- Heart rate
- Heart rate for teenage athletes
- Heart rate
- Heart rate slowdown
- How to measure heart rate
- Heart rate measurement for children on the wrist
- Blood pressure measurement
- Step-by-step instruction for measuring blood pressure in children
- Pressure standards
What should be the pulse of the child? Heart rate (Heart rate) is not constant.
To control the condition of the heart and blood vessels, the child needs Check this parameter regularly. Such an examination may be as prescribed by the doctor. Observations are carried out for a certain time.
Heart rate characteristics are associated with different factors – age children, physical fitness, health, mood, temperature air when measured and other criteria.
Age-related differences in measurement are clearly visible in children. So with when a baby is born, the heart beats 2 times more often than teenager 12-15 years old.
With the development of adaptation mechanisms and an increase in blood volume in the body, the frequency of strokes is reduced, and by 16 years (sometimes earlier) is established within the adult norm. Speeds up again heart rate after 50, when the heart muscle weakens in untrained people with an unhealthy lifestyle. To each age correspond to their own heart rate: in infants, child athletes, during sleep, the results will be different.
Pulse is the rhythmic oscillation of arteries caused by contracting heart. Regulating heart rate and pressure, heart provides adaptation of children in a changing environment.
In addition to heart rate, physicians always check their breathing rhythm in infants. (NPV). These two indicators provide a minimum of mandatory information on condition and normal development of the body.
Breathing in newborns is more frequent than in adolescents (approximately 60 times / min.). As they grow older, this figure decreases, and by the age of 6, the baby breathes 2 times slower. What a pulse should to be with a one-year-old child, and how it changes with age can learn from the table.
|Age||Min. Bpm||Average value, bpm||Maximum bpm|
|First year of life||102||132||162|
|From 1 year to 2 years||94||124||154|
|From 2 to 4 years old||90||115||140|
|From 4 to 6 years old||86||106||126|
|From 6 to 8 years old||78||98||118|
|From 8 to 10 years old||68||88||108|
|From 10 to 12 years old||60||80||one hundred|
|From 13 to 15 years old||60||76||90|
From 16 years old, the average pulse in the teenager is set within 70 beats / min., the rhythm is maintained up to 50 years, then heart rate increases to 80 beats.
Comparing the data of your children with table standards, you should not forget that here are the average numbers, and the boundaries may be wider. If the baby’s pulse is significantly different, you need to show it cardiologist or pediatrician. Serious changes in heart rate indicate about a developing disease.
Heart rate for teenage athletes
Teenagers – athletes must control their training well-being. One way to self-control is checking pulse before and after classes. If your child is an athlete – take out special insurance.
When controlling, it is necessary to take into account not only the number of strokes, but also on rhythm. Under loads, the pulse must not be exceeded the result, which can be found by the Karvonen formula: X = 220 – y, where y is the age of the teenager. After running or other activities, the pulse future champion should recover 10 minutes after training.
If this time is not enough, the load must be reduced. Must know the whole range of heart rate, because after exercise the pulse may to be below the border of heart rate. This may mean that the load few, and you can revise the standards upward.
The minimum pulse after exercise is determined by the formula: X = ((220 – y) – z) * 0.5 + z, where y is age, z is heart rate to the loads.
Usually cardiac acceleration rhythm is observed during physical activity. In children, an increase in heart rate maybe in the heat or after any unrest.
An increase in heart rate by 3.5 times for such cases is not pathological is an. Acceleration of the pulse is also possible in a calm state. A similar effect is observed:
- After overwork;
- As a result of emotional stress;
- With a serious breakdown;
- After blood loss;
- At high temperature;
- With pathological changes in the heart muscle;
- With diseases of the respiratory system;
- With endocrine disorders.
Tachycardia is considered an increase in heart rate by 20%.
Heart rate slowdown
Slowing heart rate against a calm background is called bradycardia. If health is normal, this indicator characterizes the strength and endurance of the heart muscle and respiratory system.
If a teenager is keen on sports involving high stamina, its heart rate may be in the range of 35-40 beats / min., and this is the norm. When bradycardia is accompanied deterioration of health, pallor of the skin, dizziness, fatigue, blood pressure drops, the child needs health care. A similar condition can occur in children with shock, cardiac pathologies, medication.
How to measure heart rate
It’s easy to find out the heart rate in children. Convenient to carry out the procedure with a stopwatch.
Calm the baby, help to take a comfortable pose. In children for pulse measurements can be taken femoral, radiation, popliteal artery, there are still options on the neck, temple, back of the foot, in pahu – wherever the main arteries pass, even in the open fontanel.
Temporal or sleepy is more suitable for newborn babies. artery, in adult children – radiation. If the child has an increased blood pressure (BP), the pulse is monitored on the ankle. measure your child’s pressure – find out from the detailed instructions.
Practical tip: choose the most accurate blood pressure monitor
Heart rate measurement for children on the wrist
- Second, third and fourth fingers groping an artery, the first finger is located on the other side of the forearm.
- If an artery is found, it is pressed against the radius. Can feel the rhythm of the pulsation of blood.
- Counting the number of heartbeats per minute, you must simultaneously control his rhythm, fullness and strength.
- Sometimes the pulse is monitored for 10-15 seconds, and the result multiply by 6 or 4, respectively.
- A good heart rate will be clear and rhythmic, with a frequency, age appropriate. In infants, it can be superficial, frequent and even arrhythmic.
The pulse rate for comparing the results is measured in one and the same same position (sitting or standing) and in a state of complete rest, as in in a different position, indicators may vary. If the baby arrhythmia is observed, a more accurate result will be when counting beats per minute.
It is advisable to measure the pulse on each hand. Various results may indicate cardiac pathology.
Blood pressure measurement
A pediatrician may recommend measuring the pressure of the child with diseases of the cardiovascular, respiratory and urinary systems. You can measure blood pressure and for the purpose of prevention.
You can measure blood pressure at home with a tonometer. Let out automatic and semi-automatic models.
In the first version, it fills the chamber and discharges air into cuffs built-in compressor. For children special cuffs that increase the accuracy of the procedure.
Recommended to control blood pressure in the morning, immediately after waking up or during the day after a 15-minute rest.
Step-by-step instruction for measuring blood pressure in children
- First, the baby must be laid or set so that a straight hand rests with the back side down. Her position is at the level of the heart.
- Place a tonometer cuff on the shoulder that is free of clothing. (2-3 cm from the bend of the elbow). Make sure that the raised hand is not clasped a hand. The cuff is fixed so that under it you could stick your finger in.
- In the normal version of the device, the cuff is connected to the tonometer, check the position of the arrow (it should be at zero).
- In the zone of the fossa of the elbow, you need to find the pulse and attach the disk there phonendoscope.
- After that, the valve is closed and the chamber is filled with air until pulse disappearance.
- Slowly open the valve, the air should go gradually.
- A phonendoscope must listen to heart sounds, in parallel controlling the position of the scale.
The first blow is systolic pressure, the last sound tone – diastolic.
|Age||Systolic indicator, mm RT. Art.||Dystolic level, mmHg Art.|
|2 to 8 weeks||90||40-50|
|From 2 months to a year||one hundred||50-60|
|2 to 6 years old||100-110||60-70|
|From 7 to 10 years old||100-120||60-80|
|From 11 to 14 years old||110-120||70-80|
Hypertension is noted in renal insufficiency, problems with the thyroid gland, hypothalamic-pituitary syndrome. With high blood pressure, you can not postpone a visit to pediatrician.
Low blood pressure (hypotension) is observed with a sharp a change in body position, inadequate and non-nutritious nutrition. A serious decrease in blood pressure may be accompanied by a shock of different nature, loss of consciousness, neurocirculatory dystonia.
What should be the pulse of the child, what are the norms for children should not know how to properly measure these indicators only doctors, but also parents. After all, it is the nature of pressure and heart rate allows you to evaluate the health of cardiovascular, respiratory and other systems of the child’s body, especially when he himself explain his ailments can not.
Changes in heart rate and pressure may have influence and factors not obvious to a layman. There are deviations due to growth, body weight, degree of activity of the child.
Mom understands her children best of all. But with excitement she can Do not notice symptoms obvious to the doctor.
If the heart rate and pressure are far beyond normal, do not Hurry up to call friends, better call the ambulance number, the doctor will tell you what the pulse of the child should be.