Every year the problem
the formation of kidney stones is increasingly common in modern
urology. The disease is also recognized as a major cause of development.
renal failure. Given the likelihood of a relapse, and
severe disease, doctors recommend to follow closely
for your health. If your right side starts to hurt or appear
other suspicious symptoms, you should immediately contact
Withчины возникновения болезни
medicine still has not identified the specific causes of
kidney stones. Onиболее вероятная теория для объяснения, почему
kidney stones appear, attracts internal and external
ATнутренние факторы могут развиваться в течение долгого времени и
appear without any reason. For reasons why
бывают камни, относятся:
- genetic predisposition;
- increased calcium in the body;
- metabolic disorders in the bones;
- defects in the structure of the urinary system;
- infectious inflammatory processes;
- metabolic disorders of uric acid and purines;
- malfunctions in the parathyroid glands that are responsible for
- diseases of the digestive tract;
- злокачественные diseases.
ATнешние факторы в большей степени зависят от среды обитания
man, as well as his daily habits. Onиболее сильное
- eating large amounts of food containing animal
- long meals with a calorie deficit;
- alcohol or caffeine addiction;
- taking antibiotics, hormones, laxatives or
diuretic drugs without consulting a doctor;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- unsuitable climatic and living conditions;
- some professions.
Since the development of urolithiasis can affect
Many factors, the doctor must determine the causes of kidney stones,
before proceeding to treatment. Onпример, если заболевание связано
with food or drinking habits then needs to be diagnosed
primary nephrolithiasis. It occurs due to an increase in acid in the urine,
excessive absorption of metabolites and decreased filtration in the kidneys.
Pathologies that are accompanied by metabolic disorders,
are a sign of secondary nephrolithiasis.
Permanent health checks as well as preventive
меры помогают предотвратить развитие urolithiasis. Knowing
the main causes of stones and sand, you can timely
take the necessary measures.
ATиды камней в почках
The medical name for kidney stones is calculi. They
classified based on location, size, shape and composition.
Concretions may appear in one or both kidneys. AT
depending on this, they are divided into single and multiple.
The usual places of formation of stones – in the renal pelvis, lower,
middle or upper cup. Formations are small
(usually up to several millimeters). According to the form they may resemble
circle, plate or small triangles.
AT зависимости от состава камни имеют различные характеристики.
They могут включать:
- Inorganic calcium salts. The most common group
concretions. Formed due to slit acid or apatite.
- Magnesium. Typically, such a composition have infectious stones
origin, occur quite often.
- Uric acid salts. Most often found in men
которые потребляют great количества животных белков.
- Protein. ATозникает вследствие нарушения обмена аминокислот.
- Cholesterol. Stones с таким составом слабо заметны на
x-rays that makes them diagnose
Despite the presence of a clear classification, usually the stones have
stone formation can be affected by many factors – the level
urine acidity, type of predisposition, excretion of various
salts, etc. Experts believe that initially stones are formed in
renal pelvis and collecting tubules. On начальной стадии
a nucleus is formed around which crystals appear.
There are several assumptions about the mechanics of education
concretions. However, most medics adhere to
bacterial theory. According to her, nucleation is affected
atypical bacteria that have the ability to produce
calcium carbonate. The theory confirms the fact that these bacteria
found in 96% of all renal masses.
AT некоторых случаях почечно-каменная болезнь может развиваться
asymptomatic. A person learns about the presence of a stone only when he
comes out with urination.
AT остальных случаях понять, что в организме есть проблемы, можно
из-за характерных симптомов камней в почках:
- Renal colic. The most common first sign
urolithiasis, which is accompanied by pain. AT
depending on the location of the calculus, pain may occur in
lumbar region, genitals, lower abdomen, from the inside
hips or navel area.
- Blood in the urine often manifests itself after the onset of renal
colic. Characteristic of her both abundant and minor
highlight. The appearance of blood is due to the fact that particularly acute types
calculus can cause deep damage to soft tissue during
the time of its progress through the ureters.
- Problem urination may occur at the stage of passage
stone through the bladder. The symptom is characterized by frequent urge to
urination or difficulty urinating. If stone
block the exit to the urethra, the person does not
can empty the bladder. As a result, may develop
violation of urine outflow, which causes inflammation
kidney process. With complications, body temperature can rise.
to 40 ° C, which will lead to dehydration and deterioration of the overall
- Recurring acute pain in the lumbar region – the main symptom
the appearance of small stones in the renal pelvis. Pains are manifested due to
acute obstruction of the urinary tract.
- Inflammation of the renal canals occurs after prolonged
staying of the disease in the latent phase. By the time the obvious
signs of stone can reach the size of the cup-pelvis
cavity, completely filling it.
Men and people with genetic
predisposition Women are more severe
diseases when the size of the education may take most
urinary tract cavity.
Regardless of the nature and course of the disease before treatment
should conduct a medical diagnosis.
Она включает в себя ряд мероприятий:
- general information collection:
data on past diseases, the course of the disease, living conditions
- laboratory tests to determine the level
calcium, uric acid, oxalate and phosphate in the blood, as well as
the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the urine;
- Ultrasound of the kidneys and urinary system;
- x-ray of the kidneys.
If necessary, the doctor may prescribe additional
examinations such as MRI or computed tomography of the kidneys. Even
if the calculus independently went outside, should be held
study of its chemical structure. The information received may
help the anesthesiologist, therapist and other specialists in
Non-surgical treatment is intended to correct the abnormalities due to
which formed the stones. Therapy may include special
diet, medication, phyto and physiotherapy, rest in
sanatoriums. A conservative treatment option is not suitable for
to neutralize the acute form of the disease, it rather serves as prevention
stone formation or postoperative therapy.
When drafting a diet after removing the blockage,
features of the composition of stones and features of violations in the work
urinary system. Diet food should be
as diverse as possible but limit consumption
harmful and stone-forming food, especially with a high content
protein and potassium. Water balance needed, allowed
drink purified water, sour fruit drinks and mineral water.
The inclusion of physiotherapy in the treatment program helps to establish
metabolism, relax the muscles of the urinary system and eliminate
inflammatory process. Usually physiotherapy is used to
accelerate the removal of fine particles of calculus, as well as facilitate
renal colic. Within the framework of therapy, exposure is applied.
ultrasound, laser and various types of pulsed current.
Procedures must be carried out under strict supervision.
After receiving the diagnostic results, the urologist may prescribe
drug treatment. Medication проводится курсами. On
throughout the treatment the patient must be regularly
be examined to detect adverse reactions and evaluate
destructive stones, painkillers and antispasmodic drugs. With
bacterial origin of the disease are prescribed antibacterial
drugs – antiplatelet agents, angioprotectors and herbal remedies
After removal of calculi surgically or naturally
It is recommended to take a course of taking special drugs.
The duration of the course is determined individually depending on
test results and the general condition of the patient.
Often, conservative treatment of the disease is based on
taking medication. For prophylactic purposes developed
many drugs, most of which are herbal
fees. They contribute to the dissolution or removal of third-party
objects from the kidneys. Среди наиболее популярных:
- Canephron H is a plant-based complex drug.
Withменяется при большинстве патологий.
- Cyston – a universal remedy intended for the treatment
all types of stones.
- Blemarin, Uralite U – drugs aimed at dissolving
stones and the resumption of the alkaline environment of urine.
- Fitolizin, Fitolit – means on the basis of vegetable
extracts. They help to quickly remove small stones and do not give
grow and appear new stones.
Given the diuretic effect of drugs, it is recommended to consume
great amount of water. This will help maintain water balance,
which is also important for kidney health.
Therapeutic effect of herbs
Unlike other options for conservative treatment,
medicinal herbs to eliminate the disease has no temporary
restrictions. In addition, side reactions are practically absent,
with the exception of cases of allergy to certain plants. AT
As an active ingredient, special herbs are used.
fees or purchased herbal remedies prepared on the basis of medical
Травы запрещено подбирать самостоятельно, так
How the choice depends on the chemical composition of the kidney stone. With
properly assigned treatment there is a chance that the stone
self dissolve and come out. Herbal preparations are also
have the ability to restore the function of the kidneys after suffering
Rest in a sanatorium
A visit to the resort is recommended as if a stone is found.
in the body, and after its removal. However, if the size
education exceeds 5 mm, it is better to wait until it is removed.
AT случае уратных, оксалатных и цистиновых камней отдаётся
preference to sanatoria with alkaline mineral waters. Stones
phosphate origin are treated with acidic mineral waters,
which can be found in the mountains.
AT современной урологии наиболее действенным способом удаления
stones, reaching 5 mm or more, is considered crushing and
removing them from the kidneys. Unfortunately, this technique does not eliminate
the cause of the stones. Often after successful
Surgery occurs re-stone formation.
Конкремент можно удалить дистанционно, используя
ударно-волновую методику. To achieve the necessary
result, you must use a lithotripter. After setting
the device for the individual characteristics of the ultrasonic wave
painlessly penetrate the soft tissue to shatter
solid foreign body. After the impact of the device shards of stone
easy to come out with the next urination.
The remote way to remove stones is effective and
a painless remedy to quickly achieve therapeutic
effect. It is also recommended to take a course of medication for
fixing the result.
More modern way to remove calculus – laser
splitting up. It can be used in pathologies of various sizes.
and character. The procedure may not seem the most pleasant, because for
Feeding the laser must enter the nephroscope into the urethra. After
the impact of the beam calculus turns into sand, which
almost imperceptibly excreted in the urine. Laser treatment is possible.
even in extremely difficult cases.
Contact removal of calculus
for any reason, remote crushing or medicamentous
splitting impossible, transurethral used
urethrenoscopy. Onзначается для удаления небольших образований в
kidney, ureter, urethra or urinary
The procedure does not require hospitalization, so
the patient will be able to go home immediately. To get to
камня, в мочеточник вводится уретроскоп, который
crushes or sucks the foreign body. Despite the simplicity
procedures in case of a doctor’s mistake the ureter can be injured.
Therefore, you should take seriously the preparation.
Nephrolitolapaxia has a similar technique. However her
often used when necessary to remove the stone extremely
large sizes. For this, a special apparatus is used –
nephroscope, which is inserted into the lumbar region. In order to get there
before the kidney, you have to make a cut. It is through him and introduced
nephroscope, as well as the necessary tools for grinding and
Surgical removal of calculus is extremely rare and
strictly prescribed by a doctor. It is necessary to understand that carrying
operations are assigned in particularly difficult cases, as it may have
many unpleasant consequences.
The main reason for performing surgical removal is
the formation of especially large stones, which leads to blockage
ureters. An operation may be prescribed for pyelonephritis, which
was the result of ineffective treatment of urolithiasis
Only an experienced person can tell how to treat kidney stones.
specialist. ATыбранная методика лечения способна избавить организм
from stones, but only with an integrated approach, the patient will be able to
защитить себя от рецидивов diseases.
After успешного выздоровления рекомендуется продолжить приём
herbal remedies, as well as regularly undergo examinations to
prevent the appearance of new stones. Withём травяных сборов поможет
quickly restore the body after severe stress.