Update: October 2018
Iodine is indispensable and not synthesized in the human body.
microelement, necessary for life, or rather, for
the normal functioning of the thyroid gland and
production of hormones synthesized by it. A person receives iodine from the outside, with
liquids and food, as well as some
- 3-5% comes with water
- 3-5% comes with air
- 60% animal products
- 30% herbal products
The optimal amount of iodine in the body is prevention
pathologies of the thyroid gland. The body of a healthy person with
surprisingly consistently keeps a constant concentration of iodine in
крови, образуя называемое Йодное зеркало крови (10-5 –
- The daily iodine requirement for an adult is 150-300
- для беременных и кормящих женщин – 400 mcg
- для детей – 40-140 mcg в зависимости от возраста
- при йододефиците в организм должно поступать не менее 400 mcg
Lack of trace element iodine or iodine deficiency in one way or another
degree is found in every fourth person.
Interesting facts about iodine
The discovery of the trace element occurred in the early 18th century by chemist Bernard
Courtois, who was engaged in the manufacture of nitrate – in the future she
used to make gunpowder. Saltpeter was mined from marine
algae, where iodine was discovered, becoming random and so important
a boon. The name was assigned due to the color of the microelement.
(“Yodos” in Greek means purple). Source of
for industrial iodine release are:
- brown oil waters
- solutions of sodium nitrate.
Features of iodine absorption
- Iodine refers to a chemical compound called halogens.
This group also includes fluorine, chlorine and bromine, which are capable
displace iodine from any compounds. Therefore
eating chlorinated water, excess intake into
organism of fluorine-containing agents and treatment with bromine-containing
drugs reduce the amount of iodine in the body.
- Special substances that are contained in red and colored
cabbage, turnip, radish, soy, mustard and rutabaga, blocking the reaction
iodine metabolism, so they should not be combined with
- Some medications also block absorption.
iodine: cordarone, penicillin, erythromycin, sulfonamides, bromine,
streptomycin, chloramphenicol, aspirin, hormones, etc.
- При дисбактериозе нарушается всасывание iodine.
- The following minerals improve iodine absorption: cobalt, manganese,
selenium, copper products with their content it is advisable to combine
with iodine-containing food.
- When cooking products thermally about 50%
iodine is destroyed. At high temperatures iodine volatilizes,
therefore, it is better to simmer or boil food, rather than fry. Salt,
enriched with iodine, add to the already prepared dish.
Signs of iodine deficiency
Half of the incoming iodine is absorbed by the thyroid gland for
building the body of two hormones: triiodothyronine and thyroxine. These
hormones regulate the most important functions of the body, and their
deficiency immediately affects the condition of the heart, skin and its appendages,
the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, human mental activity, etc.
Iodine deficiency – hidden hunger
The first symptoms of iodine deficiency are non-specific and
disguised as dystonia: a person experiences general weakness,
malaise, depressed mood, propensity for colds. In that
the iodine deficiency period is not yet acute because part
of its costs the body covers at the expense of the reserved reserve in
Iodine deficiency in the body – obvious symptoms
The next step is a compensatory increase.
the thyroid gland, which is thus trying to catch up
synthesizing homons. An organ dysfunction gradually develops, and
the body begins to signal iodine deficiency more
- Overweight. Amid imbalance of hormones decreases
the rate of basal metabolism, which is reflected in the weight of a person.
- Apathy, drowsiness, lethargy, forcing a person to change jobs
and the former way of life. Changes in human behavior are always
noted by others and are often written off to depression.
- Inability to get pregnant or early miscarriages, which also
are the result of thyroid hormone imbalance.
- Disruption of mental activity: impairment of understanding, memory,
orientation in space, etc.
- In children, iodine deficiency leads to the development of cretinism,
symptoms of which are growth retardation and dwarf growth,
mental retardation, violation of body proportions.
Diseases associated with iodine deficiency
What is dangerous iodine deficiency in the body:
- Infant creatinism is a form of congenital hypothyroidism,
caused by deficiency of thyroid hormones and
characterized by a decrease in its functions, mental and
physical development of the child.
- Myxedema – manifestations of thyroid hypofunction in
adults: mucosal edema, reduced metabolic processes, total
weakness, accelerated aging.
- Local goiter – hypofunction and a sharp increase in thyroid
glands, the nodes of which are visible through the skin, even visually.
Endemic – this means that the pathology is associated with a lack of
natural iodine in a certain area (mountains, remote from the seas
territory, extreme North). Thyroid enlargement
regarded as a precancerous disease.
- Iodine deficiency during pregnancy, which can lead to
fetal deformity, stillbirth, intrauterine growth retardation.
Children born in a state of iodine deficiency have an increased risk
Home way to diagnose iodine deficiency
There is a simple test that suggests
iodine deficiency in the body. For the diagnosis will need the usual
spirit tincture of iodine for external use. Cotton swab
dip in iodine and on the inside of the forearm draw 3 lines:
- 1 – one draw
- 2 – hold the line twice
- 3 – three times draw the iodine line.
The procedure is performed at bedtime, and the result is assessed in the morning:
the first line that disappeared only speaks about enough
iodine in the body, the missing first two lines signal
hidden microelement deficiency, and the three missing lines speak of
obvious iodine deficiency – it’s time to go to the doctor!
How to eliminate iodine deficiency in the body
To eliminate the imbalance of the microelement in two ways:
- by rationalizing nutrition with the inclusion of a daily diet
products and liquids containing iodine in the required quantities
- by using artificially synthesized drugs
A big mistake is illiterate self-treatment when people
without even seeing a doctor, they begin to heal themselves with various
BUDami, trying to eliminate what is possible and not!
If iodine deficiency is suspected, refer to
a therapist who, if necessary, directs him to an endocrinologist for
examinations: ultrasound of the thyroid gland and blood for hormones. Doctor
will help to adjust the nutrition and prescribe the drug in case
What foods are rich in iodine
Foods containing large quantities of iodine are
representatives of marine flora and fauna.
- For example, 100 grams. dry kelp (seaweed) completely
covers the daily dose of iodine for humans. This does not mean that
every day should eat just such an amount, because iodine
found in other products. But add dry seaweed
any salads and ready meals can and should be, the main thing – do not expose
product heat treated.
- From animal food iodine is rich in marine fish and others.
seafood of animal origin (mussels, shrimps, etc.). They
must be present in the diet at least 2-3 times a week.
- From the products we are used to, iodine is rich in red meat, eggs,
milk, vegetables and fruits – peas, spinach, tomatoes, potatoes,
bananas, black currant, black chokeberry.
- Popular wisdom says that 5 grains of apple (seed)
completely fill the daily iodine rate, the main thing is to thoroughly
chew on Some official sources confirm this.
information, but to misuse this method is definitely not worth it –
in addition to a useful trace element, the grains contain and dangerous
Исходя из представленной таблицы (количество mcg на 100 гр.
product), you can make a diet in such a way that the regulatory
the amount of trace element was received from food. It is impossible
forget that during heat treatment about 50% iodine
disappears. If the doctor has prescribed an iodine-containing drug –
This, too, should be taken into account, not being very zealous with iodine-containing
Estimated daily intake of iodine
|children up to a year||40-60|
|1-3 years old||70|
|from 3-7 years||100|
|7-11 years old||120|
|11-14 years old||130|
|14-18 years old||150|
|people over 18||150-300|
Artificially fortified with iodine products
Since the problem of iodine deficiency has long acquired the world
scale, we began to produce products familiar to us, enriched
iodine: salt, drinking and mineral water, bakery products,
Iodized salt can be found in every home, but for it to be
really useful salt, a number of conditions must be met:
- salt retains its beneficial properties only 3-4 months from
- if the salt is wet or stored in an open container – part of iodine
will also evaporate;
- iodine instantly leaves the salt when it is boiled, therefore salt
you need ready and slightly cooled dishes;
- This type of salt cannot be used when salting vegetables,
since natural fermentation may not take place, and products
will get a bitter taste.
Mineral water with iodine
Mineral water with lots of natural iodine is excellent
compensate for the lack of an element in the body: Ifseevskaya,
Lysogorskaya, Arkhyz, Mountain, etc. For example, in the water “Lysogorskaya”
содержится 200 mcg йода в 0,5 л жидкости. However, the application
mineral water has its own contraindications, and replace them
ordinary water can not, therefore, can be treated with saline water
only with the permission of the doctor.
Iodine preparations применяют как наружно на кожу и слизистые в
antiseptic purposes, and internally – in atherosclerosis,
chronic inflammatory processes in the respiratory system
ways, tertiary syphilis, chronic mercury and lead poisoning.
A separate group of drugs are medicines for
treatment and prevention of endemic goiter.
Iodine is also used to treat female diseases –
fibrocystic mastopathy, uterine fibroids and endometriosis. AT
In this case, iodine contributes to the reactions of transformation of estradiol into
Esthyrol, a less active hormone.
Contraindications to internal treatment with iodine preparations
- Pulmonary tuberculosis
- Hemorrhagic diathesis
- Kidney disease
- Chronic pyoderma, acne
- Chronic rhinitis
- Непереносимость препаратов iodine.
Do not use iodine preparations for external use inside!
Long-term use of iodine preparations or exceeding the recommended doses
leads to the phenomenon of iodism – a sharp decrease in body weight, weakness and
loss of vitality, tearing, urticaria, angioedema and
pr allergic manifestations.
Preparations for eliminating iodine deficiency
Intake of iodine preparations in a therapeutic dose affects the exchange
substances and enhance the function of the thyroid gland. Small doses of iodine drugs
inhibit the activity of the thyroid gland, inhibiting the synthesis of thyroid-stimulating
hormone in the anterior pituitary gland. Also iodine affects the fat and
protein metabolism, reducing blood cholesterol and reducing it
AT состав лекарственных средств входят калий и натрий йодид –
inorganic iodides. Препараты содержат от 25 до 25 mcg iodine.
Modern pharmaceutical industry produces mass
drugs and dietary supplements with iodine, with a difference only in the trade name and
the amount of iodine in the dosage form:
- Laminaria and fucus – in a separate group is to include these
herbal preparations, in the process of obtaining the original product
undergoing a minimum of changes.
- Multivitamin complexes – in addition to single-component drugs,
iodine in an acceptable dose is also found in the complexes: High Mineral
Complex, Центрум, ATитамакс и др. (см. польза и вред витаминов в
Prescribed medications for follow-up and follow up.
blood counts and thyroid hormones. Multiplicity and
the duration of admission is determined by the doctor.
Prevention of iodine deficiency is good nutrition without
ignoring seafood products not so loved by some
people, but useful and without exaggeration vital.
Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог