What is the pineal gland of the brain(epiphysis)? What functions does it perform in the body?


  • The structure of the pineal gland and its location
  • Functions of the pineal gland
  • Effect of pineal gland hormones on the human body
  • Serotonin
  • Melatonin
  • Norepinephrine
  • Histamine
  • Diagnosis and treatment of pineal disease
  • Diagnostics
  • Manifestations of dysfunction
  • Pathological conditions
  • Video
  • Therapy

The pineal gland of the brain – what it is, what it is for
need and where is it? We will try to give an answer, starting with the fact that
другое название этой glands – эпифиз, в также пинеальная железа (по
Latin pinea – pine, and, interestingly, the name of the prototype of Pinocchio
Pinocchio is derived from the same root) by the similarity of the form with the pine
a bump.

The epiphysis is not well understood, its functions are not completely clear,
поскольку особенности расположения glands и малые размеры мешают ее
thorough study, and in the history of medicine of this gland, open
Galen, attributed to many mystical functions, it was considered
concentration of the human soul.

Esoteric consider the epiphysis the “third” eye, the center of consciousness.
human, contributing to the manifestation of extrasensory abilities, and
try to stimulate the gland with music, light and all kinds
esoteric techniques.

Так какие особенности шишковидной glands могли вызвать подобные
views, and whether they have a place in modern views on this
mysterious body?

The structure of the pineal gland and its location

The epiphysis is a part of the intermediate brain, which, in its
queue, located between the midbrain and the big hemispheres.
The dimensions are normally small, about 1 cm wide and 1.5 cm long,
with a mass of only 0.15-0.2 g (in women, the epiphysis is usually larger than that of

Шишкообразная форма glands обусловлена развитой капиллярной
network of this body. In addition to blood vessels, pass through the epiphysis
nerve fibers of the sympathetic system.

Что такое эфпифиз

The epiphysis appears in the human embryo in the second month
development, with age its size increases, it penetrates into
the region of the midbrain is fixed there between the upper
visual mounds of the midbrain quadrilateral.

The location of the epiphysis in the center of the brain gives it
particular importance, some scientists even consider it the top
an appendage of the brain, similar to how another important endocrine
gland, the pituitary gland, is considered the lower brain appendage.
The pinkish gray color of the epiphysis is due to its good
blood supply.

Outside, the pineal body of the epiphysis is covered with dense connective
cloth. The growth of the pineal gland stops at puberty
period, and with aging of the body, its opposite is observed

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Functions of the pineal gland

In the epiphysis intensively exchange proteins, nucleic acids,
lipids and he is involved in the metabolism of phosphorus, calcium, potassium and
magnesium in the body, sets biological rhythms and regulates
body temperature. Since it produces important for
functioning of the body in general, hormones, it is part of
endocrine and nervous systems.

функции шишковидной glands

Hormones эпифиза – это следующие пептидные и биогенные амины,
formed from amino acids:

  • Serotonin, «гормон счастья».
  • Melatonin, «теневой гормон».
  • Norepinephrine, «гормон стресса».
  • Histamine, «гормон поднятия тревоги».

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Effect of pineal gland hormones on the human body

In the body, everything is interconnected, but nevertheless, it is possible to isolate
�”Areas of responsibility” of each of the hormones of the epiphysis. So what are they
answer, individually and collectively?

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Responsible for the psychogenic state of a person, regulates tone
blood vessels, improves mood. To increase serotonin production
It is necessary to supply with food a sufficient amount of irreplaceable
tryptophan acid.

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Melatonin production refers to the main function of the pineal gland.
Melatonin вырабатывается из серотонина при недостатке света, в
night time, the peak of its production is at midnight. One of
hormones responsible for the rhythm and cyclical life
processes, synchronizes daily (circadian) rhythms of the day and
nights, and for this reason, the epiphysis is also called biological
for hours.

Melatonin тормозит избыточное выделение соматотропного гормона
(growth hormone that is produced in the pituitary gland, leading
human endocrine gland, and stimulates growth and recovery

With age and a decrease in the amount of melatonin produced
(the peak of night production also decreases) oxidative stress develops
and hormonal DNA is damaged, leading to aging

Melatonin оказывает в организме следующее

  • It is a cardiovascular warning agent.
    diseases, cataracts and the development of tumors.
  • Regulates sleep and wakefulness.
  • Lowers cholesterol in the bloodstream.
  • Supports immunity.
  • Normalizes blood pressure and vascular tone.
  • Lowers blood glucose levels.
  • Suppresses depression.
  • Regulates daily changes in body weight and sexual
  • Regulates the menstrual cycle in women.
  • Improves memory in childhood and adolescence and enhances
    ability to learn.

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Norepinephrine выделяется при дневном освещении, является
mediating wakefulness and making quick decisions, causes
increase in blood pressure with the activation of daily activities
enhances carbohydrate metabolism. Produced from irreplaceable
amino acids phenylalanine and conditionally replaceable tyrosine. Besides
pineal gland, also synthesized in the adrenal glands.

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Histamine защищает организм от нежелательных воздействий, влияет
on immunity. The main function of this hormone is to raise the alarm in
tissues and the body as a whole in case of a real or imaginary threat
health and life, for example, in case of poisoning or contact with
an allergen.

Excessive activity of histamine, not infrequent in our time, leads
to intolerance and impaired immunity, and in 1% of people in
mostly middle-aged, diarrhea, constipation, migraines, acne,
increased heart rate, lower blood pressure, irregularities
menstrual cycles.

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Diagnosis and treatment of pineal disease glands

Complicated medical equipment is used for diagnostics, therefore
do not even try to make a diagnosis yourself, and
over treat manifestations that you think are caused
diseases of the epiphysis. All this can be trusted only to the doctor.

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Для диагностики используется рентгенологическое
оборудование, компьютерные и магниторезонансные томографы
Only after a complete physical examination, the doctor makes a conclusion.
about the presence or absence of human pathology. Normal pineal gland
projected on a radiograph exclusively on the midline
(remember the image of the “third eye”, or the ajna chakra, a little
above the point between the eyebrows on the esoteric images).

Pathological foci in the brain (abscesses, tumors,
hematomas push the epiphysis to the opposite side of the focus.

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Manifestations of dysfunction

Deviations in the functionality of the epiphysis may occur
the following symptoms:

  • Headaches.
  • Visual impairment (double vision).
  • Drowsiness during daytime hours.
  • Ataxy (coordination disorders), paralysis.
  • Frequent fainting.
  • Mental deviations in behavior.

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Pathological conditions

The activity of the pineal gland is disturbed for several reasons, external and
internal character. Causes of external (exogenous)

  • Mechanical injury.
  • Electrical injury.
  • Poisoning (chemicals, tobacco and alcohol).
  • Contamination by pathogens of rabies, polio or
  • Infection with diphtheria or botulism by bacterial toxins.
  • Infection with echinococcus with the formation of cysts in the epiphysis.

Causes of internal (endogenous) changes:

  • Circulatory disorders, internal bleeding, spasm
    brain vessels.
  • Thrombus formation.
  • Atherosclerosis.
  • Anemia.
  • Tumors (benign and malignant).
  • Inflammatory processes (usually a consequence of meningitis, sepsis
    or brain abscess).
  • Cerebral edema.
  • Metabolic disorders.
  • Age changes.

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Cases are observed as a decrease in the activity of the epiphysis (enough
rare) and increase. The cause of hypofunction may be
a tumor in the connective tissues with subsequent compression
секреторных клеток glands.

Hypofunction in children is especially dangerous, leading to premature
physical and sexual development due to lack of restraint
effects on the production of growth hormone. To premature development
can join and dementia.

The cause of hyperfunction may be:

  • Tumor of the cells of the epiphysis (pineoma).
  • Кровоизлияние в тело glands.
  • Development of an echinococcal cyst.

Hyperfunction of the pineal gland in childhood leads to growth retardation and
sexual development.

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