- What is pituitary adenoma?
- Symptoms of pituitary adenoma
- The danger of pituitary adenoma of the brain
Among the most commonly diagnosed diseases of the brain –
pituitary adenoma of the brain. What it is? it
benign neoplasm that occurs in 15%
cases of all brain tumors.
Гипофиз — главная железа в организме,
regulating the activities of almost all systems. Therefore dangerous
is any deviation in his work.
What is pituitary adenoma?
The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland,
located in the lower part of the brain near the Turkish saddle.
The pituitary gland is responsible for the production of growth hormones, sex hormones,
hormones involved in metabolism.
Аденома гипофиза головного мозга — это доброкачественная
опухоль, расположенная в передней доле железы. Exactly at
hormones such as TSH, ACTH,
LH, FSH, prolactin. Pituitary adenoma occurs in people of age
from 30 to 50 years. Children are diagnosed very rarely. In most
cases, the disease is asymptomatic, the first signs
appear when the tumor is already large and requires
deletion. According to ICD 10, the disease has the cipher code D35.2.
The causes of pituitary adenoma in the brain are still
pores not exactly installed. There is a version of its secondary origin.
First, changes occur in the hypothalamus, which begins
increased pituitary stimulation. The result is hyperplasia.
glandular pituitary cells (enhanced proliferation).
The provoking factors of the appearance of adenoma include:
- Травмы головы (особенно затылочной
- Инфекции (энцефалит, менингит).
- Туберкулез головного мозга.
- Осложненная беременность и роды.
- Прием оральных контрацептивов.
- Курение и алкоголь.
Depending on the size of the adenoma are divided into microadenoma (less than
1 cm) and macroadenoma (more than 1 cm). Tumor can be hormonal
active (60%) and hormonally inactive. Impact of a different kind
The tumor on the body is different and has a different manifestation.
Hormonally active tumors are classified by type of hormones,
which they produce:
to content ↑
Symptoms of pituitary adenoma
Usually microadenoma does not manifest itself, especially if it
hormonally inactive. The expressed symptoms gives adenoma large
sizes producing hormones. Symptoms of adenoma in men
somewhat different from the symptoms in women, as the tumor
produces different hormones.
Article in topic: What is the pineal gland of the brain
(epiphysis)? What functions does it perform in the body?
The signs of adenoma are divided into neurological, that is,
growth-related tumors, and endocrine, associated with excess
hormone production. Neurological symptoms are not
specific, so they often start treating other diseases, and
the tumor in the meantime increases in size.
Main neurological symptoms:
- Decreased visual acuity. The pituitary gland is located near the visual
nerves, the tumor provokes a squeeze. The person can start
to develop a squint, a feeling of ghosting in the eyes, the impossibility
focus on the subject, the disappearance of lateral vision. Sometimes
there are difficulties with turning the eyes.
- Constant nasal congestion. May also develop
persistent runny nose.
- Dull headache, not passing after taking
- Unreasonable fainting.
A macroadenoma that does not produce hormones, puts pressure on
pituitary, therefore, reduced synthesis of hormones. it провоцирует
development of the following pathologies:
- Disruption of thyroid activity. Manifested by weakness
fatigue, dry skin, swelling.
- Violation of the adrenal glands. Patient is experiencing
fatigue, dizziness, poor appetite, low
- Violation of sexual function. In men, impotence develops,
women – menstrual disorders, infertility.
Homonally active adenomas give symptoms depending
excessively produced hormone:
- Somatotropinom. This tumor is more common in adolescents,
causing gigantism, disproportionate growth of the skeleton. In adults
obesity, strong body hair growth, sugar
- Corticotropinomy. Produces ACTH in large quantities. Have
The following signs are observed in patients: obesity (mainly
on the abdomen and chest), increased blood pressure, decreased immunity, weakness
- Prolactinoma Affects sexual function and causes
infertility, impotence, aminorrhea, acne in adults. itт вид
tumors are more common.
- Thyrotropinomy. Causes the thyroid gland to produce hormones. AT
As a result, the patient appears: arrhythmia, jumps in blood pressure, violation
digestion, chills, weight loss, mood swings.
- Gonadotropinoma provokes a lack of sex hormones. it
manifested by decreased libido, cycle failure in women.
to content ↑
Due to non-specific signs of pituitary adenoma of the brain
difficult to diagnose. Not always the doctor can suspect
The main diagnostic methods are:
- Анализ крови на гормоны. Elevated or
low levels of any hormone can be suspected
the presence of tumors.
- MRI it самый информативный современный метод
research. It allows you to accurately determine the localization of the tumor in
head, its structure. Difficulties in diagnosis cause only
microadenomas that grow very slowly. Even a powerful machine
MRI is not always able to detect such an education.
Article in topic: Pituitary adenoma in women. Treatment options
последствия и прогнозto content ↑
The danger of pituitary adenoma of the brain
Than опасна аденома, если ее не лечить? Progressive development
the tumor leads to impaired vision, even blindness. Also
the patient may develop persistent neurological pathology:
hypertension, persistent headache and dizziness. Hormonally
active tumors disrupt endocrine and genital
functions, the disappearance of menstruation in women, impotence in men and
the development of infertility in both sexes. Have детей аденома
leads to disruption of development.
Also, some types of adenomas can be reborn in
malignant tumors, give metastasis. AT этом случае у больного
developing adenopathy. Frequent cases of hemorrhage in the tumor
the cloth. Acromegaly is one of the worst complications.
(increase in hands, feet, front of the skull). AT этом случае
The patient is given a disability group.
The appearance of a tumor in pregnant women is especially dangerous. Even if up
pregnancy adenoma did not manifest itself, then during pregnancy
pituitary gland size increases and symptoms appear
ailment. There is a very high risk of miscarriage, especially in
to content ↑