What to do when eye burns by welding orchemical burn

Update: October 2018 The eyes are the most vulnerable spot of our body.
They consist of a large number of parts, each of which
performs an important function. It is enough to damage one of them to
man partially or completely lost the ability to see. With
minor injuries, the process is temporary, and the severity
The vision returns after adequate treatment. However, with strong
damage to the eye may be irreversible.

The most common injury to this organ is a burn.
received during the work of the gas-welding device. Electric arc
releases so much energy that it divides into
two parts. The first forms a thermal (thermal) wave, which
directly melts metal. The second – creates a strong
ultraviolet radiation. Eye burn after welding can be obtained.
because of both these influences.

Eye structure

To understand why you can not stay with the first
help with eye burns and how dangerous they are, you need to know the approximate
body structure. Its structures are arranged in series. Their
can be divided into refractive and perceiving
picture. The latter includes only the retina.

We list the main parts, starting with the most superficial:

  1. Conjunctiva – a thin protein shell that covers the eye;
  2. The cornea is the first structure that refracts light;
  3. The iris is an important part, consisting of muscle, connective
    tissue and pigment cells that give a certain color to the eye.
    Regulates the process of dilation / contraction of the pupil;
  4. The lens – the structure of the eye in the form of a biconvex lens,
    which focuses the light;
  5. The sclera is the largest envelope of the eye, performs protective and
    refracting function;
  6. Retina – perceives the light and gives rise to the visual
    nerve.

With повреждении одной из этих структур, глаз не может нормально
perform its function. The most severe consequences are burns.
retina, as this part consists entirely of nerve endings and
responsible for the perception of light.

What can burn your eyes when welding

Depending on the cause of the appearance, there are two types of burns.
welding eye:ожог глаз сваркой

  1. Thermal – it develops when very hot
    substances or liquids on one of the parts of the eye. Damage organ
    of vision can be flying dross, splashes of hot metals,
    scalding steam (using hot dip galvanizing technology,
    сварке горячим воздухом etc.);
  2. Ultraviolet burn (radiation) – this injury may not get
    only a welder, but also a regular passer-by who looked at
    electric arc. Ultraviolet usually only damages
    the surface of the eye, so it is considered less dangerous.

First aid and treatment differ significantly with different
eye damage, so it is important to determine the type of burn.
This can be done with the help of simple signs that will
described below.

Chemical eye burn

This type of damage is much more dangerous than dross
or exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Eye burn chemicals
shows the same symptoms as after welding. However there is
One important difference is that 85% of the damage is deep.
and irreversible.

Withнципиально химические ожоги разделяют на кислотные и
alkaline.

Alkaline burn

Typical representatives of alkalis are soda, lime, solutions.
ammonia cleaning products. They are in the life of any person, and
extremely dangerous in contact with eyes. The fact is that alkali is entering
in chemical reactions with conjunctiva, cornea and sclera,
rapidly destroy them. Therefore, a chemical burn of the mucous eyes
quickly becomes deep and damages all structures, right down to
retina.

It is rather difficult to remove alkali from tissues, therefore it is important that
first aid was provided as early as possible.

Acid burn

It proceeds more easily than alkali damage. With попадании кислоты,
most often damaged surface structures of the eye. During
chemical reaction produces a lot of protein from the destroyed mucous,
which detains acid on the way to the retina. Therefore, when
timely assistance provided, visual function succeeds
save.

In everyday life, the most commonly used are the following acids:

  • Potassium permanganate (synonym – potassium permanganate) – exists
    additional sign that will help determine the lesion
    manganese. With этом, слизистая окрашивает в буро-коричневый
    Colour;
  • Vinegar;
  • Nitric acid – is part of almost all solutions,
    for cleaning metals;
  • Formaldehyde is a typical component of a nail polish remover;
  • Lemon acid;
  • Boric acid.

Eye burn symptoms

Regardless of the cause of the burn (ultraviolet, scale, acid
etc.), поражение глаз проявляется практически одинаковыми
symptoms. These include:

  • Pronounced lacrimation;
  • Pain in the eyes;
  • Decreased visual acuity;
  • Increased sensitivity to light (or even
    photophobia);
  • Redness of the eyes, due to the appearance of a vascular pattern on
    sclera;
  • The feeling of “sand in the eyes” – the patient always wants to wipe
    eyes or wash them with cold water. This symptom is strongly pronounced. at
    corneal burns by welding;
  • Blepharospasm – uncontrolled squeezing of the affected
    eyes.

With попадании горячих предметов (окалин, пара etc.) могут
additionally burn the eyelids, which is manifested by their redness,
swelling and blistering. Strong or long lasting
воздействие высоких температур может atводить даже к некрозу
(death) century. This greatly complicates the treatment of burns.

Retinal Burn Symptoms

Severe UV or chemical burn
веществом может atвести к повреждению глубоких структур глаза –
retina. This is one of the most severe injuries
irreversible reduction in vision or blindness. In the acute period of the disease
(after 4-6 hours from contact with ultraviolet) may additionally
be observed:

  • Покраснение conjunctiva;
  • Pain in the eyes;
  • Blepharospasm;
  • Photophobia.

After a few days, most of the symptoms disappear, however
myopia / blindness remain forever.

Conservative treatment helps slow the damage process.
however, the eye’s function can only be restored by surgical methods.
(retinal transplantation).

How to determine the type of burn

Eye burn symptoms at различных видах очень похожи, а
provide first aid and they should be treated in different ways. how
do in this situation? Существуют специальные atзнаки, по
которым достаточно легко определить настоящую atчину ожога. For
it is necessary to carefully ask and examine the patient
to detect differences.

Отличительный atзнак Thermal burn UV Burn
Time of onset of symptoms Immediately after the hot substance enters the eye area No less than 4 hours
howие части глаз поражаются? Most often, one of these structures is affected:

  • Eyelids;
  • Conjunctiva;
  • Cornea.

how правило, ультрафиолет от сварки повреждает все части глаза
(except the retina) at the same time.

With сильном воздействии, ожог может затрагивать даже
the retina.

Severity of symptoms Depends on the amount of hot substance in the eye and
the duration of its impact. The following degrees are distinguished.
lesions:

  • Light – symptoms slightly reduce quality of life.
    the patient;
  • Moderate – normal patient activity is difficult ;;
  • Heavy – accompanied by death or irreversible
    повреждением части eyes.

Most often, ultraviolet burn slightly affects
eye structure, so the symptoms are mild.

Исключением является ожог retina. With этой патологии все
symptoms manifest in full force.

Duration of symptoms From a few days to the end of the patient’s life Symptoms diminish after a few hours (except for a burn
retina)

Диагностику ожогов глаз at сварке  проводят на основе
жалоб пациента и вышеперечисленных atзнаков. Laboratory and
инструментальные способы, как правило, не имеют atнципиального
values.

Первая помощь at ожоге глаз сваркой

Что делать at термическом ожоге?

If the burn is associated with the ingress of hot substance into the eye (scale,
пара etc.) следует выполнить следующие действия:

  1. Remove the visible parts of a foreign substance (a piece of metal,
    пластмассы или любой другой atчины ожога);
  2. Rinse thoroughly with affected water.
    eye. For этой цели удобно использовать большой шatц на 20-50 мл.
    Больному следует немного atоткрыть веко и в течение 5-15 минут
    irrigate the conjunctiva abundantly;
  3. If possible, the patient should be given one of the following
    drugs: Dimedrol, Nimesulide, Ketorol, Ibuprofen, Analgin. how
    they can usually be found in any first-aid kit or women’s handbag. These
    medications will somewhat reduce pain and inflammation;
  4. Put on the affected eye aseptic bandage or cold
    compress;
  5. Call the brigade SMP (ambulance).

Paramedic / doctor in an ambulance will have the victim qualified
help and decide if the patient should be hospitalized or he can
to be cured on an outpatient basis.

Что делать at ожоге ультрафиолетом?

Лечение ожога глаз at сварке должно начинаться с оказания
first aid. After exposure to ultraviolet light, you must:

  1. Remove the ultraviolet light source (electric arc,
    кварцевую лампу etc.), если это не было сделано ранее;
  2. Maximum load on the affected eye – put
    injured in a dark room, exclude exposure to bright
    light, to recommend the patient to keep his eyes closed for
    30-60 minutes;
  3. Apply an aseptic dressing;
  4. Обезболить пациента любыми подручными средствами: atложить
    холод на 5-10 минут, atнять НПВСы (Кеторол, Анальгин, Парацетамол,
    Цитрамон etc.), закапать капли с анестетиком (Лидокаин,
    Tetracaine);
  5. If there is diphenhydramine – should give the patient 2 tablets. This
    the drug slightly inhibits damage to the eye tissue and improves
    forecast;
  6. Turn to an ophthalmologist or call the brigade of the SMP.

The correct treatment indicator is a significant decrease.
symptoms within a few hours. If this does not happen, then
therapy should be reviewed and an eye checked for damage
retina.

Первая помощь at химических ожогах

  1. Flush eyes with distilled (purified) water for
    30 minutes It is recommended to use for this a large syringe.
    Continue until clean wash water is obtained;
  2. Call an ambulance – the faster the SMP team arrives, the
    higher chances of a favorable outcome of the burn;
  3. For eyelids, you must lay a special disinfectant ointment,
    as a rule, use 1% of chloramphenicol;
  4. Apply an aseptic dressing to the eye.

First aid for eye burns should be provided in
3-5 minutes for optimal effect.

What can not be done with eye burns

  • Wipe the eye with dry objects (clothes, towels,
    napkins, etc.) or own hand;
  • Apply hot lotions / items on the eyes;
  • Continue working with the source of the burn (gas welding machine,
    ultraviolet lamps, hot steam, etc.);
  • Flush eyes with dirty water (river, tap, etc.) – in
    it contains a large number of microbes and harmful impurities,
    which may cause infection or increase damage
    eyes;
  • Do not bury Sulfacetamide, Albucid, Sulfacyl-sodium and
    other drops containing irritants and antiseptics.
    Special treatment should be carried out only after consulting with
    a doctor

Eye treatment for burns

After first aid, you should see a doctor
which will determine – what to do when an eye burns by welding or
chemicals further. For surface damage, as
It is usually sufficient to use eye drops and “visual
rest “- the exclusion of bright light, the tension of the eyes when looking into the distance
etc. This will help reduce discomfort and reduce pain.
sensations.

In the composition of the eye drops when burned eyes welding should
there are several components present – an antibiotic and
anti-inflammatory agent (hormone glucocorticosteroid). Exactly
Such a combination of drugs is in the drugs Maxitrol, Sofradex and
Combined Duo. If you can not buy them, you can
use two drugs at the same time:

Antibiotic for eyes

  • Ciprofloxacin;
  • Tsipromed;
  • Tobramycin.

Anti-inflammatory agent (in the form of eye drops)

  • Dexamethasone;
  • Dexamethasonlong;
  • Dexapos.

With severe pain, it is possible to use anesthetics, in the form of
drops: Leocaine 0.3%; Dicain 0.3%, Alcain. However not worth it
take them more often than in the designated scheme. Otherwise, they
may irritate the affected eye and slow it down.
healing.

Deep damage (retinal burn) can be cured only
operation. To reduce inflammation using eye
Diphenhydramine or Chloropyramine drops, however these drugs are not
help restore vision.

Eye burn effects

With timely treatment of superficial burns, they do not have
any consequences in the future. The eye recovers within
several weeks and acute reactions (pain, redness, feeling
�”Sand”) subside within a few days. To speed up
regeneration, you can use Etaden drops or Etadex-MEZ,
which stimulate the metabolism in the corneal tissue and
conjunctiva

After damage to the retina, as a rule, the patient begins
irreversible decline in vision. The consequences of such an eye burn –
blindness, reduced quality of life and loss of professional
suitability (for part of specializations). Eliminate all these phenomena
You can use the operation, which is carried out in the regional
ophthalmological centers – retinal transplantation. Modern
technology allows a person to return sight for a few weeks
hospitalization.

Unfortunately, such medical care is practically not
funded by the state, so the patient has to be treated for
your account.

Prevention of eye burn

In order to prevent eye burns, it is enough
following a few simple rules:

  • Work with ultraviolet light and red hot
    items exclusively in a protective mask;
  • Do not look at the work of the gas welding apparatus included
    кварцевых ламп etc.;
  • Wash hands thoroughly after contact with any acids or
    alkalis – an effective and easy way to prevent chemical
    corneal burns.

Frequently asked questions from patients

Вопрос: Можно ли промывать глаза кислотой at
alkali burn and vice versa?

Not. Currently, it is strictly prohibited. Practically
It’s impossible to calculate how much a single substance is needed for
neutralize the other. If you use too much –
eye damage will intensify. If not enough – chemical burn
will continue.

Вопрос: howие есть народные средства для лечения
chemical eye burn?

In the acute period, therapy should be carried out exclusively
medication. After the disappearance of the inflammatory
Phenomena may be instilled into the eyes of aloe tea or juice.

Вопрос: Что делать, если обжог глаза маленький
child? What are the consequences?

The tactic in this case is the same – to call an ambulance and before arrival
rinse the damaged eye thoroughly with distilled water (if
chemical or thermal burn). The consequences depend on the depth
lesions – with superficial burns, the eye can completely
restore its function. With retinal damage most likely
need an operation.

Вопрос: Можно ли обжечь глаза раствором для линз?
What is a burn?

Some lenses contain hydrogen peroxide.
2О2). With неправильном их использовании
You can get a chemical eye burn with acid.

Автор: Кривега Мария Салаватовна врач-реаниматолог

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