- What is metabolic syndrome?
- Causes of metabolic syndrome
- Complications of the metabolic syndrome
- Treatment of metabolic syndrome in women
- Prevention of metabolic syndrome
The metabolic syndrome in women is not considered independent.
disease. It is a complex of metabolic disorders and
work of the cardiovascular system. Ailment is called
�“Pandemic” of the 21st century, since it occurs in almost every second
women after 50 years and 40% of men.
What is metabolic syndrome?
What is metabolic syndrome? This is a combination of metabolic
violations. This term was used not so long ago. First
He gave the definition of metabolic dysfunction at the end of the 20th century in his
The works of American scientist Gerald Riven. In simple terms, with
This syndrome in the body “coexist” four pathologies:
- type 2 diabetes;
- metabolic obesity.
This combination was called the “death quartet.” It
is the culprit of atherosclerosis, polycystic ovary, stroke,
heart attack. The disease affects women in menopausal age. AT
In recent years, the disease has become very “younger”. Among women under 30
metabolic syndrome occurs in 25% of cases. Sad
statistics complement children and adolescents, 7% of whom are prone to
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Causes of metabolic syndrome
With metabolic syndrome in women develops
insulin tissue insensitivity (insulin resistance).
It is believed that insulin resistance is the starting
mechanism for the development of hypertension, accumulation
visceral fat, lipid metabolism disorders.
The main reasons for the development of MC are:
- Improper diet with a predominance of simple carbohydrates
и животных жиров. Permanently high glucose
changes the cell walls, the receptors become
insulin resistant (unable to take insulin).
- Sedentary lifestyle. Motionless
slower fat metabolism and glucose uptake.
- ATысокое АД, при котором замедляется кровоток в
tissues. Oxygen starvation leads to a decrease in sensitivity
cells to insulin.
- Hormonal imbalance upwards
тестостерона (при поликистозе и других эндокринных
- Наследственность. The presence of MS at the nearest
relatives increases the risk of developing the disease.
- Длительный стресс. Hormone cortisol,
produced by stress is an insulin antagonist, i.e.
interferes with its assimilation.
- Long-term use of drugs group
кортикостероидов, назначенный для лечения аутоиммунных
- Wrong hormonal intake
контрацептивов. Means reduce the ability of tissues
absorb glucose so sensitivity to
- Неправильный прием больших доз инсулина. AT
In this case, insulin resistance develops as a defensive reaction.
to a constantly high level of this hormone.
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AT группе риска по развитию метаболической дисфункции находятся
women of menopausal age. AT этот период снижается
estrogen secretion. Hormonal imbalance is the cause
lipid metabolism disorders. And testosterone continues to be produced.
in the same amount. This causes the accumulation of fat around
internal organs (visceral fat).
If at the same time a woman leads a sedentary lifestyle and bad
eats, comes obesity for the male type. Fat is stored in
abdominal area. This explains a large percentage of MS in women after
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Manifestations of metabolic syndrome are external and
internal. The main external feature of the MC is to increase
waist circumference more than 88 cm, pronounced “beer belly”.
ATнутренними симптомами являются:
- Fatigue, loss of strength with long breaks in food. Glucose
not absorbed by the cells, the body does not get enough
amount of energy.
- Thirst for sweets. Brain cells need glucose,
despite constantly high blood sugar levels. Use
carbohydrate brings short-term improvement of the state.
- Tachycardia, heart pain. This is due to accumulation
cholesterol in blood vessels. The heart is forced to work in an enhanced
- Headaches. Cholesterol plaque narrows lumen
blood vessels, poor blood flow to the brain.
- Attacks of thirst and dry mouth. With high glucose
diuresis increases, the body loses water.
- Increased sweating at night. Insulin acts on
sympathetic nervous system that reacts to elevated
- Frequent constipation. Due to obesity, peristalsis is reduced
- Nervousness at long breaks in food. Glucose не поступает к
brain cells, it causes a deterioration in mood,
- Increased blood pressure more than 140: 90.
In addition to the above symptoms, the presence of a woman
MS indicate laboratory blood counts:
- Triglyceride levels – more than 1.8 mmol / l.
- The level of “good” cholesterol – less than 1.2 mmol / l.
- The level of “bad” cholesterol is more than 3 mmol / l.
- Fasting glucose is over 6.2 mmol / l.
- The glucose tolerance test is more than 11.2 mmol / l.
При наличии одновременно нескольких симптомов можно
talk about the development of metabolic syndrome.
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At statement of the diagnosis it is necessary to differentiate MS from
diseases with a similar clinical picture. For example, in the syndrome
Itsenko-Cushing observed the same type of obesity. But this disease
characterized by the presence of a tumor in the adrenal glands.
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Diagnostics endocrinologist begins with a survey of the patient. Wherein
The following points are taken into account:
- The presence of metabolic obesity in relatives.
- ATозраст появления избыточного веса.
- The presence of diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
- Pressure level
Then measure the height and weight of the patient, waist circumference. ATычисляют
body mass index. For this weight in kilograms divided by height in
centimeters, squared. With a BMI of over 30 talking about
Basic examinations for the diagnosis of MS:
- Glucose tolerance test.
- Daily monitoring of blood pressure, ECG.
- Ultrasound of the liver, kidneys.
- A blood test for the level of prolactin, LH, FSH, thyrotropic
- Measurement of glycated hemoglobin.
- CT, MRI to exclude adrenal and pituitary tumors.
- Ultrasound of the thyroid gland.
Identifying the cause of obesity helps determine tactics.
treatment of MS.
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Complications of the metabolic syndrome
If untreated, metabolic syndrome will lead to
violation of the internal organs. Complications of the MC are:
- heart attack;
- heart and kidney failure.
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Treatment of metabolic syndrome in women
Since the cause of MS is poor cell uptake
insulin, to completely fix this violation is impossible, because
often dysmetabolic disorders are genetically determined. Treatment
metabolic syndrome is symptomatic, it
aims to eliminate the effects of hormonal disorders and
prevention of complications.
The main directions of the fight against metabolic syndrome:
- Power adjustment.
- Increased physical activity.
- Drug treatment.
These methods are interconnected and should be applied in
Losing weight is a primary concern for eliminating MS.
For this you need to increase physical activity. ATо время
exercise, metabolism improves, splitting accelerates
fat Training promotes the production of endorphins (hormones
happiness). AT результате у человека улучшается настроение, снижается
тяга к сладкому, повышается чувствительность cells to insulin.
Training should be moderate, enjoyable, not
cause deterioration of health. ATажные принципы занятий
physical fitness – moderation and regularity. ATыбор вида спорта
зависит от самочувствия больного и наличия хронических diseases.
If there are disorders in the work of the kidneys, heart, then you can do exercise therapy
or just take daily walks. Morning work-out
well accelerates the metabolism, energizes.
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Some conditions are contraindications to sports.
occupations. You can not do physical exercise with:
- strongly high pressure (more than 140: 90);
- increased sugar level (more than 9 mmol / l);
- renal failure.
Diet for metabolic syndrome is the second most effective.
method of therapy. The basic principles of nutrition:
- decrease in the diet of animal fat;
- reducing carbohydrate intake;
- rejection of simple carbohydrates;
- fast food exclusion;
- increase in the consumption of plant foods;
- split meals (5-6 meals per day);
- compliance with the drinking regime (at least 1.5 liters of water per day).
- caloric intake is not higher than 2000kkal.
The following types are prohibited
- confectionery; sweet soda;
- sausages and other convenience foods;
- sweet fruit;
- fatty dairy products;
- White bread;
- semolina and rice porridge;
The basis of the diet of a patient with MS is:
- unsweetened fruit, berries;
- fresh greens;
- lean meat;
- whole wheat bread;
- low-fat dairy products;
- soups in vegetable broth.
Drug therapy is to apply
the following groups of drugs:
- Normalizing cholesterol. These are statins and fibrates
- Снижающих инсулинорезистентность
- Повышающих чувствительность клеток к инсулину
- Разжижающих кровь (Аспирин кардио).
- Аминокислот, улучшающих работу печени (Альфа-липоевая
- Нормализующих артериальное давление (Каптоприл,
- Нормализующих гормональный фон
При большой степени ожирения врач может назначить средства,
obstructing intestinal fat absorption (Orlistat,
ATажно! Can not be used for the treatment of MS means suppressing
appetite (Reduxin). Such drugs further strengthen
Radical methods are volume reduction operations.
stomach: banding, gastroshuntirovaniya, sleeve resection
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