Воспаление lymph nodes in the neck: причины, лечение иsymptoms of cervical lymphadenitis, what to do if they hurt, are increasedlymph nodes

Update: October 2018

Lymph nodes are small body filters. Passes through them
protein-rich liquid, lymph, in which the blood weed out dangerous
for the body, microorganisms and toxins, as well as altered
cells Positioning themselves one after another, they recheck the lymph,
so that until immunity collects its strength, the pathological process will not
went beyond this area.

Lymph nodes are the organs that are the first
when confronted with something potentially dangerous, they give a signal to turn on
protection. Immediately, without waiting for the response of their central organs,
�“Preserve” the dangerous agent inside and begin to attack him with their
forces, simultaneously sending lymphocytes to the source of the problem. Such
storming and causes an increase in lymph nodes.

That is, lymphadenitis – that is the name of their achievement
sizes, when they are visualized or can be probed –
almost always means that in the place from where the lymph is collected
education, there is a problem. The name of this disease may be
both ARVI and inflammation in the area of ​​the dental system, and even
oncologic disease – only the doctor can find out the cause.

Therefore, noticing one or some number of inflamed cervical
lymph nodes, the reasons for this must be sought not independently, but in
close collaboration with medical professionals.

Болят lymph nodes на шее — вероятные причины

Cervical lymphadenitis in adults is the body’s response to
an infectious agent that gets into it: a virus, a fungus or a bacterium With
this last may be:

  • non-specific: Staphylococcus, Proteus, Clostridium, Pseudomonas
    wand, staphylococcus;
  • specific: mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of syphilis,
    gonococcus, brucella, actinomycete mushroom, the bacterium that causes
    tularemia.

In children 1-3 years old lymphadenitis often accompanies such pathologies,
as SARS, rubella, scarlet fever, infectious mononucleosis. is he может
occur when “getting to know” a tubercle bacillus without
necessarily with the disease, and with BCG vaccination. In elementary school
возрасте воспаляются lymph nodes при лакунарной ангине, когда на
tonsils are found ulcers.

An increase in a large number of lymph nodes may accompany
rare diseases such as histioplasmosis or coccidioidomycosis.

Up to three years, and then in 6 – 10 years an increase in a large number
lymph nodes in the absence of symptoms of the disease may appear
a symptom of a physiological phenomenon called “lymphatism”
if a:

  • there is a rapid growth of the child,
  • if in its food animal squirrels prevail.

Treatment of this type of cervical lymphadenitis is not necessary, but observation
pediatrician is required here: it is not necessarily lymphatism, but
manifestation of hypersensitivity. If a в дополнение к
lymphadenopathy will greatly increase the thymus gland (this is the same
орган иммунной системы, как и lymph nodes), это – опасный сигнал.

Classification

In people of any age lymphadenitis is divided into:

  • Acute, caused by highly contagious flora, or appeared when
    injury of lymph node directly.
  • Chronic that develops when penetrating a node
    weakly virulent microflora, with short treatment of the acute process.
    Chronic current immediately acquire specific processes:
    tuberculous, brucellosis, syphilitic.

By the nature of the process occurring inside the lymph node, lymphadenitis
it happens:

  • Catarrhal This stage is characteristic of beginning
    infectious disease. Lymph node soaking is noted here.
    blood plasma.
  • Hyperplastic, occurring in the late stage of the process.
    The lymph node grows due to the abundant reproduction in it of immune
    cells.
  • Purulent. is he развивается только при бактериальном процессе,
    when the lymph node is filled with a large amount of pyogenic
    microflora, or there was a wound of a lymph node infected
    material. With заполнении большим количеством гноя, последний
    may also infiltrate the surrounding tissue. And if the body does not decide
    it is covered with a capsule, then the pus can “spread” all over the neck
    (phlegmon), if the pus focus is surrounded by a capsule, it can
    develop an abscess.

Withзнаки шейной лимфаденопатии

О том, что произошло воспаление lymph nodes in the neck, говорят такие
symptoms:

  • In a place where the neck hurts, you can grope “pea”
    soft elastic properties, moving relative to the overlying skin and
    adjacent muscles. With выраженном воспалении определяется
    no longer “pea”, but a formation with a diameter of up to 5 cm (less often – more
    large), which is visible to the naked eye. This is inflammation.
    on the neck of the lymph nodes, and his treatment is anti-inflammatory. If a
    a similar structure is dense, its outlines are fuzzy, uneven, its not
    you will move aside, it can be a lymph node, but containing
    аномальные cells This is called lymphadenopathy.
  • Structure is painful
  • It becomes painful when passing food in the place of increased
    lymph nodes.
  • Above the painful “ball” can be redness of the skin.
  • Symptoms from the whole organism also develop:
    weakness, subfebrile temperature 37.2 – 37.6 ° C, fatigue,
    unsharp headache.

Often these symptoms are preceded by signs of
infectious process, which served as a triggering factor of the cervical
lymphadenitis. It is a sore throat with ARD, measles and
rubella, high fever with scarlet fever or lacunar quinsy,
intense pain in the jaw with a change in general condition – with
phlegmon of her soft tissue or osteomyelitis, so on.

Signs of lymphadenopathy in children

About inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck of a child. If like
the condition is caused by sluggish inflammation of the head and neck,
or the immune system is not strong enough to quickly overcome
infection, there is a cervical lymphadenitis of a chronic nature. is he
only randomly detected increased
lymph nodes, which feel almost no pain. Wherein
baby feels good, the temperature is not elevated.

If lymphadenitis develops due to acute –
bacterial or viral – a process localized in the mouth
cavities, soft tissues of the head or neck, the following is found
symptoms:

  • a sharp rise in temperature to high numbers;
  • neck swelling;
  • refusal to eat Older children say pointing to the neck area,
    that it became difficult to even drink;
  • sleep disturbance;
  • nausea, lethargy, weakness in babies may develop.

Algorithm of actions when detecting one / several increased
lymph nodes in the neck

If you feel (or have a child complained) local pain in
neck or under jaw area:

  • View this area. There you can find soft injury
    tissue or ulcer.
  • Carefully, with two fingers, feel and “roll” the fabric in
    painful area: with lymphadenitis you will feel the “ball”. If a
    it is myositis, no local education is palpable
    will be.
  • If a вы нащупали «шарик», отметьте для себя такие факты:
    soreness when pressed, the bias of this formation
    on the skin on the top and muscles on the sides, skin temperature
    over it.

      • If a lymph nodes небольшие, безболезненные, «катаются» пальцами,
        many of them at once, it speaks of the pathologies of immunity. Consultant,
        which will help you deal with pathology is an infectious disease disease.
      • Uneven contour, palpable “bumps”, poor mobility
        Education and its painlessness are serious signs. You need
        visit an oncologist who will prescribe the necessary examinations.
      • If a речь – о гнойном процессе самого лимфоузла, он может стать
        severely painful and hot. Your specialist is a surgeon.
      • For inflammatory pathologies of the throat, mouth and neck will be
        characterized by increased pain during palpation, easy “rolling”
        under the fingers. Здесь You need посетить ЛОР-врача, терапевта (для
        children – pediatrician), sometimes – a dentist.
  • The next item of the “program” is self-examination. You need посмотреть
    on your teeth, gums and throat in the mirror so that the mucous membranes are clean,
    without raids and ulcers, and teeth – no signs of damage. Also
    you need to examine the soft tissues of the face and neck – for ulcers,
    damage, dense painful areas. If a что-либо из этого
    present, then most likely you have found the reason
    lymphadenitis. It remains to contact the appropriate specialist and
    get treatment

Lymph nodes are clearly divided into groups is not easy: everyone collects
the lymph from the established area of ​​the head and neck, so you can find
site of infection or atypical cells. But there is a “but”: when expressed
inflammatory process, as well as systemic (they affect immediately
many organs) diseases or lesions of the immune system
several groups are affected at once, which makes it very difficult
diagnostics.

Determine the localization of the disease by the enlarged node

Where the lymph node is inflamed Consistency, soreness, mobility Possible disease
Under the jaw Painful, agile, soft SARS, measles, sore throat, inflammation of the hyoid or
submandibular salivary glands, deep caries, periodontitis,
paratonsillar abscess
Hilly, soldered to the skin, painless is heкологическое заболевание рта, челюсти или слюнных желез
Near the ear Rolling under the fingers, painful, mildly elastic Otitis, furuncle or carbuncle, located in the temporal region,
inflammation of the soft tissues of the earlobe, including those associated with
piercing
Painless soldered is heкологические заболевание кожи височной или околоушной
auricle area
Enlarged cervical lymph nodes behind Motivated, painful Carbuncle, furuncle, phlegmon in the neck, ringworm
deprive or other fungal diseases in this area
Painless, bumpy, spliced ​​with skin Neoplastic process in the occipital part
Behind the ear Riding painful Otitis, mastoiditis, purulent process of the skin in this area
Painless, immobile Skin cancer or metastases in this area
Palpable lymph nodes on the neck in front Mildly elastic, painful with pressure Ulcers on the chin, herpes, stomatitis, pulpitis, festering
root cysts, gum inflammation, osteomyelitis
mandible, inflammation of thyroid tissue, tuberculosis
Welded, hilly, painless Tumor of the lip, mouth, lower jaw, thyroid
glands
Is increased a large number of lymph nodes – but only on the neck Speaks of severe inflammation:

  • soft tissue of the head or neck;
  • suppurative subperiosteal hematoma (if there was an injury
    heads);
  • ear;
  • bones of the skull (for example, osteomyelitis of the jaw);
  • salivary glands
  • pneumatic sinuses of the skull;
  • suppuration of cysts of the roots of teeth;
  • angina;
  • toxoplasmosis;
  • щитовидной glands;
  • as well as lymphogranulomatosis, but it is characteristic
    рецидивирование lymphadenitis.
Many lymph nodes at the same time, and not only on the neck Characteristic of brucellosis, infectious mononucleosis,
systemic processes such as lupus erythematosus, subsepsis
Wissler-Fanconi, reticulohistiocytosis, HIV.

Enlarged lymph node after convalescence ORZ or
treated oral purulent disease does not require panic, but
observation, as it is usually a sign of an organism’s struggle with
infection, and should disappear in a week. If a подобного не
happened, contact the doctor who treated you. is he подскажет, как
treat cervical lymadenitis.

This cannot be said about the treated tumor. Here even
from the moment of surgery, chemotherapy or radiation treatment has passed
many years, you need to urgently visit an oncologist.

Diagnosis and treatment

As mentioned above, lymphadenopathy is not
independent disease, and the reaction of the body to some
infectious process. Therefore, in order to assign the correct
his treatment, you need to establish the reason why the lymph nodes hurt on
the neck. To do this, it is necessary for a person to be examined by a therapist (if
the child’s illness, then the pediatrician), who will refer to
otolaryngologist, dentist, dermatologist, oncologist, infectious diseases specialist
or hematologist. These narrow specialists will prescribe tests to help
clarify the diagnosis. It may be:

  • general blood analysis;
  • Ultrasound of the lymph node;
  • PCR examination of blood for the genome of various viruses and
    bacteria;
  • lymph node biopsy;
  • sternal puncture.

Treatment of lymphadenitis depends on what caused it.
pathology:

  • Fungal diseases of the skin and scalp are treated with local,
    less commonly with systemic anti-fungal drugs. So, apply
    cream “ketoconazole” or “clotrimazole.”
  • Antifungal antibiotics are treated and lymphadenitis caused by
    oral thrush, only in this case “Diflucan”,
    �“Clotrimazole” or “Vorikonazol” are taken in pill form or
    injection.
  • If a лимфаденит вызван заболеваниями зубов, необходимо лечение
    at the dentist who will reorganize the pathological foci.
    You can supplement therapy with the help of physiotherapy methods:
    UHF, galvanization, laser therapy.
  • In case lymphadenitis was caused by bacterial flora, in
    том числе и специфической, воспаление lymph nodes in the neck будет
    be treated with antibiotics (only the right drugs can
    doctor). It treats lymphadenitis in sore throat, osteomyelitis, carbuncle,
    suppuration of cysts of the roots of teeth, erysipelas, endophthalmitis, furunculosis,
    purulent otitis media and other bacterial pathologies. is heо показано и
    if there is suppuration of the lymph node. With the development of such complications,
    like an abscess or adeno-phlegmon, in addition to antibacterial,
    surgical treatment is required.
  • Infectious viral diseases (scarlet fever, measles, rubella),
    caused cervical lymphadenitis, are not subject to specific
    therapy.
  • When lymphadenopathy was caused by infectious mononucleosis,
    Interferon drugs are prescribed: “Viferon”, “Cycloferon”,
    conducted the introduction of specific immunoglobulins in
    age dose.
  • In case of herpes infection causing inflammation
    lymph nodes, prescribed tableted drug
    �”Acyclovir”.
  • If a этиологическим фактором увеличения лимфоузлов стало
    cancer, only the oncologist will be able to choose
    adequate treatment tactics: will it be only removal
    the center of atypia, or it is necessary to carry out radiation, or
    chemotherapy.
  • Systemic diseases are treated by a rheumatologist. is he подберет сочетание
    drugs that will inhibit abnormal immune activity
    system.

Heat enlarged lymph nodes, draw iodine on them
�”Mesh”, it is forbidden to massage them: the body specifically
�”Canned” dangerous agents within themselves, and so can they
spread all over the body. Together with your doctor, determine the cause
pathology, eliminate it and get well soon!

Автор: Кривега Мария Салаватовна врач-реаниматолог

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