Update: February 2019
Wind and frost – a dangerous combination. The human body is not
designed for extreme cold and without protective equipment may
literally freeze. What are the negative temperatures for
Long stay in the cold, especially if a person at the same time
goes or runs, leads to the fact that the eyes begin to water,
lowering the freezing point. Accelerated blinking to protect
cornea from freezing. However, the body’s defenses are not
endless. If a person wears lenses, they may be frozen.
the eyeball. Corneal freezing is characterized by discomfort and
blurred vision. With mild frostbite, vision is restored
independently in a few days, in severe cases may
surgery is required.
Fans of outdoor activities should use special
goggles or at least a wide scarf or balaclava that
help protect your eyes from frost.
See also: Cold allergy, What to do when frostbite
fingers, face, first aid for frostbite.
Freezing of skin, muscles and tissues
All “protruding” parts of the body are most at risk.
frostbite: ears, nose, limbs. If only skin suffers,
there is tingling and burning. At temperatures below −40 ° C skin
It freezes in a few minutes and takes on a bright red color.
However, muscles may suffer, especially if the clothes are not
corresponds to the weather.
There are four degrees of frostbite. Longer exposure
cold, the higher the likelihood of deep tissue freezing to
condition requiring amputation. When spreading frostbite
inside the body there is a real threat to life.
Warm hats, gloves and socks are essential accessories for
freezing weather. Before going outside, lubricate the open
parts of the body fat protective cream.
�”Turn off” the body
Due to homeostasis, internal body temperature is maintained
at 37 ° C, and a deviation from this indicator leads to
When the body temperature drops to 32–35 ° C, the
protective, compensatory reactions: constant shivering, rapid
breathing, fatigue (due to loss of energy).
When cooled to less than 32 ° C moderate develops
hypothermia: breathing slows down due to hypoventilation of the lungs,
human behavior is similar to the state of alcoholic intoxication
(poor coordination and slurred speech).
When lowering the indicator below 28 ° C, the risk of death is high
the outcome. All life processes fade away, a person is without
consciousness, pupils dilate, breathing and pulse are barely noticeable, trembling
missing, which is an alarming sign. In this condition
immediate resuscitation is required.
The terminal stage of hypothermia is accompanied by an imaginary
feeling that the person is hot, and in agony he takes off his clothes.
On the slopes of the mountains often find such dead.
This is due to the fact that in the later stages of hypothermia slows down
the bloodstream and blood vessels dilate. It seems to man that he
it burns, whereas in reality there is a rapid loss of heat.
In an attempt to escape, people can bury themselves in the snow in order to
keep warm, but even more supercool and die.
Indeed, snow can save lives if you make a yurt from it,
and inside to include some heat source (at least a candle). But
in direct contact with the body, snow is deadly.
In 1924, George Mallory, an Everest explorer, disappeared without
to lead. His body was found only in 1999. Almost all clothes
was torn apart, but the body was preserved, as if frozen yesterday. In the mountains
Italy, at an altitude of 3200 m was discovered the mummy of a man of the era
stone age. Of course, it has not been preserved in perfect condition, but
there would be no trace of him without the cold.
To avoid becoming a victim of the cold, dress according to the weather and never
go on an extreme journey alone.
. Publication date 01/19/2019.