- Causes of the syndrome
- Symptoms and Diagnosis
- Treatment of abnormal organ development
Hepatosplenomegaly in a child is a disorder that characterized by simultaneous growth of the liver and spleen to custom sizes.
The translation of the long name for the disease means: “hepato” – the liver, “splenitis” – spleen, “mega” – increase. Everything seems to be simple, but Record “hepatosplenomegaly” in the baby’s outpatient card often causes a real panic in parents.
It’s time to get to know the syndrome better to understand when the problem needs to be fixed urgently, and when – just wait.
The fact of a uniform change in the parameters of the spleen and liver (this phenomenon is not called a diagnosis) is also an inborn difference child’s body. In this case, treating it is unrealistic, like any other features in the form of non-standard ears or an unusual cut eye.
Causes of the syndrome
These organs connect the common nerve pathways, channels of outflow of lymph and venous blood. Reticulohistiocytic tissue that contains spleen and liver, protects them from foreign aggression. Parallel growth of the liver and spleen develops in many diseases. The main reasons for this phenomenon are called:
- Liver diseases associated with circulatory disorders. TO this category includes cirrhosis, hepatitis, vascular problems.
- Chronic infections such as brucellosis, malaria, mononucleosis infectious origin.
- Systemic blood diseases ─ leukemia, hemolytic anemia.
- Chronic form of cardiovascular pathologies such as heart defects, hypertension, ischemia.
- Violation of metabolic processes ─ hemochromatosis, amyloidosis.
Some types of diseases first cause spleen growth, and then liver growth is added to it. Other diseases are characterized by the development of the syndrome in the reverse order. Development chart hepatosplenomegaly due to multivariate causes of it occurrences.
Symptoms and Diagnosis
The diagnosis of hepatosplenomegaly is not established, as changes in organ parameters ─ this is just a form of manifestation underlying disease. More often used in medical practice the concept of hepatosplenomegaly syndrome. Enlarged liver or the spleen manifests itself with a feeling of heaviness in the hypochondrium. Sometimes the disease can be asymptomatic.
But most often, even visually, you can identify a tumor in one or both hypochondria. With deep breathing, she changes position, responding to aching pain.
Hepatosplenomegaly often accompanies jaundice, a violation blood flow, accumulation of excess fluid in the abdominal region. If the child has such diseases, it is necessary consult about hepatosplenomegaly. To understand how serious the situation is in a particular case, one must pass a comprehensive examination.
An experienced doctor is able to pick up at the initial examination a technique that allows you to identify hepatosplenomegaly in a child. For it is enough for a pediatrician to have such a diagnosis palpation and percussion when examining the abdominal cavity of a small the patient. To clarify the diagnosis of the initial examination not enough.
During examinations prescribe MRI or abdominal ultrasound, palpation and doctor uses percussion during examination for installation preliminary diagnosis.
Additionally, a detailed blood test is performed, possibly radioisotope study. The nature of the pathology helps to determine echoscopy.
As one of the diagnostic methods, puncture is used. lymph nodes and bone marrow and a biopsy of increasing problematic organs. Hepatosplenomegaly is more common in patients where the family already has a similar pathology, therefore, they clarify whether there is similar symptoms in its other members.
Treatment of abnormal organ development
The treatment regimen is selected in accordance with the reasons provoked an increase in organs. Sometimes, especially in the nursery age, more precisely during periods of the so-called growth spurt ─5-6, 10-11, 14-15 years, when the body is not fully formed and actively grows, organs align, and hepatosplenomegaly passes spontaneously. If the underlying disease is cured, then the liver and spleen able to independently restore their standard sizes.
Disproportionate development of organs in children causes both acute the form of pathologies is chronic. The main risk group in this categories for pediatricians are patients of the first three years of life, since it is in this period that the maximum contact with carriers of infections ─ the most common cause the appearance of pathology.
Visually assess the degree of enlargement of the baby’s organs in home conditions are difficult. For this, specialists are guided by a base of standard sizes of these organs.
Newborns and infants of the first months of life develop pathologies provoke congenital anomalies ─ cysts, neoplasms, fibrosis.
On enlargement of children’s organs of a cholestatic disease almost no effect. A common cause of hepatosplenomegaly in child are immuno-mediated diseases in which first, the size of the spleen changes.
A special category of pediatric patients are babies with “reactive hepatosplenomegaly” – a kind of reaction of the body active inflammatory process. With such pathologies, the disease transient nature able to level after treatment inflammation.
With a prolonged course of the syndrome in children, irreversible changes in the structure of the organ parenchyma, characterized by the growth of the matrix.
All violations adversely affect the work of others. organs. The fact of revealing this pathology of a child’s life does not threatens, but should be the basis for active treatment of the main ailment.
A guarantee of the normalization of abnormally overgrown organs will be conducting adequate therapy of the underlying disease. Hepatosplenomegaly, which develops against a background of liver damage virus requires antiviral therapy. When, when organ enlargement syndrome provoked cardiac insufficiency, diuretics are used for treatment.
If a detailed blood test revealed a pathology in this areas, the treatment is prescribed by a hematologist.
Is there a specific treatment for the liver with spleen? At serious forms of the disease are prescribed cholespasmolytics (no-shpu, papaverine, dibazole) and choleretic drugs (holoas, xylitol, sorbitol). In some situations, detoxification or hormone therapy.
For prevention during the treatment period, you can additionally give means for the child to improve the intestines and normalization of microflora in it. This helps to avoid the possible side effects of drugs.
During the treatment period, it is important to provide the child with a strict diet, recommended by a doctor. Dairy usually excluded from the diet products, some types of meat (except for veal and turkey meat), fruits (leave apples and pears) and all the juices completely. Find out Is it worth fearing the bend of the gallbladder.
We recommend asking about the topic of why it comes from your mouth. smell of acetone.
Only here you can read in detail, because of which children often motion sickness in any transport. Sausages are forbidden, fried and spicy dishes. Heat treatment allows boiling allowed foods and cooking them in a double boiler. Healthy nutrition and liver support by hepatoprotectors and vitamin complexes may be required in the future. If the child has hepatosplenomegaly, Which specialist should I contact? If development is suspected hepatosplenomegaly syndrome, except for the pediatrician, consult a physician, hematologist, gastroenterologist, infectious disease specialist.