Why did the white spots on the nails of the arms, legs,what does it mean how to get rid

Update: October 2018

White spots on the nails of the hands, called in medicine leukonychia,
refer to pathological changes of the nail plate.

What does white spots on nails mean? A characteristic feature of leukonichia –
white spots on the nail plate in the form of dots, strips or
large areas of various shapes, sizes and locations.

Leikonichia is widespread, but not many
treat the disease seriously, considering the problem purely
cosmetic. Behind the white spots on the finger nails can stand
somatic and infectious diseases, so the symptom should not
remain without attention.

Почему на ногтях появились белые пятна – этим вопросом чаще
women are more prone to this symptom. Whites
stains on the nail plate in a child with a probability of 80% speak about
hypovitaminosis, the remaining 20% ​​is occupied by nail “rodents”.

Causes of white spots on the nails

The main cause of white spots – a violation of the act of keratinization
nail (keratinization). What does it mean: between the layers of the nail plate
microscopic air layers are formed that replace fat
and water present there in good condition. Airy
interlayers and look like white spots, no pigment white
there is no color in the nail.

A violation of keratisation occurs due to the causes of exogenous and
endogenous nature:

External causes

Internal causes

  • Injury of the nail plate (blows, pinching finger)
  • Wrong manicure, damage when removing the cuticle,
    nail extension, sticking artificial
  • Constant contact with household and industrial
    chemistry
  • Bad habit biting nails
  • Wearing tight shoes, with a narrow spout (white spots on the nails
    feet)
  • The use of low-quality varnishes
  • Using acetone and other solvents instead of liquids
    nail polish remover
  • Abuse of rigid diets with significant limitations
    nutrients and trace elements (especially zinc, iron and calcium).
    Malnutrition
  • Metabolic disease
  • Anorexia
  • Hypovitaminosis (especially A and C)
  • Dysbacteriosis
  • Hepatitis, cirrhosis
  • Enteritis, colitis
  • Anemia
  • Heart failure
  • Chronic renal failure
  • Depression, nervous exhaustion
  • Fungal infection

If white spots are found under the nails, i.e. on grown
parts, in most cases it is the result of damage or
the consequence of brittle nails.

Classification leukonychia

According to the prevalence of leukonychia classified:

  • Limited due to partial violation
    keratinization of the nail. As a rule, 1-2 nails are affected.
  • Total, exciting entire nail or all nails
    at the same time.

The shape of the spots are distinguished:

  • Dot leukonychia in the form of white dots, small or large,
    multiple and single.
  • Striped in the form of white stripes with a horizontal or
    vertical arrangement on the nail plate.

Characteristics of leukonichia, depending on the reasons
caused

  • Nail injuries – pinpoints, rarely strip-shaped, with chaotic
    location Nail is limited
  • Depression, nervous exhaustion — большое белое пятно в центре
    the nail. Disappears as it grows back.
  • Alimentary factors (starvation, diet, unbalanced
    food) – paired white stripes with a transverse arrangement
  • Seasonal hypovitaminosis (spring) – single white spots
  • Prolonged vitamin deficiencies – multiple white spots,
    concomitant fatigue, dry skin, hyperkeratosis
  • CKD – ​​extensive white spots on the bottom of the nail plate,
    the top has a healthy color
  • Diseases of the CAS – white spots on the nail plate, which
    has a bluish tint
  • Diseases of the digestive system – total damage
    nails, often and on feet
  • Fungus – white spots on a limited area of ​​the nail, yellowing
    and softening of the plate, thickening, delamination, unpleasant smell
    от пораженного the nail. When spreading process is affected
    several nails.

 Diagnosis of leukonychia

In China, inspection of the condition of the nails is mandatory
doctor’s examination, such as we have blood pressure measurement,
because doctors connect the energy channels of the fingers with
internal organs. A healthy person has correct nails.
forms, smooth, smooth, frosted or slightly shiny nail
plates.

Change in the normal state of the nails in the absence of exogenous
reasons suggests an internal pathology, the limitation of which is not
more than six months – it is during this period that it fully grows
nail.

The diagnosis of leukonichia is carried out by a dermatologist, for this
usually carried out:

  • trace element analysis
  • scraping for mushrooms

If necessary, he will refer to other narrow specialists
(cardiologist, neurologist, etc.). Whites пятна (лейконихию)
differentiate from:

  • Stripe Meya – poisoning with thallium or arsenic (strips
    white and blue color 5mm, located across)
  • Onychomycosis is a nail fungus that is characterized by
    deformity, ingrown nail, “bird nail”, a change in its color,
    plate thickening, crumbling or delamination the nail.

Treatment leukonychia – how to get rid of white spots

The treatment of leukonichia is based on the elimination or therapy.
the cause of the symptom. The entire therapeutic complex can
divided into general measures recommended in case of leukonychia
etiology, internal treatment and external methods.

General events

  • elimination of stressful situations;
  • establishment of a diet with the enrichment of the diet with protein,
    vitamins and minerals. Useful dairy products, green
    vegetables and fruits;
  • normalization of work and rest;
  • reception of balanced vitamin and mineral complexes.

Internal treatment

If the cause of leukonychia is somatic pathology, without
treatment of the underlying disease is indispensable. In this case, white
stains on the nails are a fraction of what can lead to
disease. Do not neglect the appointments of doctors!

When a fungal infection is detected, a systemic or
local (more often) antifungal treatment for a long period
time with obligatory laboratory control.

Outdoor ways

Applicable with leukonichia exogenous nature. First of all,
the root cause of white spots is eliminated.

  • To correct a cosmetic defect, you can contact the salon
    beauty. Local treatment may be offered with
    professional tools, hand massage, improving
    circulation.
  • At the time of treatment should refuse from manicure and decorative
    cover, and the more you can not grow nails.
  • Trays with sea salt. Add 1 to 1 liter of hot water.
    tsp sea ​​salt. Take a bath for 10-15 minutes.
  • Baths with decoction of oak and chamomile bark (1 tablespoon of raw materials per 1 liter
    water). Performs healing and antiseptic function, shown
    at microdamages. Take a warm bath for 10-15 minutes.
  • Oil solution of vitamins A and E (Aevit). Capsule with vitamins
    pierce and rub oil into the nail plate. Repeat each
    day.
  • Fish fat. Rubbed into the affected nail, you can repeat
    daily.
  • Olive oil and lemon juice. Rub heated mixture
    olive oil and juice (1: 1) in the nail plate, repeat 2-3
    times a week.
  • Home “lacquer” from a mixture of iodine tincture, olive oil and
    Aevita: 60 ml of oil take 5 drops of iodine tincture and 5 capsules
    Aevita. All stirred and brush applied to the nails before bedtime.
    daily.

Prevention leukonychia

Prevention leukonychia эндогенного происхождения в обязательном
procedure includes routine checkups and
timely appeal to doctors in the presence of complaints
health.

Prevention of fungal leukonychia is a strict
personal hygiene, especially when visiting baths,
saunas, swimming pools, use of personal towels, regular washing
hands, and if you can not wash – hands treatment with liquid
antiseptics or antiseptic wipes.

Prevention leukonychia экзогенного происхождения заключается в
elementary activities that allow your nails to keep
healthy appearance:

  • Proper manicure and pedicure without nail damage
    plates.
  • Use of high-quality varnishes and liquids for removal
    varnish.
  • Use rubber gloves when handling chemicals.
  • Wear commensurate footwear.
  • Fighting the habit of biting your nails is not only disfiguring the nail,
    but also a risk factor for intestinal infections and helminths
    invasions.

Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог

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