бывают Бетасерк и Идебенон, а
also diuretic, reducing the number of endolymph in the cochlea.
- With хронических формах тугоухости наиболее часто приходится
resort to hearing aids. In first place today especially in
children’s practice go cochlear implants – hearing aids,
which can be installed inside the ear for constant wear. They have
small size, do not cause discomfort and directly stimulate
- Hearing aids of various modifications from ear to ear
require individual selection and a certain time for
addictive. Many patients, especially older ones, refuse
hearing aids due to poor device selection and
inconvenience when wearing it.
Alternative ways to restore hearing
- Massage auricles can improve blood flow
inner ear and cerebral cortex. Its variety is
acupuncture massage or qigong techniques borrowed from
Chinese medicine. ATспомогательное средство. Which by itself
does not solve the problem.
- Microcurrent reflexology – physiotherapy, not decisive
- Аудиоигры способны расширить диапазон воспринимаемых soundов.
More suitable for training healthy ears.
- Методика М. Норбекова с произношением согласных soundов,
pushed from the oropharynx into the ear, as well as training with
soundовоспроизводящими устройствами – невредное развлечение на этапе
self-study. From the moment of attraction to the paid courses –
sectarianism, harmful to health and pocket.
Thus, hearing loss is a serious problem with which
can and must be fought. With острых нарушениях слуха самой
the right tactic becomes an immediate appeal to the doctor.
ATедь упущенное время может обернуться стойкой тугоухостью.