What is Alzheimer’s disease, its symptoms,treatment, causes of development

Update: October 2018

As often happens, our elderly relatives start themselves
strange to lead, to forget everything or to show unmotivated
touchiness Often relatives write off everything for old age and say
�”The character has gone bad.” In fact, these are all symptoms of the disease.
Alzheimer’s

If you pay attention to them in time and consult a doctor for
help, it is possible to significantly facilitate the life of the patient and his
relatives. Alzheimer’s disease is an incurable disease.
brain, accompanied by a decrease in intelligence, change
nature and mental reactions, and it is more common
than we can assume. There is evidence that the risk of developing
this disease increases every year after 60 years. In more
early age this disease occurs in people with the syndrome
Down’s

In the group of people aged 65-85 years, the disease will be
20-22% of people. Among people older than 85 years, the frequency of occurrence
grow to 40%. According to researchers currently in the world
There are over 27 million patients with this disease. According to
In 40 years, this figure is projected to increase threefold.

Alzheimer’s disease affects the population several times faster
than HIV, taking a steady 4th place in the frequency of lethal
outcomes.

Etiology of the disease

At the moment, scientists have not come to a final opinion in this
question. Among the causes of Alzheimer’s disease, there are three main
hypotheses:

Холинэргическая теория — самая устаревшая
version. It was based on the fact that with age it can significantly
decrease the level of acetylcholine in the human body. Acetylcholine –
it is a neurotransmitter that takes part in the transmission of the nervous
impulse between neurons. To confirm this theory tried
apply drugs that should have been adjusted
insufficiency of this substance, but this treatment turned out to be
practically ineffective.

Амилоидная теория. Based on accumulation
amyloid in brain tissue long before the onset of symptoms
Alzheimer’s A certain genetic factor at which often
this disease occurs, is also responsible for the development
amyloid. In experiments on mice, success was achieved
drugs that “dissolve” amyloid plaques in the brain.
The introduction of the drug to people with Alzheimer’s disease has not had
significant influence on the course of the disease.

ТАУ-гипотеза. This is the latest hypothesis.
According to ей, белок, входящий в состав нейронов (ТАУ-белок) со
over time can form conglomerates in nerve cells, disrupting
its normal functioning, and later death
the neuron.

According to a 10-year study in the US in early diagnosis
Alzheimer’s disease can play an important role examination of the doctor
ophthalmologist. In the presence of cataracts, the occurrence of this disease
much higher. The clouding of the lens occurs long before
manifestations of Alzheimer’s disease, which makes it possible to suspect high
risk of developing the disease and delay the appearance of the first
symptoms.

Clinical picture – symptoms of the disease

In the Alzheimer’s clinic, the symptoms are very variable;
there may be all signs at once, someone can only
several of them. The disease occurs in four consecutive
stages that differ among themselves.

I стадия — преддеменция

Often stage manifestations are attributed to age or stress.
man, not paying proper attention to them. First symptoms
Alzheimer’s disease can be difficult to catch and recognize immediately, but
именно они являются первым «звоночком» для relatives. With
timely address to the neurologist may slow down the process
disease progression. Of course, not always the presence of these
symptoms can speak precisely about an upcoming Alzheimer’s disease,
but the probability of this is great. Determine whether this is predecession or not.
can a neurologist using certain tests with 80%
probability at later stages the probability increases to
99%.

Manifestations of predmention: Болезнь Альцгеймера симптомы

  • Violation of short-term memory – it’s hard to remember what
    recently diligently tried to remember (recently memorized number
    phone or address).
  • Difficulty learning new information.
  • It’s hard to concentrate, focus on
    assigned task.
  • Inability to explain the meaning of a word or phrase,
    which was previously known.
  • It is difficult or impossible to think abstractly.
  • Decreased mood, motivation, apathy.

II стадия — ранняя деменция

At this stage of the disease increases memory impairment.
A special feature is that long-term memory (for long
events), memory for the usual sequential actions (as
keep cutlery or how to turn on the TV) remain
safe or suffer little. Short term memory and memorization
something new is greatly affected. Agnosia appears – a violation
visual, tactile or / and auditory perception. Can often
appear impaired speech function. It may occur
lethargy speech, depletion of vocabulary. maybe
impaired motor activity due to poor coordination
movements may seem slow, awkward. Writing
also difficult. It is often difficult for a patient to express his thoughts,
but he is able to operate with simple standard notions,
understands and fulfills simple requests. At this stage of the disease
the patient already needs care.

III стадия — умеренная деменция

The disease progresses and arbitrary independent actions.
already almost impossible. Very pronounced speech disorders,
vocabulary is very poor, paraphrasing (substitution
concepts, words). Lost the ability to read and write.

Coordination disorders progress dramatically to such an extent that
the patient can not perform even the usual daily activities
(change clothes, open the door with a key, adjust the temperature
water). Memory also deteriorates. The patient may not recognize their
relatives, now suffers long-term memory, the patient is not
may remember what was with him in his youth, although earlier it was excellent
remembered that.

Psycho-emotional disorders become more pronounced. Sick
become prone to vagrancy, emotional lability,
not restrained, irritable, touchy, often deterioration
comes in the evening. A patient can become aggressive without
cause or cry, often resist attempts to help them.
Some patients may experience delirium. Some appear
incontinence that doesn’t bother them because of hygiene
almost completely lost.

IV стадия — тяжелая деменция

At this stage of the disease Альцгеймера пациенты полностью зависят от
help others, they are vital care. Speech almost completely
is lost, sometimes separate words or short
phrases.

Sick понимают обращенную к ним речь, могут отвечать если не
in words, the manifestation of emotions. Sometimes it can still persist
aggressive behavior, but, as a rule, apathy prevails and
emotional exhaustion.

The patient practically does not move, because of this his muscles
atrophy, and this leads to the impossibility of arbitrary actions,
patients can not even get out of bed.

Even for the simplest tasks, they need the help of an outsider.
person Such people die not because of Alzheimer’s disease itself, but
due to complications, developing with constant bed rest,
for example, pneumonia or pressure sores.

Diagnostics

Other symptoms may be associated with similar symptoms.
neurological pathologies, for example:

  • brain tumor (see signs of brain tumor),
  • Parkinson’s disease (symptoms)
  • stroke (see the first atypical signs of stroke in women, as
    help pine cones from a stroke),
  • cerebral arteriosclerosis (treatment),
  • as well as thyroid disease,

therefore carry out differential diagnostics using
following methods:

  • MMSE testing for learning cognitive functions and
    their violations.
  • Laboratory tests – biochemical blood test,
    study of endocrine functions of the body.
  • CT and NMR – computed tomography with nuclear magnetic
    resonance.

Alzheimer’s Treatment

Completely cure the disease is impossible. But there is
the ability to slow its progression, improve the quality of life
the patient. The following techniques are used for this: Иппотерапия в лечении болезни Альцгеймера

  • Drug therapy – there are special drugs,
    improving the cognitive functions of the patient, including beneficial
    affecting memory. Drugs that can reduce
    anxiety and antidepressants.
  • Proper care, hygiene assistance,
    eating food, dressing up.
  • Psychotherapy
  • Art therapy – a variant of psychological correction, consisting
    in the arts and arts
  • Hippotherapy is a method of rehabilitation based on
    horse riding. This method combines cognitive techniques.
    effects on the psyche and body-oriented techniques – enough
    unique method that brings its results.
  • Music therapy

Автор: Ревус Олеся Григорьевна врач-невролог

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