Decoding the results of the analysis for tumor markers
If cancer is suspected, doctors prescribe a blood test for
tumor markers. What does this study show? The presence of tumor markers
in human blood suggests that develops
malignant or benign tumor. Using analysis
you can identify the disease at the initial stage.
What is the analysis for tumor markers?
Онкомаркеры — это специфические молекулы,
which are formed in the blood in response to the active growth of cancer cells.
These cells are produced by the tumor itself and its neighboring tissues. So
Thus, tumor markers are laboratory indicators of development
cancer and some inflammatory diseases.
For the first time oncomarkers were discovered in the 19th century in the UK.
Currently, about 200 such drugs are known in medicine.
specific cells, however, for the diagnosis of cancer is not investigated
more than 20, other markers have no diagnostic value.
In the study of cancer markers, doctors decide the following
Ранняя диагностика рака. Increase performance
observed long before external symptoms appear
Detection of metastases before their spread by
to the body. So you can predict metastasis
tumors in about six months and prevent this process.
Evaluation of the positive dynamics in the treatment
рака. At the beginning of treatment, there is a sharp increase in proteins.
and antigens, then in the process of therapy, the figures are reduced.
Прогноз жизни и здоровья. If the tumor
small in size, but the number of markers rolls over it
talks about the active spread of the malignant process.
Substances that are markers for oncology:
Protein degradation products of the tumor.
Depending on the difference of markers from normal cells
Markers that are quantitatively different. These substances are present
in the body in a minimum amount, and when a tumor appears
the number increases significantly. For example, hCG and alphafetoprotein
found in the blood of a pregnant woman, if they are detected in men – this
Markers, qualitatively different. These substances are normal in
there is no body. Therefore, these markers show what develops
Also, markers are distinguished by their specificity. That is, for
Each type of cancer has its own specific marker. However, there is no
онкомаркера, 100% характерного для какого-либо cancer. Boost
the same indicator suggests that cancer
localized in one of several organs. However, the test
allows you to outline the circle of possibly affected organs so that
Subsequent appoint additional examination.
So образом, тест на онкомаркеры — это первая ступень в
laboratory diagnosis of tumors.
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Types of tumor markers
howие бывают онкомаркеры? Most often for the diagnosis of oncology
Doctors examine the presence of the following molecules in the blood:
ХГЧ — маркер рака яичников, яичек, матки,
stomach, liver. If at the same time AFP is detected in the blood, then it is with
большей долей вероятности свидетельствует об oncology.
ПСА. This antigen rises in cancer.
prostate, as well as prostate. The marker is specific,
therefore, with an increase in performance, it is very likely
talk about oncology of the prostate gland.
АПФ повышается в крови при онкологии печени,
intestinal respiratory organs. May be a sign of cirrhosis of the liver,
СА-125. This is a marker of ovarian and uterine tumors.
The marker is not specific and can talk about endometriosis,
peritonitis. It also increases in women during menstruation, in
period of menopause and early pregnancy. Slight rise
indicates the presence of pathologies such as: pancreatitis, hepatitis,
SKPYA. Therefore, CA-125 is not 100% evidence.
СА-15.3. Talks about breast cancer in women but
may increase with benign tumors. For authenticity
investigated in combination with other markers of breast tumors (CA 29 and
СА-242 является маркером рака поджелудочной,
also indicative of pancreatitis and a benign tumor
glands. For the diagnosis of cancer is being investigated in conjunction with
Тиреоглобулин — это свидетельство
malignant thyroid process.
Хромосомы 7, 17, 3, 9р21 являются маркерами
bladder cancer. These chromosomes are also present in the urine.
Б2МГ — это специфический белок, повышение
which is a sign of malignant blood diseases
(leukemia). However, high rates are typical for many
autoimmune pathologies: lupus, diabetes, AIDS, kidney and
РЭА. A substance that is produced in
embryo cells, so raising this antigen is
normal in pregnant women women. In other cases, evidence
о раке половых органов, желудка, легкого, молочной glands.
A slight increase is allowed for tuberculosis, work disorders
Important! An oncological process increases the number of
one and several markers at once. Therefore, doctors use
So образом, положительный тест на онкомаркер не
means that the patient has a cancer. The
более, неправильно применять онкотест для профилактики cancer.
Markers can be elevated in various unrelated states.
with oncology. Do not trust the primary analysis, to clarify
diagnosis is required to confirm the diagnosis using ultrasound, MRI,
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When is analysis needed?
Analysis of tumor markers is not mandatory for all people.
Doctors recommend taking oncotest those who have hereditary
predisposition to cancer, that is, the disease was detected in their
close relatives. Also need to be examined
annually to patients with a history of benign
formations: myoma, adenoma, cyst, etc.
The rest are recommended to be screened once every 2-3 years after
infectious diseases, stressful situations or after
the impact of factors unfavorable from the point of view of oncology:
exposure, chemical poisoning, etc. However, some doctors
insist on the annual analysis of all patients who have stepped
fifty year mark.
In a separate group are patients who have cancer.
or those who have completed the course of therapy. In these cases, tests are performed.
to monitor the results of treatment and prevent metastases.
For cancer patients adopted the following procedure for donating blood:
Before the operation.
During chemotherapy to monitor the effectiveness of treatment.
After recovering from cancer, patients are tested.
on tumor markers every month during the first year, every 3 months
– in the second year, every six months – for 6 years after treatment.
This is done in time to detect the onset of relapse.
disease and begin treatment.
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how сдавать анализ крови на онкомаркеры?
Many patients, having received a referral for a blood test on
tumor markers do not know how to take it correctly and where it is possible
free to do research. You can take the analysis for free in
clinic that has special equipment in the direction of
If the patient is not among those who are analyzed
for free, he can pass it in a paid medical center,
providing a similar service.
How much does research cost? Prices are significantly different in
depending on the type of marker. The cost of one marker – from
700 to 2500 rubles.
How accurate will the analysis results be? If you want to
analyze the growth or decrease in performance over time
it is better to donate blood in the same laboratory in order to get
the most reliable results. Decoding results also
carried out in the laboratory where the blood was collected, so
as each medical institution has its own norms.
how подготовиться к исследованию? In order to receive
the most accurate results, you must pass the minimum
To test for tumor markers, blood from a vein is required.
This should be done in the morning on an empty stomach. Last meal
must be 10 hours prior to analysis.
Alcohol should not be consumed for 3 days.
It is necessary to exclude physical activities, stress.
If a man takes a test for prostate cancer markers,
he needs to give up sex for a week before analysis.
The inflammatory process can distort the results, therefore
should move the study to the time when the disease will be
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