What is autism and how is it diagnosed?


  1. Causes
  2. Diagnostics
  3. Symptoms
  4. Conclusion

Autism is now diagnosed more often than another 50 years. back. Therefore, this problem is enough common.

Autism is a mental illness characterized by general developmental disorder with a clear violation of the sphere of emotions and communications.

Autism alone does not determine the presence of any physical deviations, in the absence of concomitant diagnoses (cerebral palsy, epilepsy) autistic is physically healthy.

Most cases of autism are mild. mental retardation. Rather, it is connected with learning difficulties, than with intelligence features.

One of the features of autism is the presence of a certain selectivity. intelligence. In one area, a person with this disease achieves great success, while in the rest is not capable to master the elementary.

There are frequent cases of extreme autistic giftedness in any areas (mathematics, music, painting). This phenomenon has received the name “savantism”.

Autism is incurable, the main goal of the therapy is socialization of the child in society, inculcation of basic life and behavioral skills.

Both drug and behavioral therapy for autism are severely individual, there is no standard treatment regimen.


It is still not known for certain why children are born with autism. Unambiguously name the cause of autism so far nobody can. There is a hypothesis about a gene mutation, about the appearance of during pregnancy specific antibodies about negative the impact of vaccination, however for authentic evidence these hypotheses do not have.

Experts have identified a number of factors that can provoke development of autism, among which:

  • Chromosomal abnormalities;
  • Intrauterine damage to the central nervous system;
  • Metabolic disorders during pregnancy of the mother;
  • Exposure to negative environmental factors;
  • Hereditary predisposition;
  • Hormonal disorders;
  • Immune abnormalities
  • Abnormalities in the development of the brain;
  • Infectious diseases.

The most common cause of autism is several factors.


Baby is being tested for autismAutism is diagnosed in children only by a specialist of the appropriate qualifications. Preliminary Violations in their field are excluded by narrow specialists – audiologists, oculists, neurologists.

In the vast majority of cases, this disease in early childhood.

For diagnostics use specialized questionnaires for identification of autism (parents are interviewed about behavior patterns child), as well as monitoring behavioral responses in familiar to the child environment.

Diagnosis of autism in children is based on the presence of four main features:

  1. Violation of interpersonal communications. The child is practically there are no emotional contacts with others, he doesn’t learns, does not respond to attempts at interaction, does not show no response emotions, avoids eye-to-eye contact.
  2. Violation of social behavior. Learning difficulties social roles, inability to interact with others, aggression in relation to others and in relation to oneself (autoaggression) are also signs of an autistic child.
  3. Speech impairment. Various forms of speech delay or full lack of speech, speech abnormalities, lack of emotional coloring speech, irregular intonation. All this, in the absence of problems with hearing impairment is also a sign of autistic violations.
  4. Stereotypical forms of behavior.

Also distinguishing features of autistic children are stereotypical, obsessive movements. Such a child can clap for hours, turn the wheel from the typewriter, tear paper or wrinkle the package. He is very constancy is important; he hardly accepts changes even in trifles. Violation of the usual way of life brings the strongest the discomfort.

In addition to observing behavior patterns, for diagnosis Autism is also used in instrumental medical diagnostics:

  • Neurosonography and ultrasound of the brain;
  • Electroencephalography.

Diagnosis of autism is difficult, especially in Russia, as the symptoms are similar to those of other diseases, and to differentiate them is sometimes difficult. Standard Questionnaires for autism detection developed for use in Europe and America and not adapted for Russia. For these reasons autistic the wrong diagnosis may be made, the wrong treatment is prescribed, which will only aggravate his condition.

Early diagnosis of autism and making the right diagnosis in in this case is very important, because the sooner you start the right treatment, the greater results can be achieved. And in the early diagnosis, and in subsequent treatment, the main role is given parents and the close environment of the child – it is from their careful attitude, patience and careful implementation of all recommendations depends on the success of socialization.


The child has no interest in peers Unusual behavior It becomes noticeable already at the age of 1-2 years. Up to a year signs are also present:

  • Scanty facial expressions. The kid does not smile in response, does not rejoice when sees relatives, does not react emotionally to toys;
  • Avoidance of physical contact. The child does not like when his pick up, shows anxiety during physical contact;
  • Signs of delayed speech development. The child is not walking, not babbling, not trying to pronounce syllables.

At the age of 1-1.5 years, signs of autism can be:

  • Delayed speech or its absence;
  • Lack of emotional contact with parents – baby is not reaches for mom and dad, is not happy when they appear. Does not react on appeal, still avoids physical contact;
  • Lack of interest in the outside world. Child at this age normally actively learns the world, but autistic does not show to the environment no interest.

Is your baby behind the same age? Read about development options speech in a three year old child.

Do not forget about the basics of gender education of children.

An interesting post on how to help you might come in handy. kid learn English.

Signs of autism in children 2 years old:

  • Extremely poor speech, its pronounced delay or absence;
  • Attacks of aggression and autoaggression;
  • Lack of interest in peers;
  • Avoidance of physical and emotional contact with close ones;
  • Stereotypical forms of behavior, severe discomfort when changing habitual environment or habitual actions.


In the early diagnosis and subsequent treatment, the main role assigned to the parents and close circle of the child – it is from them attentiveness, patience and careful implementation of all recommendations depends on the socialization of the child, the patient autism.

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