Why is an umbilical hernia in adultstreatment, symptoms, complications

Update: December 2018

Umbilical hernia is a pathological condition
manifested by emergence of the internal organs, covered with a leaflet
peritoneum, through a defect in the abdominal wall, localized near
navel. In adults, these tumors make up 3-12% of all
cases of other types of external abdominal hernia. As a rule, this
the disease is more often diagnosed in women older than 30 years. What are
signs of umbilical hernia in adults, treatment and complications of such
pathology?

Signs of umbilical hernia in adults

Симптомы пупочной грыжи  заключаются в появлении
tumorous protrusion consisting of skin, subcutaneous adipose
клетчатки, брюшины и части органа, в области navel. Fine
hernial protrusion is painless and practically not
delivers anxiety to the patient. Usually hernia appears unnoticed.
for the patient and increases in size over time, however
appear and suddenly with a single exposure producing
factors such as weightlifting.

The size of the hernial protrusion increases after physical
work or long stay upright,
after coughing, overeating. The skin over it is so thin
that it is possible to determine the motility of intestinal loops. Only occasionally
patients with such a diagnosis are not disturbed by pronounced
dyspeptic disorders such as nausea, belching, addiction
to constipation.

It is up to the person to determine if he has an umbilical hernia
is impossible. Some patients may suspect
hernia benign or malignant lesions, or
consider similar protrusion by individual anatomical
features of your body. It is worth noting that in the navel area
cancer does not develop and to clarify the diagnosis should be
consult a doctor.

Causes

The cause of the formation of umbilical hernia in adulthood
is a significant expansion of the umbilical ring. Such
pathological condition may develop in the following cases:

  • late pregnancy;
  • complicated childbirth; Пупочная грыжа у взрослых
  • multiple pregnancy and high water during pregnancy;
  • genetic predisposition to connective weakness
    fabrics;
  • neuromuscular injury during injuries;
  • significant weight loss in the short term;
  • decreased abdominal muscle tone with a lack of physical
    loads;
  • abdominal obesity;
  • congenital abnormalities of the anterior abdominal structures
    walls.

However, not all people with the above factors
risk develop umbilical hernia. For the occurrence of this
a pathological condition requires exposure to producing
factors such as:

  • heavy physical exertion;
  • frequent constipation;
  • prolonged cough in patients with chronic diseases
    respiratory organs;
  • difficulty urinating with benign
    prostatic hyperplasia, urethral strictures.

Hernia complications

The deterioration of the patient can be observed with significant
increase in the size of the hernia or infringement of organs located in it.
In such situations, the hernial protrusion becomes sharp
painful, tight and tight. Content Organs
hernias stop spontaneously entering the abdominal cavity spontaneously and
when pressed. When moving into the hernial sac a few
intestinal loops can be observed constipation, pronounced flatulence. AT
If a part of the stomach gets into the hernia, patients complain of feeling
heaviness after eating, nausea and vomiting. Lack of adequate
medical care at this stage threatens with complications –
gangrene of strangulated organs, intestinal obstruction,
peritonitis.

Diagnostics

Difficulties in the diagnosis of umbilical hernia occur
seldom. However, to obtain the data necessary to perform
surgical intervention may require additional
examination. The most commonly used diagnostic tools are:
techniques:

  • Ultrasound – examination of the abdominal cavity allows to evaluate
    their structural and functional state and involvement in
    pathological process;
  • EGD – performed to determine the involvement of the wall
    stomach to the formation of hernial contents;
  • X-ray examination – determine the degree
    herniation and the nature of its contents is possible during
    X-ray contrast study of the gastrointestinal tract with
    barium sulfate.

Treatment

Радикальным способом лечения грыжи  является выполнение
surgical intervention. Only in children under 5 years of age are umbilical defects.
rings can spontaneously be eliminated over time.

In adults, an expanded umbilical ring does not return its
form even with long-term wearing of a compression bandage. Exactly
therefore, in order to avoid the development of complications of this pathological
condition is shown performing surgical correction of hernia.

A hernia surgery is called
hernioplasty. Its purpose is to reposition the organ that fell out or
parts of it in the abdominal cavity with the elimination of tissue defects.

Such operations are not require the use of anesthesia and are performed either
under local or epidural anesthesia. There are various
variants of hernioplasty depending on the method of hernia correction
gate:

  • tension hernioplasty – implies the closure of the hernial
    openings by tensioning the patient’s own tissue. For
    to combat umbilical hernia such operational techniques are used
    as ways Mayo, Sapezhko, Lekera. When performing such operations
    the area of ​​the abdominal wall defect is strengthened by duplication
    aponeurosis, special muscle fixation. This method of doing operational
    intervention is justified in the presence of small umbilical hernia
    sizes;
  • non-tensioned hernioplasty – this kind of operative
    interventions involve the use of synthetic materials
    strengthening the abdominal wall in the area of ​​the defect. ATероятность развития
    recurrence after the use of mesh implants significantly lower
    compared with standard operating methods that makes
    it is possible to eliminate even large hernial defects.

Today, the increasing distribution and popularity
acquire laparoscopic hernioplasty techniques. Deletion
umbilical hernia during minimally invasive operative
interventions not only allows you to completely eliminate
neoplasm, but also has several advantages, for example, short
rehabilitation period, low probability of complications.

Such operations are performed in a planned manner after a thorough
preparation of the body and therefore easily tolerated by patients.
A slightly different treatment strategy is required by a strangulated umbilical hernia,
developmental operation which must be carried out in an emergency
okay When this is done median laparotomy with revision
abdominal organs and excision of the affected areas of the omentum,
guts. Timely visit by a qualified professional
is the key to a favorable outcome of umbilical hernia in adults
without consequences.

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