Update: October 2018
- A bit of history
- Types of vaccines
- The work of the immune system during vaccination
- Ways to introduce vaccines
- Vaccine composition
- All that concerns contraindications for vaccination
- Adverse reactions
- Memo for parents
- Calendar of preventive vaccinations for children in Russia
Currently active anti-vaccination is underway in Russia
propaganda. This causes great harm to the population, unfortunately, not
everyone is aware of this, but lends itself to the “ducks” of the mass
information. This propaganda is already bearing its terrible results.
The beginning of it was laid in the late 80s. As a result
mass refusal of vaccination with different frequency in the country
epidemics of diphtheria, measles, and polio are occurring. After all, they are infected and
It is those who are not vaccinated who are infected.
Vaccination is a way to prevent serious infections.
(viral and bacterial) diseases, by introducing
An organism of antigenic material, as a result of which
immunity to the disease.
The question of whether children should be vaccinated before each parent
immediately after the birth of the baby. And the answer to it is one – if not
contraindications, if the child is healthy, then vaccinations do
Часто делается сразу несколько прививок детям (BUTTOДС, например,
immediately includes 3 components). It is permissible and not scary,
although many are afraid of this, but often they themselves do not know why. For
A healthy baby’s immune system is quite normal. More
details of this will be discussed below.
For некоторых возбудителей формируется стойкий иммунитет сразу,
for others, revaccination is required, i.e. repeated administration
antigen to maintain stable immunity.
A bit of history
Back in ancient times, inoculation was practiced in India and China.
If the infectious disease is accompanied by the appearance of bubbles
on the human body, then they took the liquid from them and injected healthy
to people. Of course, in ancient times it was not always safe, and
Often there were infections in this way, since the pathogen was not
weakened in the inoculum. But a start was made.
Если говорить не о древних временах, то еще в BUTнглии было
it has been observed that milkmaids who got sick with cowpox never
subsequently did not have smallpox. Edward Jenner also knew
about this take and decided to check it out. First he vaccinated the child from
cowpox, and after some time he was introduced pathogen
smallpox. The child did not get sick. This was the beginning
vaccination. But the term itself appeared much later, it suggested
Louis Pasteur, he was able to manufacture the first vaccines with weakened
In Russia, vaccinations appeared during the reign of Catherine
Types of vaccines
- Live vaccine – live attenuated as antigen
microorganism, these include polio vaccines (in the form of
drops), rubella, parotitis.
- Inactivated vaccine – acts as an antigen or
dead microorganism, or part of it, for example, the cell wall. TO
These include pertussis vaccine, meningococcal disease,
- BUTнатоксины — в качестве антигена выступает инактивированный (не
brings no harm to the human body) toxin, which
produces a pathogen. TO ним относятся прививки против столбняка
- Biosynthetic vaccines – derived from
genetic engineering technologies, for example, hepatitis B vaccine.
The work of the immune system during vaccination
The immune system is the guardian of our body. On any
alien agent she reacts. When hit by such an agent
(antigen) immune system is activated, mass production occurs
biologically active substances, increases the production of leukocytes
bone marrow and antibodies are produced. BUTнтитела являются
specific for different antigens. So these antibodies
can last a long time or a lifetime, and this allows
protect the body from the pathogenic effects of this antigen. With
ingested by the same foreign agent, the existing antibodies will destroy
Withнцип действия прививки основан на этом – в организм вводится
antigen (weakened or killed pathogen, or part thereof).
The immune system is activated, there is production of antibodies to this.
pathogen. These antibodies are stored in the human body.
for a long time, protecting it from this disease. With этом
a person does not get sick, as a weakened microorganism, and
more dead or part of it can not cause the development of the disease.
If in the future a person encounters the causative agent of this
disease, then when an infectious agent enters the body,
existing antibodies immediately attack these microorganisms and destroy
their. Thus, the disease does not develop.
Ways to introduce vaccines
Most often used when administering vaccines. Body muscles
human blood supply is excellent, which provides excellent
the rate of entry of immune cells to the site of administration of the antigen, and this
provides the fastest production of immunity. Distance from
skin reduces the risk of local side effects. Withвивки
Children under 3 years old are introduced into the anterior-lateral surface of the thigh.
Introduction to the gluteus muscle is not recommended, since on the buttocks
the thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer is large, and the needles for vaccination
short, in this case, you get a subcutaneous injection, and not
intramuscular. There is also always the risk of getting into
sciatic nerve. In 2 years, but better after 3 years, allowed
inject vaccines into the deltoid muscle (in the shoulder area, in the projection
Intradermal and cutaneous
Vaccine against tuberculosis (BCG), against
туляремии, ранее также вводилась вакцина против smallpox.
The traditional injection site is the shoulder or flexor surface.
forearm With правильном введении вакцины образуется «лимонная
crust”. It looks like a whitish spot with small
indentations, like on a lemon rind, hence the name.
In this way, gangrenous or streptococcal are administered.
toxoids, as well as this method can be used with the introduction
live vaccines. Since in this case the production rate decreases
immunity, it is not recommended to introduce in this way vaccines
rabies and hepatitis B. Also this becomes
route of administration in patients with bleeding disorders, so
as the risk of bleeding when subcutaneously significantly lower,
rather than intramuscular injection.
Oral (by mouth)
Thus, according to the immunization schedule for
children in Russia, a live polio vaccine is introduced after 1
of the year. In other countries, the vaccine is also orally administered.
typhoid fever. If the vaccine tastes bad, it is offered on
a piece of sugar.
BUTэрозольный (через нос, интраназальный)
One of the domestic flu vaccines has this path.
introduction. It provides the appearance of local immunity in the input
gate infection. Immunity is unstable.
Simultaneous administration of vaccines
Some fear that in some cases simultaneously introduced
several vaccines. But do not be afraid of it. Based
many years of experience, it does not carry any complications. The only ones
vaccines that cannot be administered at the same time – this is against cholera and
against yellow fever.
In the composition of the vaccine, in addition to the main active substance
(antigen) can be preservative, sorbent, stabilizer,
non-specific impurities and filler.
TO неспецифическим примесям относятся белок субстрата, где
cultured viral vaccine, a microscopic amount
antibiotic and animal serum proteins if they were used in
cultivating the necessary cell cultures.
TOонсервант входит в состав любой vaccines. His presence
necessary to ensure sterility of the solution. Condition of them
availability exhibited by WHO experts.
Stabilizers and fillers are optional
components, but in some cases they are found in vaccines.
Only stabilizers and fillers are used which
allowed for introduction into the human body.
All that concerns contraindications for vaccination
After the question “what vaccinations do children?”, The next question
young mothers appear “what are contraindications?”. This
the question is worthy of close attention, so we will consider all
Currently, the list of contraindications is reduced. To this
There is a logical explanation.
- As a result многолетних наблюдений и исследований было
It has been established that infections from which children are vaccinated occur
much harder in persons to whom vaccinations were previously contraindicated.
For example, in children with malnutrition, infected
tuberculosis, the disease is much worse. Premature
children who are infected with whooping cough have a higher risk of death.
TOраснуха протекает гораздо тяжелее у больных сахарным диабетом, а
flu – in patients with bronchial asthma. Prohibit inoculating such
children means putting them in great danger.
- Studies conducted under the supervision of WHO have shown that
post-vaccination period in these children is the same as in
healthy children. It was also found that as a result of vaccination
the course of background chronic diseases does not worsen.
- Thanks to improved vaccine manufacturing technology
it was possible to achieve a significant reduction in ballast substances and
proteins that can provoke side reactions. For example,
vaccine content of egg white is minimized and not even
determined by This allows making such vaccines for children with
allergy to egg whites.
There are several types of contraindications:
- True contraindications are those listed in
annotations to vaccines and are available in orders and international
- Ложные – они по сути не являются ими. They are
inventions of parents or because of traditions. For example, for some reason
some doctors still consider perinatal encephalopathy
contraindication, although it is not.
- BUTбсолютные – при наличии их, прививка, даже если она указана
among the vaccinations required in the calendar, the child is not vaccinated.
- Fromносительные – это противопоказания, относящиеся к
true but final decision on vaccination
The doctor accepts, comparing risks of each of decisions. For example, when
egg white allergies do not usually get a flu shot, but
in case of a dangerous epidemic situation, the risk of allergy is lower than the risk
flu infection. In other countries it is not even
contraindication, just conduct training that reduces the risk
manifestations of allergies.
- Временные – например, ОРВИ у ребенка или обострение
chronic disease, after recovery of the child is allowed
- Постоянные – они не будут сняты никогда, например,
primary immunodeficiency in a child.
- Общие – они касаются всех прививок, например, нельзя
do no vaccination if there is a temperature or baby
suffers an acute illness.
- Частные – это такие противопоказания, которые касаются
only a few vaccinations, but others are allowed
True contraindications for prophylactic
|Any vaccines||Strong response to previous administration of this vaccine
(temperature rises above 40 ° C or (and) redness and swelling in place
administration of a vaccine with a diameter of more than 8 cm in a child after vaccination).
Complications – anaphylactic shock, angioedema, arthritis
or other complications.
|Live vaccines||Primary immunodeficiency, malignant neoplasms,
|BCG||Low birth weight (less than 2 kg), education
keloid scar at the site of the previous injection, intrauterine
infection, severe neurological disorders, generalized
BCG–инфекция (у других близких родственников), гемолитическая
neonatal disease, systemic skin pathologies, mother’s HIV,
иммунодефицит у ребенка (см. о прививке BCG и ее последствиях —
|BUTTOДС||The presence of convulsions in the history of the child, progressive
|TOПTO||Severe allergy to aminoglycosides. BUTнафилактический шок на
egg white in history.
|Vaccine от гепатита В||BUTллергическая реакция на хлебопекарные дрожжи, если у
newborn baby had a prolonged physiological jaundice
(hyperbilirubinemia) with high bilirubin.
Withвивка – это иммунобиологический препарат, который вызывает
the desired changes in the body in the form of producing immunity to
severe infectious diseases, but there may be
Often, mothers worry that the child has a fever after vaccination.
body rises or local reactions occur, but should not
worry if the reaction does not become transcendent.
An adverse reaction is a normal reaction of the body, it is
reflects the process of developing immunity after ingestion
baby alien antigen. If these reactions are not very pronounced
strongly then this is even a positive thing talking about
high activity of the immune system. But their absence does not say
that insufficient immunity is developed, it is only
individual feature of the reactivity of the immune system.
With возникновении тяжелых побочных реакция, например, подъем
temperatures above 40 degrees, you must urgently report this
to the doctor. Since in addition to helping the child, the doctor must
will fill out a number of documents and transfer them to special bodies,
who are involved in quality control of vaccines. With появлении
several such cases, a batch of vaccines is confiscated and carefully
Read in detail about the complications and behavior after vaccinations.
It is very important to keep in mind the typicality of these adverse reactions.
For example, if it is known that children after rubella vaccinations can
have a slight swelling in the joints, then aggravation
gastritis during this period will not have any vaccination
relations. It is not necessary to write off various coincidences on
The frequency of side effects is also known. For example, vaccine
against viral hepatitis B in 7% of cases gives a local response, and
rubella vaccine in 5% – general adverse reaction
|Local adverse reactions||Common adverse reactions|
|TO ним относятся:
Withчиной этого является асептическое воспаление в месте введения
Many inactivated vaccines contain
The most frequent of these are hyperthermia and rash. Rash возникает
According to the results of the control of the State Institute
стандартизации и контроля вакцин и сывороток, в течение 8
лет осложнений после введения любых вакцин было около
500! Whereas mortality from the same whooping cough is 4000
Anti-vaccination – это общественное движение, представители
which challenge the efficacy and safety of vaccines.
For the first time talked about this in the late 19th century. In modern
The situation in the world is exacerbated by customized reports in the media and many
inaccurate articles written by amateurs on the Internet.
Most people, not understanding what is at stake, not understanding in
immunology is nothing, too confident about the problem. �”Infecting” and
others with their wrong judgments.
Let’s debunk the anti-vaccination myths:
�”The conspiracy of pharmacists and doctors”
For some reason, some people think that they try to do vaccines.
money doctors and pharmacists. But why are extreme
vaccines? Any branch of pharmacy or in any other field
is somehow profitable for someone, but for some reason
�Only vaccinations are to blame for some people. And the main goal
vaccine production has been and remains – prevention of dangerous
infectious diseases, not profits.
Statistics show the opposite. Cases of disease among
vaccinated are rare, and if development occurs
disease, then it proceeds in a mild form. But unvaccinated
a person confronted with a carrier of infection will fall ill with the probability
Recall what epidemics were around the world, in times of
smallpox and how many people died. But the vaccine against her in
radically changed the situation. Only thanks to polls
vaccinating everyone for over 30 years
the causative agent of smallpox is not registered.
Denying the need for vaccination
Without evidence of incidence, vaccine inhibitors mistakenly
They think that these infections are quite rare. But it also
mistake. Hepatitis B incidence over 6 years of active
vaccination of children fell from 9 per 100 thousand to 1.6 per 100 thousand
while still this figure is large because the number of parents
refusing vaccination according to the calendar
vaccinations, for children under one year old or who refuse completely, are very large. BUT
this leads to the formation of a non-immune stratum of the population, and
these are potential vectors of these infections.
Allegation of adverse effects of vaccines
One of the most ridiculous statements on this subject is that
vaccines contain mercury compounds that cause autism. Let’s start with
the fact that in humans can find almost all the elements
Periodic tables and mercury there is not in last place. We daily
with food we get microdoses of such compounds. BUT в вакцинах это
the compound is even smaller and plays a role
preservative. Not to mention that similar exogenous factors
generally can not in any way influence the appearance of autism. Even a student
Medical Institute knows more about the etiology of this disease,
rather than anti-vaccination agents, because even minimal knowledge was enough
would not argue such nonsense. It is because of ignorance
There are similar rumors about epilepsy and other diseases.
Recall the typicality of adverse reactions – do not blame the vaccination in
that would have happened without it.
Immunization destroys immunity
Another nonsense from people who don’t know how the immune system works
system. We have already said that during vaccination, the immune system
activated, do not repeat, I think.
Memo for parents
- Bathing is not recommended on the day of vaccination and the next day.
walk. Since supercooling and contacts with a lot of
people can cause baby outbreaks. In the first 2 days
the immune system actively develops immunity to the administered
antigens and additional immune load to anything, immunity
can simply not cope and SARS will develop.
- If the child’s temperature rises above 37.5, then you should give
antipyretic and consult with your doctor.
- If there is a local reaction, it may help
antihistamine drugs, but before giving anything to a child
from drugs, ask your doctor!
- At the time of introduction of the vaccine, the child must be healthy. From
the end of the last disease must pass at least 2
weeks. The child must be examined by a pediatrician and must be
normal blood count and urine counts.
Calendar of preventive vaccinations for children in Russia
BUTвтор: Ревус Олеся Григорьевна врач-невролог