Why does prostate cancer arise,symptoms, treatment, stages

Update: December 2018

Content:

  • Disease statistics
  • Some patterns, causes of cancer
    prostate gland
  • Classification
  • Prostate Cancer Symptoms
  • Stages of Prostate Cancer
  • Diagnostics
  • Лечение рака prostate gland
  • Frequently asked questions from patients

The prostate gland is a small organ located under
the bladder that surrounds the urethra. Function
простаты сложно переоценить, ведь именно сок prostate gland
supports sperm outside the testicles. In this
article we will look at cancer like cancer
prostate gland, симптомы, лечение и причины возникновения
of this affliction.

Disease statistics

Рак prostate gland — опухоль, локализованная в
prostate gland malignant and
representing a serious threat not only to sexual function, but also
for the life of a man. Another name for cancer is carcinoma.

In Europe, this is one of the most serious diseases of the male part.
population, which occurs in 214 people out of 1000 studied.
It should be noted that the incidence of prostate cancer
glands in different regions vary. For example, in Sweden,
the disease under discussion is 37 percent of all cases of cancer
tumors.

Prostate cancer is a disease that has a close relationship with genetics and
age of the person. More common among patients are men, age
which exceeds 40 years.

Some patterns, causes of cancer
prostate gland

В настоящее время причины рака prostate gland — вопрос
open. Scientists have established a clear link cancer
prostate with two factors:

  • Age

Over the years, hormonal changes occur in the male body.
Following are changes in the prostate gland, capable of
lead to cancer. It has been revealed that prostate cancer directly depends on
testosterone levels in the blood. Therefore, the disease affects men
middle and old age. In young people, cancer occurs
extremely rarely and only in the case of hereditary predisposition
or under the influence of serious mutagenic factors.

  • Heredity

The risk of disease doubles if a man among loved ones
Relatives present with prostate cancer patients. If hurt
relatives of the first and more degrees of kinship, the risk is reduced, but
there is a place to be. Hereditary prostate cancer is different from
other etiological types of the disease only earlier date
occurrence (with a difference of 6-7 years).

Other factors by which a person can be attributed to the group
risks are currently installed but not proven, but they are
exist:

  • Lifestyle

Lifestyle существенно влияет на возможность развития ракового
process in the prostate gland. The presence of bad habits noticeably
increases (in unproven proportions) the risk of a tumor:
addiction to alcohol, smoking, narcotic
substances. The above substances possess potent mutagenic
effect and are able to activate the process of malignant
reincarnation of an existing prostate tumor.

  • Nutrition

To provoke oncology are capable of red meat and animal fats.
origin. There is no clear link between nutrition and cancer.
marked. But doctors recommend avoiding eating
products, if there are prerequisites for oncology.

Classification

Существует 2 классификации рака prostate gland. First
refers to the standard nomenclature of all cancers, and
the second, more acceptable in the case of prostate cancer, is based on
tumor aggressiveness. Aggressiveness is determined by the Gleason index.
after a biopsy of a cancer tumor. Score (index)
exhibited from 1 to 10, which means, respectively, less and
more aggressive tumor.

Prostate Cancer Symptoms

There are too many manifestations of prostate cancer to accurately establish
the diagnosis is only according to the patient’s history and palpation.

  • Pain and burning during and after urination Рак prostate gland: симптомы, лечение
  • Intermittent urination
  • Frequent urge to urinate
  • Pain in the groin area
  • Rectal palpation pain
  • Hematuria
  • Impotence, etc.

В целом, симптомы рака prostate gland можно объединить в
three large groups:

  • Functional disorders of urine outflow;
  • Signs associated with tumor metastasis beyond
    пределы prostate;
  • Symptoms in extensive metastasis of cancer cells far beyond
    пределы prostate gland.

First группа признаков связана с тем, что раковая опухоль
begins to mechanically squeeze the urethra,
running through the prostate. In this regard, urination becomes
painful, problematic and irregular. This leads to stagnation of urine.
in the bladder, nervousness, swelling, stress.

Когда опухоль проникает за пределы prostate gland, это
causes the man additional pain. Besides,
erectile dysfunction, hematuria and
hematospermia.

With deep and extensive metastases, cancer spreads through
the pelvic region, hitting the bones, спинной мозг, близлежащие organs.
При этом основные симптомы рака prostate gland будут
following:

  • Pelvic and lower back pain of bone origin
  • Anemia (see iron supplements for anemia)
  • Puffiness of the body and limbs
  • Paralysis

Stages of Prostate Cancer

The staging of the disease is classified according to
forms of cancer. There are 2 main nomenclatures:

TNM — В рамках данной классификации
The extent of cancer growth is considered:

  • T – the tumor is in the prostate gland or a little goes
    beyond the limits of her capsule.
  • N – cancer cells grow into regional lymph nodes,
    below the iliac artery bifurcation.
  • M – in this paragraph we are talking about distant metastases, with
    which affects non-regional lymph nodes, bones and
    другие organs.

Система Джуит-Уайтмор — Данная классификация
shares the pathological process at stage A, B, C, D. The first 2
the stages are curable, the last 2 are more sad
prospects.

The earliest stage is A, in which the patient may not
experience no discomfort, and cancer cells can
single or massively localize in the prostate parenchyma
glands.

Stage B characterizes the growth of the tumor inside the prostate before
palpable sizes. Currently, cancer can be detected by
moderate increases in PSA protein concentration.

The next step, C, denotes the exit of cancer cells beyond
капсулы prostate gland. The tumor reaches the seminal
vesicles, other organs, may block the lumen of the urethra and
Bladder. Cancer becomes incurable at this stage.
disease.

Stage D – the final stage of cancer development. Characterized by
the increase in the number of metastases and the growth of the tumor towards
regional lymph nodes and beyond. Also stage d
are referred to as recurrent metastases after surgery
prostate cancer.

Нужно помнить, что стадии рака prostate gland, симптомы
which can be extremely different, are allocated conditionally. Clear
criteria by which a tumor can be attributed to a particular stage,
not.

Diagnostics

The following methods are used:

  1. Finger diagnosis or digital rectal examination.
    The doctor to the touch diagnoses the presence / absence of a tumor.
  2. PSA (prostate specific antigen). The higher
    the serum PSA concentration, the greater the likelihood of
    prostate cancer.
  3. Transrectal ultrasound. More often his
    designate as TRUS (abbreviation). This is a study of the prostate with
    using ultrasound by introducing a diagnostic instrument into
    the rectum.
  4. Prostate biopsy.
  5. Pathological examination of prostate biopsy samples
    and etc.

В качестве мониторинга рака prostate gland используются
first 3 techniques. PSA is a great and easy way to regularly
следить за состоянием prostate gland.

Before the advent of PSA, a common form was detected in 30% of cases.
prostate cancer, now with regular monitoring of this blood test and
examination of the urologist only in 6% of cases reveal common cancer
prostate gland, что улучшает прогноз и позволяет вовремя
conduct a radical treatment.

Normally, the PSA content should be less than 4 ng / ml, above 10
indicates a high risk of cancer. However, there are
exceptions:

  • Rarely recorded cases when PSA analysis for prostate cancer
    stays within the normal range.
  • In the treatment of the prostate can be used drugs that
    lead to a decrease in PSA (false negative)
    на фоне рака prostate gland.
  • Prostate adenoma and prostatitis may affect PSA,
    increasing its value in the absence of signs and symptoms of cancer
    prostate gland.

Prostate Cancer Treatment

Very important and relevant today is the question of
лечении рака prostate gland. The treatment decision is made
based on the age of the patient.

If a man is 65 or more years old and the cancer does not go beyond
prostate gland, то принимать меры нет смысла. For today
day mortality at this age is quite high and not from
prostate cancer.

Если процесс вышел за пределы prostate gland, то пациенту
no more than three years to live without treatment. All known on
Currently treatment methods can be represented as follows.
in the following way:

  • Targeted therapy and chemotherapy
  • Hormone therapy
  • Brachytherapy, лучевые методики
  • Surgical interventions

Сейчас лечение рака prostate gland является максимально
painless.

Targeted treatment and chemotherapy

The action of drugs is aimed at inhibiting growth
cancer cells. But the action is not specific enough, therefore
affects healthy cells and harms the body.

As an alternative to chemotherapy, scientists have developed a targeted
tumor treatment. In this case, the cancer cells are under attack.
highly specific monoclonal antibodies. This practice allows
minimize the side effect and make treatment much easier
рака prostate gland.

Hormones

Using a certain set of hormones allows you to stop
or seriously slow down the division of cancer cells. This type of treatment
often used as an accompaniment to the surgical, or
radiation therapy, but can be used independently.

Ray methods

Exposure to X-ray and other radioactive radiation
There have always been patient concerns and many side effects.
This is due to the fact that with extensive metastases have
expose not only the tumor, but also nearby tissues and
organs. In the case of a tumor localized in the prostate, this technique
less dangerous, but not appropriate.

In modern medicine, less risky methods have been developed.
treatment:

  • Brachytherapy

It involves inserting through the rectum of a special needle,
through which iodine isotope will be introduced into the prostate. Localization
injection is calculated absolutely accurately. Radioactive action
substances apply only to cancer cells without causing
systemic damage, as in the case of exposure to old methods.

  • Ultrasound therapy

– this is a point effect by the ultrasound on the tumor cells.
Proved that cancer cells are completely destroyed by
high frequencies.

Modern methods of treatment significantly reduce the risk
side effects, and their effectiveness, on the contrary,
getting higher.

Surgical manipulations

Surgical intervention is the easiest and most effective way.
destruction of the tumor in the first stages (A and B according to the classification
Juit-Whitemore). Until the tumor started sprouting beyond
prostate, its really better to remove. There are two types
operations:

  • Prostactomy

In the case of prostatectomy, the prostate gland is removed entirely.
through the cut. This is the most traumatic type of surgical treatment.
prostate cancer.

  • Transurethral resection

Transurethral resection подразумевает частичное удаление
prostate through the urethra. Indications for this kind
the procedure is the impossibility of complete removal of the prostate or
intolerance to operations. Performed by endoscopic method.

The special robot “Da Vinci” is widely used abroad.
Surgical intervention is reduced to small punctures, all
manipulations are performed by a robot, which is controlled by a doctor. From one
On the other hand, this is a non-contact treatment for the doctor, on the other hand
minimally invasive for the patient.

Frequently asked questions from patients

The doctor does not prescribe treatment, but I am shown dynamic
observation. Does this mean that I have an incurable cancer?
will the treatment be ineffective and therefore not prescribed?

No, this type of observation means that the tumor has a slow
growth, and perhaps she does not even show itself. With dynamic
Observation is shown 2 times a year – finger
rectal examination and PSA. Such regular monitoring without
treatment allows time to identify the progression of the tumor and
move from observation to intensive care.

Studies in the United States found that men who do not have cancer
prostate gland and in patients with a slowly growing tumor
(with dynamic observation for 15 years), mortality was
the same.  To determine – who shows the dynamic
observation takes into account the patient’s age and related
diseases.

Dynamic observation is carried out in older people with
предполагаемой продолжительностью жизни не более 10 лет,  при
no signs of tumor progression. It is considered more
appropriate because tumor growth is slow and treatment
Oncology may impair the patient’s somatic status by
next side effects.

However, the choice is always the patient, not everyone can
take a wait and see tactic as this is serious
psychological test leading to depression, deterioration
quality of life. There is also a risk that the tumor will
progress faster than expected and then more
more aggressive treatment, besides the effectiveness of therapy in the late
stages below.

In what cases can treatment be ineffective?

The reasons for the lack of effect of treatment
not well understood today, but certain facts can
promote relapse:

  • stage of oncology before preparation for treatment or surgery
    The process was identified incorrectly due to imperfect methods
    surveys;
  • under dynamic observation, tumor growth was more
    swift, as a result, the tumor has grown beyond the capsule
    prostate;
  • before treatment, cancer cells have already entered
    nearby fabrics, there are currently no methods
    determining the distribution of single pathological cells by
    body;
  • with insensitivity of the tumor cells to standard doses
    irradiation, in situations where areas of the prostate gland are not
    may be exposed or when penetration has occurred
    tumors beyond radiation.
How long after treatment can relapse occur?

It depends on how aggressive the primary was.
опухоль, высокодифференцированные опухоли дают рецидив
slower, poorly differentiated faster, usually relapse
occurs in the first 5 years, but there are cases occurrence of relapse
after treatment after 15 years.

What are the symptoms of recurrent prostate cancer?

First (in the early years) relapse may be asymptomatic,
it used to be that urination difficulties, bone pain,
swollen lymph nodes indicate a relapse, but this
already indicates multiple metastases. Today is about the beginning of relapse
can be recognized by PSA growth. If there are no other manifestations of cancer,
and PSA increases, they talk about biochemical relapse and only
a few years later, such a patient begins to manifest
signs of tumor growth. Therefore, an important condition after
course of therapy is the control of PSA, biopsy, digital rectal
research, MRI, CT, osteoscintigraphy.

Where can a tumor metastasize?

In prostate cancer, metastasis can be local
(регионарные лимфоузлы) и  отдаленные – это любые органы, чаще
in total, these are the femur and humerus, spine, lungs, liver,
brain.

Does biopsy promote tumor progression and
the occurrence of metastases?

There are no grounds for such concerns, biopsy does not affect growth.
tumors, moreover it is the most important component of diagnosis, easy
and safe procedure, credible method of rejecting or
подтверждающий наличие prostate cancer.

Many men sooner or later detect prostate cancer.
glands, it might be advisable to remove the gland before
cancer cells?

The operation can not be a method of prevention, because it
serious intervention with a possible complex of complications such
like impotence and urinary incontinence. In addition, prostate cancer
rather slowly progressing and in many patients it is not
causes death or a sharp deterioration in health,
since the cause of death during this time may be other
diseases.

Can cancer be cured with folk remedies or methods
alternative medicine?

To date, there is not a single national way
or alternative medicine method that can cure it
disease. Moreover, use only any other
treatments and delay the effective therapy proposed
experts, dangerous.   Delayed treatment can
increase the risk of tumor progression and occurrence
metastasis.

How much lifestyle and nutrition affects the risk of developing
cancer?

In countries where traditionally high levels of consumption
refined products and excess animal fats, such as
European countries, Canada, US risk of oncology
much higher than in countries where people eat soy, rice
and seafood. A high-risk cancer association has also been identified.
prostate in obese men, while increasing the risk of not
only oncology, but also hypertension, vascular atherosclerosis of the head
brain diabetes in men.

It should be remembered that the timely diagnosis of cancer
prostate gland – the key to a successful recovery! Therefore, when
any unpleasant sensations do not delay the trip to
urologist.

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