Update: November 2018
Flying bloodsucking insects – the inevitable part of our
the environment. How could we not escape from them, but they bite us
regularly. First of all, it is, of course, mosquitoes.
Укус комара или fliesи неприятен, но в большинстве случаев не
dangerous to health. However, we must remember that these insects are still
can carry many diseases, including fatal ones
the outcome In Russia and Europe, such diseases occur infrequently.
But the rapid development of tourism, including in exotic countries,
led to the fact that increasingly began to register imported cases
Fear of flying insects is with us. To panic when
each bite is not necessary, but to know just in case than with a bite
комара или fliesи можно заразиться, а чем нельзя, не помешает.
Why do they bite?
Here the answer is obvious: to get our blood. Contrary to
распространенному мнению, не все комары и fliesи являются
bloodsucking. Many mosquitoes feed on plant sap, bite
only females of certain species. Так же и fliesи – агрессивны только
some species and only at certain times.
When biting an insect, it first pierces the skin with its proboscis,
then injects saliva with an anticoagulant into the wound. It is she who causes
local allergic reaction (swelling, itching). And precisely with saliva
Some pathogens can enter our bodies.
Is it possible to transmit HIV from a mosquito?
Many people believe that a mosquito can be infected with AIDS.
After all, this virus is transmitted through blood. But it is impossible by
- The AIDS virus is very unstable in the external environment, it will
not viable after an hour.
- For other diseases transmitted by a mosquito bite, insect
is an intermediate host. Pathogens are just genetically
programmed for such a life cycle, they penetrate the saliva
mosquito precisely for further distribution. HIV is not a cycle
- So that the blood of the sick person enters the blood of the healthy through a bite,
need to suck mosquito immediately stuck to another
man This, in principle, can not be, he needs a few
hours for digestion.
- Заразиться чем-то от укуса flies и комаров можно, но характерно
it is still not for our locality.
- If immediately after being bitten, this place is unusually swollen and
turned red – this is most likely an allergic reaction. Refer to
the doctor is worth it, but you don’t need to panic.
- If on holiday in subtropical or tropical countries you
some insect bit, need careful control
well-being. Any disease has an incubation
- От flies и комаров нельзя заразиться СПИДом.
- Основная опасность от flies – не укусы, а обсеменение продуктов
pathogens of intestinal infections.
Video: What are dangerous mosquito bites
Diseases transmitted by mosquito bites
Many are concerned about the question ли заразиться чем-то от комара,
if he alone (or not one) bit us on a walk, out of town, in
the forest. And if it happened on vacation in Turkey, Tunisia or Thailand?
Is it possible to get HIV from a mosquito? What to fear and how from
Do you take care of this?
Most распространенная и известная болезнь от укуса комара –
this is malaria. Next in frequency are dengue fever, yellow
fever, West Nile fever, some encephalitis.
The remaining diseases are less common.
Distributed in almost all tropical countries. Annually
about two million people die from it. Called malarial
plasmodium (4 species), the most dangerous one that causes
tropical malaria. Plasmodium is a parasite that invades
inside the cell and multiplies there.
pathogen with the saliva of a mosquito of the genus Anopheles. From the moment of the bite to
manifestations of the disease runs from a week to a month. Some species
Plasmodia can lurk and manifest only after a few
years old. Clinical symptoms are bouts of fever with strong
chills, repeated with a certain frequency (after 48 or
72 hours). Tropical malaria without treatment can cause lethal
With a planned trip to tropical countries, it is recommended for
One week before the trip, start taking antimalarial drugs.
For any flu-like symptoms, you should go through after returning.
diagnosis for malaria.
Distributed in Africa and the jungles of South America. Called
virus that is transmitted by special tropical mosquitoes. Virus
from a mosquito bite penetrates the skin and moves to the lymphatic
knots. After 3-6 days, it goes into the bloodstream, and manifests itself clinically:
fever, muscle, abdominal pain, vomiting, rash, jaundice.
There is no specific treatment. About 15% of patients die.
Yellow fever – одна из немногих тропических инфекций, от
which vaccine exists. Immunity from vaccination holds up to 10
This disease is also caused by the arbovirus (the so-called viruses,
carriers of which are insects). Characteristic of individual
areas of South America, Mexico, Africa and Asia. After about five
days after being bitten by an infected mosquito, an increase is observed
fever, muscle aches, headaches. Через несколько days
the temperature drops, but then returns again, is also characteristic
Dengue fever не так опасна, в большинстве случаев происходит
self-healing, as there is no specific treatment. but
hemorrhagic form of this infection is deadly
disease (fortunately, is rare).
West Nile Fever
The disease in most cases proceeds as a flu with
самовыздоровлением в течение нескольких days. Endemic to many
countries of Asia and Africa, however its outbreaks are periodically recorded
and in the USA, Canada, the countries of the Mediterranean. In 1999 there was an outbreak
this disease in southern Russia. About 6% of cases end
Another viral disease transmitted by mosquito bites.
Until recently, it was a little-known and rare infection. but
in recent years it has become rapidly spreading around the world.
Widely known epidemic in 2015-2016 in Latin America.
The disease as a whole is not difficult, but the infection
Zika virus is more dangerous for pregnant women,
as it causes congenital deformities in the fetus.
Mosquito summer-autumn (Japanese) encephalitis
A rare but dangerous disease. Area of distribution – countries
Southeast Asia and the Far East. In Russia, found in
Primorye. Called арбовирусом, передается комарами.
Incubation перид – от 5 до 15 days.
Clinically manifested by a sharp rise in temperature to 40
degrees, symptoms of damage to the nervous system – paralysis,
convulsions, impaired consciousness up to coma. In 40% of cases, patients
Mosquito (Crimean) fever
It is also a tropical infection, in Russia it is found in the North.
Caucasus, Crimea. Called вирусом, проникающим при укусе
mosquitoes. The incubation period is about a week. Manifests itself
гриппоподобными симптомами, длится 3-5 days. Exodus
In a number of mosquito-borne diseases, not only malaria and
viral infections. Some species этих насекомых способны заражать
human larvae of special parasite worms – filaria. It’s long
thin helminths that penetrate the lymphatic system,
subcutaneous tissue, sometimes – in the eyes.
Most известные из филяриозов – это дирофиляриоз, лоалоз и
Brugioz, and only about 10 species are capable of parasitizing in humans
A worm grown from the larva can live under the skin, and
moves easily under it. But most often they block
lymphatic ducts and cause swelling (“elephant disease”).
Filariasis of the eyes can cause blindness.
These parasites are mainly distributed in tropical and
subtropical countries, however, are also found in Europe and Russia.
The incubation period is from 3 to 6 months. Clinically manifested
allergy symptoms – urticaria, itching, rash, bronchial asthma,
may be diarrhea. If the worm is located close under the skin, it can
feel in the form of a seal, and migrating from one place to
another. Ivory develops already a few years after
Infectious disease, which is caused by Leishmania, parasitic
the simplest. Они передаются человеку от грызунов через укусы
mosquitoes. Characteristic of the tropics and subtropics. Depending on the
type of pathogen the disease proceeds in different ways: ulcers appear and
other types of damage to the skin and mucous membranes. Incubation
the period of this disease can last from several weeks to
нескольких years old.
Чем опасны fliesи
These two-winged flying
insects, in addition to buzzing and other inconveniences, can cause large
harm to health.
Правда в нашей местности больший вред представляют не укусы flies,
and their ability to carry pathogens of various diseases. AT
силу своей вездесущности fliesи быстро перелетают с одного места на
other, sit on various waste and sewage. To their furry
paws stick many different bacteria and worms eggs.
Если fliesа посидит на продуктах питания, возбудитель может
get into the human body and cause serious illness,
These are mainly intestinal infections and helminth infections. Believed to be in
весеннее-летний период именно fliesи – главные разносчики дизентерии,
typhoid fever, salmonellosis. Также fliesи могут переносить
tuberculosis, diphtheria, anthrax, during epidemics – cholera.
Из гельминтозов наибольшее распространение через flies получают яйца
Можно ли чем-то заразиться от укуса fliesи?
Большинство flies питаются пищевыми отходами, соками растений,
feces. But there are bloodsucking species. Через укус fliesи также
possible infection. The most famous disease transmitted
fliesой Цеце – сонная болезнь, вызывается крошечными
unicellular parasites trypanosomes. It is common in
tropical countries in Africa and Australia.
Через несколько несколько недель после укуса такой fliesи
body temperature rises, lymph nodes swell, manifests
severe muscle pain. The person becomes lethargic, drowsy and
apathetic (hence the name). Without treatment, usually is coming
But in our area there are also biting flies. Most
- это fliesи-жигалки (кусаются в осенний
- также оводы и слепни.
Flies – Zhigalki are those annoying flies that deliver to us
painful bites in August-September. Many are concerned about the question
if a fly is bitten to get AIDS, tuberculosis or, for example,
whooping cough? No, this is basically impossible. These flies are not capable
to endure diseases, the only trouble from them is
quite painful bites.
Persons with hypersensitivity and susceptibility to allergies
can severely comb the bite site and can get into the wound
secondary infection: streptoderma, furuncle or
erysipelas. But flies to this have already very indirect
Gadflies and gadflies feed mainly on the blood of animals, but they can
attack and man. Accordingly, they can carry
zooanthroponotic infections – tularemia, anthrax.
A person may become infected with tularemia, including through bites.
gadflies, mosquitoes and ticks, if he got into the natural focal zone
of this disease. The incubation period is from several days to 3
weeks. The disease is manifested by fever, intoxication,
lymph node inflammation, enlarged liver and spleen.
Длительность лихорадки может быть несколько weeks. Forecast more often
Included in the list of the most dangerous infections in the world, outbreaks
it is still recorded, including in Russia. Bacilli
anthrax enter the body through damaged skin.
A carbuncle is formed at the site of introduction – a huge skin ulcer with
inflammation of the nearest lymph nodes. This is a skin form of the disease.
Bacillus secretes the strongest toxin when it enters the blood.
Almost all organs are affected, sepsis develops.
Generalized form almost always ends in death
Gadflies can lay larvae on the body of warm-blooded animals.
Then they penetrate the skin and parasitize there. Very rare but
such a phenomenon happens in humans. Characterized by the presence of
swelling under the skin, a sense of movement of a foreign body,
the formation of painful abscesses.