Update: October 2018
Tick-borne encephalitis is an infectious disease caused by
tick-borne encephalitis virus and manifested damage to the central
and peripheral nervous system.
It should be understood that an encephalitic tick is not some kind of
a certain type of tick (ticks about 30 thousand species,
encephalitis can be only 5 thousand), and the tick infected
erbovirus causing encephalitis in humans.
Moreover, encephalitis can be infected by using
raw milk from cows, sheep, most often goats – because in milk
This virus may be contained during a mass tick attack
Symptoms of tick-borne encephalitis
The first symptoms of tick-borne
encephalitis develop in 1-2 weeks after the bite and
manifestations resemble a cold. These include fever,
headache, muscle pain, aching joints. Symptoms
persist for a week. After which most patients
Approximately every third patient develops more severe
encephalitis form, which is accompanied by:
- persistent temperature rise to high numbers
- unbearable headaches
- neck pain
- vomiting and lethargy
If such symptoms occur, you must immediately
обратиться к to the doctor. In severe cases, encephalitis leads to
irreversible damage in the form of paralysis or death of the patient.
Every year around 10-12 thousand are registered in the world.
случаев tick-borne encephalitis. Highest frequency
incidence is noted in the Baltic countries, Slovenia and Russia.
On the territory of the Russian Federation, the incidence is 2.5 per
100 thousand population, but in some endemic areas (north,
northwest), this index increases by more than 5 times.
The increasing danger of tick-borne encephalitis is due to
the occurrence of incidence cases in areas not previously considered
endemic (Scandinavia, Switzerland, Germany).
The source of the virus are more than 100 species of animals, including
foxes, voles, deer, dogs, monkeys and horses. Exists
probability of tick-borne encephalitis virus penetration
infected cows in milk. When used unpasteurized
milk infection occurs in humans alimentary way.
The disease is characterized by two periods of increased
incidence: May-June and August-September. Immunization of the population
It is planned based on the given time frame.
Endemic regions of tick-borne encephalitis
are rural areas of Russia, Central and Eastern Europe and
Japan. Tick-borne encephalitis vaccination is recommended.
residents of these regions, as well as tourists and tourists traveling to these areas
the worker. The risk of tick-borne encephalitis increases during
high activity of ticks (from April to October).
In these areas, tick-borne encephalitis is
serious economic problem due to the need for long
treatment of neurological complications. Use of vaccination in countries
Europe for ten years allowed to reduce economic losses
at 80 million dollars.
Two vaccines are most common in Russia:
�”Tick-E-Vac” and “Tick-borne encephalitis vaccine”. This drugs
domestic production containing inactivated virus.
Vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis with these drugs is not
can cause disease. After vaccination, the human body
produces specific antibodies to the introduced virus,
providing immunization to this type of pathogens.
Exists две схемы иммунизации: двух- и трехкомпонентная.
Both provide the production of the required amount of antibodies to
virus, but differ in the duration of maintaining their concentration
at the required level.
Two component scheme
The first dose of vaccine should be administered in 1-3
months before the start of the season of increased morbidity. Two stage
vaccination scheme is as follows:
- 1-3 months before high risk of tick-borne encephalitis
- 1-7 months after the first dose.
The best effect is provided by immunization planning.
Thus, the second injection was carried out 1 month before
intended trip or before the season. Revaccination should
be made after 1 year, and then every 5 years. However,
according to studies, a sufficient concentration of antibodies in
The body persists for 6-8 years.
The vaccine is injected intramuscularly in the upper third of the shoulder. Graft
from tick-borne encephalitis may not be effective enough
people with congenital or acquired immunodeficiency. To this group
include patients undergoing or receiving immunosuppressants
(chemotherapy, high doses of corticosteroids, immunosuppressive
drugs), patients with HIV / AIDS (see symptoms of HIV infection,
AIDS dissidents), with congenital anomalies of immune function
The introduction of the vaccine in a three-component scheme is
in the following way:
- Day the first dose is indicated as day “0”;
- The second dose is administered 1-3 months after the first;
- The introduction of the third dose of the vaccine is carried out in 5-12 months
after the second.
Other features of vaccination
Subsequent supportive vaccinations in both cases.
produced every three years while maintaining risk factors
diseases. If a person changes his place of work or residence,
no need for immunization.
Vaccination for children from 3 to 15 years old is made in a reduced
dosage – ½ of the adult dose. Vaccine can be administered simultaneously.
with other vaccines. Precautions include carrying
injecting different vaccines into different places and using different
syringes. Maximum immunization is observed one week after
the introduction of the second dose.
In this case, the doctor must determine the level of antibodies in the blood.
after the introduction of the second dose and decide on the issue
additional supportive vaccination. Be sure to put
the doctor is informed of the vaccinations received earlier from the Japanese
encephalitis, yellow fever or dengue fever. The presence of antibodies to
causative agents of these diseases may affect the assessment
results of a control immunological study.
Vaccination, carried out after the tick bite, is
ineffective. In this case, for the prevention of disease
The administration of a specific immunoglobulin is recommended.
Average cost of vaccination
Regarding the cost of vaccination – the cost of a single dose of vaccine
is 400-500 rubles for drugs manufactured in Russia and
1000 – 1500 – for foreign ones. It is also worth considering that this is the price.
only one vaccination, but it takes 2 or 3 doses of the vaccine according to the scheme.
As a rule, special offers are provided in each clinic.
and discounts when ordering a collective immunization. Despite the difference in
cost, efficacy of domestic and European vaccines
stays approximately on the same level.
Indications for vaccination
Who shows tick-borne encephalitis vaccine first of all?
Vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis is carried out:
- Persons traveling to endemic areas with a humid climate
and forest landscape, especially in spring and summer, when
tick activity increases;
- People who are fond of hiking, hunting and working in areas
endemic for the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis;
- Environmental workers, logging workers, farmers and
military, operating in endemic regions.
It is desirable that immunization be completed in more than a month.
before the intended departure to the region. In this case, provided
reliable protection against all strains of the virus.
Before the start of immunization necessarily taken into account
- Confirmed anaphylactic reaction after the previous
administering the vaccine or one of its components;
- Severe allergies to eggs or chicken meat (anaphylactic
- Allergy to formaldehyde, neomycin, gentamicin and protamine
- Acute inflammatory diseases (vaccination is delayed until
Vaccination for children under 1 year is not made. With the development of any
allergy manifestations after vaccination be sure to refer to
to the doctor.
- Pregnancy and breastfeeding are not contraindications.
for vaccination, however, be sure to inform the doctor about
that you are pregnant or are planning a pregnancy.
- There is currently no reliable hit information.
vaccine components in breast milk. Put a vaccine nursing
mothers are only possible when the intended benefits of
immunization will exceed the potential risk to the child.
- Some people have increased after the first vaccination.
temperature Usually this symptom develops within 12 hours.
after an injection and passes independently in 24-48 hours.
The effectiveness of vaccination is 99%. According to statistical
data, after the introduction of the practice of vaccination incidence
tick-borne encephalitis decreased by 90%.
Adverse effects of vaccination in the form of side effects
more likely in patients with:
- Mild egg allergy
- Latex allergy
- Autoimmune Diseases (Rheumatoid Arthritis, Scattered
- Neurological disorders
Possible adverse reactions after tick-borne vaccination
- Soreness at the injection site
- Fever, usually in children under 3 years
- Loss of appetite (in children)
- Excitement and insomnia (in children)
- Nausea and vomiting, diarrhea
- Muscle or joint pain, cramps
- Fatigue, feeling tired
- General malaise, increased heart rate
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Itching and tightening of the skin at the injection site, skin rashes
Read more about the effects of vaccinations.
Far from each patient develops the above
complications after vaccination. Studies have shown that new forms
Vaccines are fairly safe.
At the same time, some side effects have been observed quite
often. Transient redness and soreness at the injection site
were noted in 45%, and fever – in 5-6%. Symptoms had transient
character and did not represent threats to health.
Immunization provides the most effective protection against
tick-borne encephalitis. Vaccines used in Russia are safe and
shown for use by people from the age of three.
After their use, a strong immunity develops, providing
protection against most types of tick-borne encephalitis virus,
characteristic of Asia and Europe.
Before the start of mass immunization in each
The region needs a thorough assessment of the number of cases.
incidence among the population. With a low risk of morbidity
vaccination is considered inappropriate. Consider
vaccination is necessary if the incidence in the region is from
5 cases per 100 thousand population.
In areas with increased risk, vaccination should be included in
national immunization program. In other cases, vaccination
held individually by people planning a trip to
endemic area or shift workers.
Автор: Коробов Никита Александрович врач-анестезиолог