- What are tumor markers?
- Oncomarkers of the gastrointestinal tract
- Analysis of tumor markers of the gastrointestinal tract
- How is the analysis for tumor markers of the gastrointestinal tract
Informative research on oncology of the stomach and intestines
is a blood test for gastrointestinal tumor markers.
The analysis helps to identify the disease at the stage of preclinical manifestations,
which significantly increases the chances of the patient recovering.
What are tumor markers?
Specific substances (proteins) are called oncomarkers,
which are metabolic products of normal cells. These
substances are secreted by tissues as a reaction to the introduction of abnormal
(oncological) cells. Without the presence of cancer
oncomarkers are not formed. However, a slight increase in performance
It may be caused by other non-cancer diseases.
Therefore, to make a diagnosis based on a single study.
it is impossible, it is necessary to conduct a series of additional tests.
The study of tumor markers of the gastrointestinal tract solves
- Early diagnosis of a malignant process.
- Detection of metastases six months before clinical manifestations.
- Evaluation of the effectiveness of tumor treatment.
During cancer therapy, the tumor decays, so its products
decay to enter the blood in large quantities. It testifies
about the success of treatment. However, the excess of the indicators after the period
remission indicates a relapse of the disease.
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Oncomarkers of the gastrointestinal tract
In total, more than 200 tumor markers were found in medicine, however
no more than 30 have diagnostic value. They are used
for early diagnosis of oncology. The specific marker matches
a certain tumor. The number indicates the stage
All intestinal and stomach tumor markers are divided into specific and
- Nonspecific rises for any type of cancer, allow
determine the extent of the disease, but not its localization.
- Specific increases with a certain type of cancer, by their
value can be judged in which body develops
Types of gastrointestinal tumor markers:
|Tumor marker||What diseases indicates||Norm of indicators|
|CEA (fetal antigen).||Malignant tumor of the stomach, rectum||4.9 ng / ml|
|SCCA (squamous carcinoma antigen)||Indicates a cancer of the epithelium of the esophagus, anus, cervix,
|1.6 ng / ml|
|CA 72-4 (glycoprotein)||The main indicator of gastric cancer||7 units / ml|
|CA 19-9||Indicates cancer of the stomach, rectum, pancreas,
liver, determines the possibility of surgery.
|1000 units – resectable tumor.|
|100,000 units is end-stage mastatic cancer.|
|CA 242||Specific tumor marker tumor of the stomach, intestines,
pancreas stage 1-2
|0-19 u / ml|
|TU M2-RK||Nonspecific metabolic marker indicates
онкологии желудка, поджелудочной, кишечника, lungs, почек
|In the blood – not more than 14.9 u / ml, in the feces – not more than 3.9
u / ml
|AFP (alpha-fetoprotein). Embryo specific protein||In non-pregnant women and men, talking about liver cancer, breast
|До 10 u / ml является нормой, более 400 u / ml — признак
|CA 50 (glycolipid)||Indicates a pancreatic tumor, allows you to evaluate
|До 23 u / ml|
|CA 125||Testifies to intestinal and pancreatic tumors, uterus,
|До 15 u / ml. Более 100 u / ml свидетельствуют о 100%
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Excess of only one tumor marker is not
показателем cancer. Reliable evidence is the complex
boost For example, in stomach cancer, CEA and
CA242. In intestinal cancer, three oncomarkers are immediately detected:
РЭА, CA 19-9, CA 242.
In addition, the deviation of values from the norm can be observed when
other conditions that have nothing to do with oncology. For example,
increased AFP in pregnant women is a variant of the norm. Diseases when
which detect tumor markers:
- РЭА — цирроз печени, острый и хронический
панкреатит, синдром поликистоза ovary.
- СА 72-4 — язва желудка, цирроз, пневмония,
- Ca 19-9 — воспаление желчного пузыря,
фиброаденома молочных желез, киста ovary.
- TU M2-RK — ревматизм, нефропатия диабетиков,
bacterial infections of the digestive tract.
Also elevated values are found in smokers. therefore
it is impossible to make a definite conclusion only on the basis of analyzes. For
confirmation of the diagnosis is required to conduct a comprehensive survey
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Analysis of tumor markers of the gastrointestinal tract
Doctors advise to test for tumor markers for all people after
50 years. Indications for the study of younger patients
- Diagnosed cancer in the next of kin.
- Suspicions of neoplasms of the digestive tract.
- Pre-cancerous conditions (polyps of the stomach, intestines).
- Clarification of the outcome of surgery to remove a tumor of the gastrointestinal organs
- Динамическое наблюдение за процессом лечения cancer.
- Determining the degree of development malignant tumor and
the possibility of the operation.
- Detection of metastases at an early stage.
What oncomarkers need to take? For достоверной диагностики
нецелесообразно исследовать один маркер cancer. Usually if you suspect
на рак ЖКТ назначают комплексное исследование РЭА, CA 242, CA 19-9,
Самым чувствительням является CA 242, он выявляет онкологию на
early stage long before the first symptoms appear. Ca 19-9
has a sensitivity of not more than 25%, so it is always investigated
совместно с CA 242. Комбинация РЭА и CA 242 увеличивает
sensitivity up to 30%, allowing with greater confidence to speak
about the presence or absence of malignant tumors. Isolated
Increased CEA often occurs in autoimmune diseases. If a
these indicators are not enough, the doctor can significantly expand
list of studied tumor markers.
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