Update: October 2018
Pediculosis is a parasitic group disease.
caused by lice. Lice can be of three varieties – headache
louse, clothes louse and pubic louse. The problem of lice in
modern time has not lost its relevance.
Pediculosis is still not uncommon. Special danger
subject to people in contact with a large number of others.
Often, epidemics of this parasitic disease are found in
kindergartens and schools.
It is also easy to get pediculosis using bed linen in
trains, in the bath or sauna. Overwhelmingly
pediculosis caused by head lice.
What do head lice look like?
Many are concerned about how the head lice looks. Lice very quickly
move (speed 23 cm per minute), it is difficult to notice them.
- The insect has a grayish or whitish color, its length
about 2-3 millimeters, has 6 legs.
- It is much easier to notice lice eggs – nits, head lice them
lay in huge quantities.
- Nits are yellowish white and tightly attached to
hair (0,7 cm from the skin), they can not be shaken off as dandruff or
- They have a small size, not more than 1.5 millimeters.
- As a rule, lice and nits are on the scalp,
but sometimes they can be on the eyebrows or eyelashes.
- The life cycle of a head louse (life expectancy) is 3 weeks,
outside the head the insect can live no more than a day, nits 2
of the week.
- Lice feed only on blood, itchy scalp develops
about 2-4 weeks after infection and it is caused by the fact that
when piercing the skin, the lice secrete saliva.
Where lice come from — причины педикулеза
Where do head lice come from? Many are deluded
Regarding the question of how head lice are transmitted. Many think
that they jump or even fly. But it is not so in these insects
no wings for that.
- A human head louse is transmitted by direct contact.
- When using common hygiene items with the patient
(towel, bed linen, hairbrush) or hats.
- Louse can run across the hair if there is contact, especially
probably it is if the hair is long.
- There is an opinion that only antisocial people suffer from pediculosis, but
it is not, ordinary people may have head lice, causes and ways
transmissions are so varied that they can be infected by anyone
- Places where pediculosis is most often infected are children’s
gardens, schools, summer camps, baths, saunas, swimming pools, hotels,
Pediculosis is of great epidemiological significance. In the stomach
head lice have favorable conditions for growth and reproduction
some microorganisms. These include pathogens sypny and
relapsing fever. These diseases are transmitted to humans not by biting,
as is commonly thought, the salivary glands and their secret do not contain
causative agents of typhus. They are excreted with head lice or
when it is crushed. If the scalp is damaged, then
typhus infection will occur. Infection is also possible.
pathogen on the mucous membranes or rubbing it into the skin.
Symptoms of Pediculosis
The first clinical manifestations of the disease can be through
few weeks. The head louse gets to the new owner,
attached to the hair. For reproduction it needs food.
It feeds on blood, piercing the skin with a proboscis. In the field of bite can
small spots remain, itching also occurs in these places.
Then the female starts laying eggs. They are attached tightly to
to hair, therefore at usual washing of a head they do not wash off. Through
a few days young lice appear.
The main symptom of pediculosis is itching in the affected area.
Itching is most pronounced in the occipital region, in the area of the temples and in
auricles. The disease is accompanied by a decrease in appetite and
On examination of the scalp visible damaged areas
skin with yellow crusts. There may be signs of inflammation of the hair
bulbs – folliculitis. In areas of greatest concentration of head lice
(behind the ears, on the temples and on the back of the head) there are changes characteristic
for eczema. On examination, you can see nits. Empty nits have
grayish color. Complete nits are white or yellowish. With their
a crush between the nails will be a click.
In neglected cases, the hair on the head is glued together and formed.
hair tangles. When scratching the scalp is often over
the disease is complicated by furunculosis of the scalp or
other pustular lesions. In the absence of treatment
lymphadenitis develops, cervical and
ear lymph nodes.
Diagnosis of this disease is quite simple. Doctor
dermatologist carefully examine the scalp and hair.
In the presence of nits on the hair and scratching on the head, the diagnosis of pediculosis
confirmed. Sometimes you can brush the lice on a white sheet.
How to remove head lice – how to treat pediculosis?
Earlier when detecting head lice treatment applied
ineffective. Common treatments were common.
kerosene, tar soap, dichlorvos, vinegar or cranberry
juice We strongly recommend against using all these methods.
On the pharmaceutical market are different tools for
treatment of pediculosis. They are in the form of sprays and shampoos (see the most
full review of all lice shampoos and a guide with instructions, prices and
reviews). The most common remedies include:
- The safest and most effective products are oils, odorless.
– Full Marks (450 rubles), emulsion D-95 (about 200 rubles)
- Chemerichnaya water
- Malathion Shampoo – Pedilin
- Permethrin preparations, for example, Nittifor, Knicks, Medifox
concentrate for the preparation of emulsion 5%, medifox-gel
pediculicidal, Hygia, Veda 2.
- Препараты на бензилбензоате, например, Фоксилон
- Phenotrin – Parazidoz Shampoo
- Mineral oils – Paranit shampoo
- Complex drug Pair Plus (permethrin, piperonyl butoxide,
- 5% sulfur ointment
- Boric ointment
The choice of the drug for treatment is carried out by a dermatologist.
Before using any of the drugs must be carefully
read the instructions strictly follow it. All these drugs
toxic. They have a huge number of contraindications
most of these products cannot be used in pregnant women,
small children, allergies or people with respiratory pathologies
ways (see how to get rid of lice in a child).
After using these products, you must comb your hair.
metal comb. The teeth of the comb should be very
rare So how to get rid of head lice and nits is difficult and not all
they perish when treated with means. You can remove the nits with your hands,
but it will take a lot more time. Plastic
combs can not separate the nits from the hair shaft. For relax
removal of nits with a comb, you can apply olive to hair
butter. It also has anti-inflammatory and wound healing
Important! After chemical treatment for
next 2 days do not wash your hair with shampoo. And also should not
use conditioners, hair balms (2 weeks), because
they create a film and prevent the penetration of permethrin and other
substances. If you avoid using toxic substances or
the baby is very small, you can comb nits and lice at 1, 5, 9, 13
day, profusely putting hair conditioner and carefully combing
each strand of frequent scallops (see combing efficiency with
conditioner for head lice). That is, use for
removal of head lice or chemical medium, or air conditioning.
Many people think that you need to shorten long hair. Do
This is not necessary, since the nits are located at the roots of the hair, not
more than 5 centimeters from the surface of the head.
After treatment, a person cannot visit crowded places.
(school, kindergarten, theater, cinema) for two weeks.
Since lice do not live outside the head for more than 1 day, the likelihood
re-infection is not great, however it is, therefore
- After processing the head, do a general cleaning in the room.
- Wash linens and clothes that you walked in.
an infected person for the last 2 days (54 ° C is the temperature in which
five minutes die and nits, and lice).
- It should also disinfect all combs, barrettes – for
this for 1 hour should be placed in water with shampoo for lice, or
in alcohol solution. Or rinse thoroughly with small and put in
package for 2 days in the freezer.
- Things that are not washable – hats, coats, etc.
either dry-clean or simply pack for 14 days in bags –
during this time the nits will die.
You must always follow the rules of personal hygiene, follow
hair condition. Owners of long hair in public
transport is better to remove the hair under the clothes or collect them in the tail.
Never use other’s hairbrushes, hair ties or
barrettes Do not use other people’s hygiene items.
towels. Do not sleep on bedding on the train, it is better to take out
home with you. Do not wear other people’s hats.
If someone in your family discovered this parasitic
disease, then instead of treating the patient should be taken
prevention of the spread of pediculosis.
It is necessary to boil and iron pillows, pillowcases,
sheets, towels, headdresses of the patient. Warn everyone
contact persons (children in kindergarten or school, relatives), pass
examination by a dermatologist.
Автор: Ревус Олеся Григорьевна врач-невролог