- What does glucose level depend on?
- Normal blood glucose levels.
- Glycated hemoglobin and how is it determined?
- What you need to know about diabetes?
- Как измерить уровень сахара в blood?
- Symptoms of high blood sugar
- Causes and symptoms of low blood sugar
- What is the glycemic index?
One of the main roles in the body’s metabolic processes
human blood glucose level plays, which is the norm for
взрослого человека составляет в диапазоне 3.5 – 5.5
ммоль/л. What indicators diagnose sugar
diabetes? And most importantly, what are the main reasons for the excessive increase or
lowering sugar levels and how can this be prevented? Is it always in
it’s guilty that a person consumes too much
What does glucose level depend on?
Глюкоза – это производный элемент из углеводов
(Sahara). In humans, by complex biochemical
reactions, it is subsequently transformed into pure energy.
Do without it – is impossible. And to run this whole process
glucose splitting the body needs insulin, produced
pancreas. This is a protein hormone that is completely
regulates carbohydrate metabolism.
But according to numerous studies, the average level of sugar
in human blood over the past 100 years has grown significantly. Related
This is due to the fact that in the diet of modern man significantly
dominated by carbohydrate-rich food, and even non-vegetable
origin. And the pancreas simply cannot fully
produce as much insulin as you can
which will be able to normalize blood glucose to
эталонного показателя в 5,5 mmol / l. Moreover, the constant
the load on it can provoke a number of diseases that
eventually cause hypo- and hyperglycemia (respectively, reduced
and elevated glucose).
By the way, even before the middle of the 19th century, traditional sugar was very
expensive due to the complex technology of its production. Next this
the process was automated, they began to massively grow sugar beets,
from which the cost of sugar has decreased significantly. And with it his
become more actively used in cooking. It also played its
role in why since the 20th century the number of patients on
diabetes has grown almost 200 times. According to statistics, for each
a thousand people today account for 6 patients with diabetes,
and two of them are insulin-dependent.
Так от чего же зависит показатель уровня сахара в blood? Can
highlight several key factors:
- the amount of carbohydrates present in daily
- pancreas productivity;
- the presence of chronic gastrointestinal diseases
tract or liver;
- physical activity.
And, by the way, diabetes mellitus is transmitted in almost 80% of cases.
by inheritance. Therefore, the level of sugar also affects the genetic
to content ↑
Normal blood glucose levels. Table
Sugar rates in both women and men are identical, but indications for
|Age||Glucose level (in mmol / l)|
|Up to 1 month||2.8 – 4.4|
|From 1 month to 13 years||3.2 – 5.5|
|From 13 to 60 years||3.5 – 5.5|
|From 60 to 90 years||4.6 – 6.4|
|From 90 years and up||Up to 6.7|
The indicators in the table are reference, so they should not be considered
normal for all people. In addition, during the day sugar level
может опускаться ниже 3,5 и повышаться выше 5,5 mmol / l. But if in
over the next few hours it is normalized, then it is not
is a deviation. Naturally, if a person eats something
sweet (chocolate, for example), this will also lead to an increase
blood glucose levels (after about 1-2 hours). Even
short-term increases in the rate of up to 11.1 mmol / l are considered
Article in topic: What is upper and lower polyneuropathy
limbs? Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment
The above data is relevant to the analysis.
capillary blood in the morning on an empty stomach. Even если у человека будет выявлен
elevated or degraded, it still does not indicate
the presence of hypo-or hyperglycemia. In such cases, prescribe
conducting repeated analyzes. And so if overly tall or
a low level is observed for a long period then this already indicates
on the violation of carbohydrate metabolism. In the future, the patient is sent
for consultation to the endocrinologist.
It is believed that a constant level of glucose in the range of 5.6 – 6.1
mmol / l is already a sign of prediabetes. A level above 6.1 is already
diabetes. But for the formulation of the final diagnosis is carried out
another so-called glycated hemoglobin test. And,
spend it in different conditions (before meals, after drinking
glucose). The result should be as follows:
|Analysis Option||The level of glucose in capillary blood (in mmol / l)||The level of glucose in venous blood (in mmol / l)|
|Before meals (on an empty stomach)||3.5 – 5.5||3.5 – 6.1|
|After taking glucose (after 2 hours)||Up to 7.8||Up to 7.8|
The above data is relevant for a healthy person. If
capillary glucose level and venous blood is over 7.8
mmol / l after sugar intake, then it will be either pre-diabetes
condition or diabetes.
Also, when analyzing, hypoglycemic and
hyperglycemic factors. The first is the sugar ratio in
blood 2 hours after drinking glucose (compared to
on an empty stomach), the second is the same ratio of sugar, but through
an hour after drinking glucose. If the hypoglycemic index
is 1.3 or lower, and hyperglycemic – 1.7 or lower,
this is the norm. These coefficients allow you to set how fast
blood sugar splits.
It should also be mentioned that in women, namely in gestational
period (associated with pregnancy and lactation) level
sugar will be slightly higher than usual. Related это с физиологией
their body and metabolic changes when most
nutrients are spent on ensuring normal growth of the fetus
or the production of breast milk. There is even such a thing as
�”Gestational diabetes”. More details about this women tells
gynecologist, in which they are registered in fact
to content ↑
Glycated hemoglobin and how is it determined?
Since 2010, such a concept has been adopted in medical practice,
as “glycated hemoglobin”. In fact, it shows the percentage
the ratio of hemoglobin associated with glucose with its total
by the amount of. This classification was adopted in the American
diabetic association, and subsequently recommended it
use the World Health Organization. Denoted by
analyzes as “hemoglobin level HbA1C”.
What is the rate of glycated hemoglobin? According to directions
- up to 5.7% is a normal indicator;
- 5.7 – 6% – high risk of diabetes;
- 6.1 – 6.4% – prediabetes;
- more than 6.5% – diabetes
This analysis technique has several advantages:
- You can take it at any time;
- the result is more accurate, the probability of error is
- no need to consume glucose;
- you can establish the likelihood of diabetes in a healthy
The article in the topic: “Diabetes is a killer disease, almost 2 million
deaths every year! “Interview with a doctor
But he has his drawbacks. First, the necessary equipment
for analysis, not every clinic is available,
secondly, anemia or low hemoglobin levels can affect
final result. And the procedure itself is significantly more expensive
rather than biochemical analysis of capillary or venous blood.
to content ↑
What you need to know about diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus is a disease that is accompanied by constant
glycemia and the need to control blood sugar levels.
The main reasons for its occurrence:
- insulin resistance (impaired response of the body to
insulin, which inhibits the breakdown of sugar);
- disorders of the pancreas (because of what
insulin production is not enough to control carbohydrate
According to the WHO (World Health Organization) classification,
diabetes is divided into 2 types:
- Type 1 – insulin-dependent, when the pancreas is simply
does not produce insulin (or in small quantities);
- Type 2 – insulin-resistant, when the cells of the body are not
react to normal insulin levels.
Almost 80% of all patients have type 2 diabetes.
Its main reasons are:
- frequent consumption of “light” carbohydrates;
- genetic predisposition;
- complex metabolic disorder (provoked
lack of healthy diet);
- the presence of certain chronic diseases (cardiovascular
system, liver, endocrine system).
With type 1 diabetes, the patient must be prescribed
synthetic insulin injections. Otherwise, level
blood sugar will rise to the point when it comes
called “hypoglycemic coma.”
With type 2 diabetes, you can do without injections.
insulin. After all, the body, in fact, continues normally
produce But if not forcibly reduce the level of sugar (to
nominal 5.5 mmol / l), this will cause pancreatic wear
glands. As a result, it is necessary to resort to injections to reduce
load on the gland.
Diabetes today is an incurable disease,
but it is still controllable. With type 2 diabetes is quite
enough to normalize your diet, lose excess
weight, play sports. Observing all the recommendations of the doctor content
сахара в крови будет всегда удерживаться на нормальном level
to content ↑
Как измерить уровень сахара в blood?
In the hospital, the measurement of blood sugar levels is carried out
by donating blood for analysis (capillary and venous). But as
check it yourself? At home, people with sugar
diabetes or prediabetes recommend use
глюкометры – устройства, с помощью которых можно
quickly establish a conditional blood glucose level (modern
gadgets show quite accurate results). Use such
device is quite simple:
- you first need to wash your hands with soap;
- thoroughly dry the blood collection site (fingertip);
- insert the test strip into the meter;
- make a finger puncture with a lancet (it doesn’t hurt as the thickness
needles comparable to the size of a mosquito needle);
- massaging a finger, squeeze a drop of blood;
- apply blood to the test strip.
After that the final result will appear on the meter screen.
analysis. This procedure should be performed 2-3 times a day.
Naturally, for a healthy person is easier several times a year.
be tested in a hospital setting. But people with a penchant for
diabetes (or who has close relatives with this
disease) should have such a device. It is inexpensive
consumables for him are those same test strips and
On thematic forums, you can find a lot more “popular methods”
determine the level of sugar, but do not use them. Their
accuracy leaves much to be desired, and some among them are not at all
related to medicine.
Article in topic: What is diabetes insipidus? Symptoms and treatment for
female content ↑
Symptoms of high blood sugar
Symptoms of high blood glucose are:
- Frequent urge to urinate. Explained by the violation of water
exchange in the body.
- Permanent dry mouth, thirst.
- Fatigue in the absence of chronic diseases
of cardio-vascular system.
- Pruritus (usually without rash).
- Slow blood clotting (wounds heal
much slower, harder to stop bleeding).
But it should be borne in mind that diabetes can develop without
specified symptoms. In the state of prediabetes, the patient is not at all
notes deterioration of health. Accordingly, when the symptoms are all
are available, it indicates already the advanced stage of the disease.
Naturally, in this case, you should immediately pass tests and
consult with an endocrinologist. Early disease
normalize the patient’s condition is quite simple.
to content ↑
Causes and symptoms of low blood sugar
The main causes of too low blood sugar
- a limited diet (not uncommon in those who often exhaust themselves
- long breaks between meals;
- intense exercise (under which
- an excess of “light” carbohydrates in the diet (after a sharp increase in
standards of sugar, it is greatly reduced).
It is believed that hypoglycemia is when the sugar level in
blood drops below 3.3 mmol / l and is constantly kept on it
level What is it fraught with? Hypoglycemic coma as well
carbohydrate starvation of the brain. Especially often this
the situation arises in chronic anorexia, as well as in those who
observes a long hunger strike (from 2-3 days). Main treatment
hypoglycemia is the correction of the diet. Just turn on
in the diet foods high in sugar.
to content ↑