Update: October 2018
A burn is an acute injury to the skin and underlying tissues. Burns
there are different: thermal, electrical, chemical, radiation.
Most often at home there is a burn with boiling water. Heaviness
tissue damage from burns with boiling water depends on its location.
The easiest way to get burned hands with boiling water, inadvertently spilling only
that boiled water. It’s harder to get a burn on your face, neck,
inside of the shoulder and thighs, but in these areas the lesion will be
deeper even with short exposure to hot
Burn legs (especially in the foot), back less often
deep, heal faster. Face burn is life threatening because
such damage is often combined with damage to the eyes, cavities
mouth, respiratory tract.
Depth of damage
How to know what depth burn was the result
the effects of boiling water when you need to see a doctor and in what
can you handle yourself? For this you need to determine
degree of burn and area of damage.
|1 degree burn||Only the superficial epithelium of the skin is affected;
redness, slight swelling of the lesion site, soreness.
It passes on its own within a few days.
|2 degree burn||The superficial epithelium and the deeper part of the skin are affected.
(partially). Initially, there is redness, swelling, then formed
bubbles with a thin wall. The lesion site is painful, heals
alone for 10–12 days if the infection is not
joins, no scarring
|3 degree burn||All skin and underlying tissues are affected.
|4 degree burn||Occurs with prolonged exposure to boiling water on the skin with a small
thick subcutaneous fat layer. There is a black scab,
With burns of 1 degree and a small area of damage (1 degree –
less than half of the palm) no need to go to the doctor
required, only at will. When a burn of 2 degrees,
especially when infected and increasing inflammation to the doctor
need to contact immediately. Burns 3 и 4 степени требуют
immediate treatment to the hospital.
Large area and depth of destruction can be life threatening.
The criterion is the appearance of a total burn of 1-2-3 degrees,
occupying more than 30% of the body area. Burns 3б и 4 степени опасны уже
with the defeat of more than 10% of the surface.
How to independently determine the area of damage
You can use one of the methods: the simplest of them are
this is the Wallace method (“rule of nines”) and the Glumov method (“rule
- Wallace method: surface area corresponds to 1 or 2
Nines (9% or 18% of the total body area): 9% – each hand,
head, 18% – on the front and back surfaces of the body, each
the leg. Perineum is given only 1% of the body.
- Glumov method: the area of 1 palm corresponds to 1% of the surface
What not to do:
- You can not immediately apply anti-burn remedy, you must first
cool the skin
- You can not lubricate the skin:
- irritants – iodine, brilliant green, alcohol, urine, vinegar,
onions, toothpaste and other “harmful” tips from books on folk
treatment as irritating substances will damage the skin
- oils that close the pores (sea buckthorn oil is good
only at the stage of healing, but not immediately after receiving the burn)
- irritants – iodine, brilliant green, alcohol, urine, vinegar,
- Pierce the bubbles – you can easily infect
- How to deal with clothes:
- if it is not stuck to the skin – you should quickly remove it
- if it is stuck, it should not be stripped off, but neatly cut
around the wound.
- With a thermal burn, the wound needs to be washed with clean water,
not citric acid or baking soda. So wrong
action by burning a flame or boiling water leads to the formation
scarring and longer healing because citric acid
required for alkaline burns, and soda for burns with acid.
- Even light burns cannot be lubricated with sour cream, kefir, yogurt.
– an infection may develop. Acid dairy products even stronger
affects inflamed skin, especially considering that today these
Products contain various nutritional supplements.
What to do with boiling water burn in the first place:
- Stop the effect of high temperature (hot water burn
possible in case of a communal accident), take off clothes if boiling water got
- Немедленно cool the skin: термическое поражение продолжается
даже после прекращения действия горячей water. Heated fabrics
damage the surrounding healthy, so the cooling in this case
really necessary. For this fit a stream of cold water, a bubble
with ice. The duration of such an event is 10-15 minutes.
- At defeat of 1 degree the best remedy for burns is
Panthenol (analogs of Bepantin, Dexpanthenol, Pantoderm, etc.). Him
sprinkle over the entire surface and leave to complete
absorption. If you use Panthenol in the first 2-3 minutes after
getting burned, the skin heals faster.
- With a burn of 2 degrees and above, you should carefully cut off clothes,
aseptic dressing. If the face is burned, the bandage is not
impose, and spread with petroleum jelly.
- When burned, large areas and depths should be followed.
introduce anesthetic, warm (wrap and drink warm tea),
organize abundant alkaline drinking.
Дальнейшее treatment ожога кипятком продолжается самостоятельно
or in a hospital (depending on the severity).
So, how to treat a skin burn at home?
Therapy of burn surface using medicinal dressings
средствами называется treatment закрытым способом. Exactly this method
useful for independent action.
For burns of 1 degree, a bandage with a medicinal
means. The best burn ointment is Bepanten. Its enough
apply once, apply a dressing for 4-5 days. Bandage change for
this time can not spend, the skin just has time to heal.
With ожоге 2 степени treatment проводится вначале врачом, а затем
on their own. The doctor will hold a toilet burn surface and
will tell you what to treat the affected skin. Toilet burn
surface without hospitalization is carried out with the defeat of a small
plot and no signs of shock. The procedure includes the following
- antiseptic treatment of the skin around the burn
- removal of detached epithelium, dirt, clothes
- cropping and emptying of large bubbles, the bubble cover is not
removed, as it serves as a kind of protection of the wound under it
- ointment dressing with bactericidal ointment
(levosulfametakain, streptomycin and others).
At home, the dressing changes 1 time in 2-3 days until the very
Treatment of severe burns
Treatment of burns of 3-4 degrees is carried out only in the hospital. With
admission is held antishock therapy. Burns ведут открытым
or in a closed way. An open method is needed mainly for burns.
face, neck and perineum. 3-4 times a day, the affected skin is lubricated
ointment with antiseptic or petrolatum.
All efforts are directed to the early rejection of the dead
tissue formation, dry scab, prevention
purulent-inflammatory processes, removal of toxic from the body
substances. In addition, with burns of grade 3b and 4
хирургическое treatment, включающее иссечение участка некроза,
defect closure and skin plastics.
Treatment of burns folk remedies
Not all suitable expensive medications. In such cases
useful good folk remedy for burns with boiling water.
Traditional treatments are suitable only for burns first.
степени, так как самоtreatment ожогов 2 степени чревато осложнениями,
which will lead to an ugly scar.
The softest and most effective remedies, especially for burns
baby boiling water: pumpkin pulp, raw grated potatoes, aloe, honey,
cabbage, raw egg white. How to apply:
- the pulp of the pumpkin just put in place the burn
- raw potatoes, honey: grate, to 100 grams of grated
potatoes add 1 teaspoon honey, mix. Put the mixture
in gauze, attach a lump to the burned area of skin, wrap
bandage, leave for 2 hours, repeat 2-3 times a day
- Aloe: cut off the top layer of aloe or grind,
attach to the skin with a bandage, apply 2 times a day
- cabbage, egg white: chop cabbage, mix with raw
egg white, attach to burnt skin.
Means requiring longer preparation:
- Veronica officinalis: 20 grams pour boiling water, insist
until cool, handle the burn site
- meadow clover: 2 tablespoons pour a glass of boiling water,
insist to cool, use as a lotion
- green, black tea: brew strong tea, cool to
temperatures of 13-15 degrees, use in the form of lotions up to 10-12
What else can anoint the burn if medicinal ointments are at hand
not? Independently prepared ointment, which sometimes acts
more effective than the pharmacy.
- So, you need to take 100 grams of spruce gum, beeswax and
lard, boil everything and cool. It will be a miracle
ointment that cures burns in just 3-4 times of its use.
- Another good remedy is a comfrey ointment (its other
names – honeysuckle, bone marrow). To prepare the ointment you need
skip fresh comfrey root through a meat grinder, add sulfur,
rosin, unsalted pork fat. All components boil, in
cooling time add protein raw eggs, mix. After
complete охлаждения добавить камфорное масло.
Attention! In itself, the comfrey is poisonous, so you can not take
it inside without a doctor’s control.
If boiling water has affected a person for a long time and has damaged a large
skin area may develop a dangerous complication – burn
disease. So the body reacts to the traumatic impact.
high temperature. Burn disease имеет 4 стадии:
- Burn shock: lasts up to 3 days. With этом изменяется
water and electrolyte and the acid-base balance of the body,
kidney function is significantly impaired
- Acute burn toxemia: lasts up to 2 weeks as
a consequence of the normalization of blood circulation and kidney function and the onset
absorption of toxins from the burn zone. If the kidneys have not regained their
work (it happens with severe burns), comes acute renal
- Septicotoxemia: this stage occurs with grade 3a burns and
above, coincides with the period of the beginning of the wound cleansing. Observed
purulent intoxication and dysfunction of various organs: the appearance
ulcers in the intestinal tract, pneumonia. Withчиной здесь являются не
microbes, and the blockage of small vessels due to a common violation
- Reconvalescence: the final stage of a burn disease
продолжается до complete выздоровления.
Currently, minor burns are treated by general surgeons.
and traumatologists, but severe burns are treated in special burns.
Hot air burns can be easily achieved in the sauna.
It is known to all that a reasonable sauna visit is not harmful for
health and even a positive effect on the cardiovascular and
immune system. However, the fashion to relax in a sauna in a complex with
alcohol abuse sometimes leads to tragic
the consequences. Many lovers of saunas leave common sense and
caution when visiting it (see bath, sauna – for and against).
In Finland, for example, several
deaths from overheating in the sauna or the effects of burns. AT
Mostly these are men suffering from alcoholism. Sauna
30-60 minutes while intoxicated is fraught with getting
deep burn and death. Usually, having come to the sauna with
friends, wives, men linger in it longer, and if
remain alone, can lose consciousness and in this case
exposed to prolonged exposure to hot dry air. With
this happens and the defeat of all layers of the skin, and deep damage
What happens when drunk + hot dry
- dehydration, excessive sweating lead to an increase
heart rate and platelet rise in the blood that
increases the risk of arrhythmias and other cardiovascular
- heated blood increases the temperature of the skin and body, causing a bright
severe erythema, which after a few days is replaced by a burn
subcutaneous tissue, all layers of the skin and even deeper
Dehydration, intense sweating, thrombocytosis, decreased
давления, нарушение blood circulation и неподвижность тела
promote the development of a burn in a short time. And alcohol increases
and dehydration, and a drop in blood pressure, and arrhythmias, he
violates the skin circulation and causes overheating of the skin, especially
its upper layers.
With поступлении в стационар больного с ожогами от горячего
air sauna, the severity of its condition can be underestimated,
because it looks like a slight erythema. Surgeons (without
experience with such injuries) may underestimate the extent
danger of burns for the patient’s life.
Even with a relatively small area of damage such
condition is the cause of disability and high mortality
cause a combination of deep tissue damage and deep
necrosis. Be careful not to drink alcohol during
Wellness treatments in the sauna!
Автор: Мельникова Светлана Георгиевна врач-дерматолог