Update: December 2018
The word “polio” literally translates as “gray inflammation
substances of the spinal cord. ” The disease is known to mankind with
deep antiquity. The earliest mention of it is dated
14-16th century BC and represents the image
a man with a shortened leg and a hanging foot – typical
consequences of polio paralysis. Polio cases
described Hippocrates. For a long time, the incidence of polio
kept low and the infection did not attract
The situation has changed since the 19th century. More children in
Northern European countries, USA, Canada fell ill with paralytic
form of poliomyelitis and acquired a severe disability at the end
all life. Scientists have established the viral nature of the disease and set about
for the development of a polio vaccine. Long study time
went hard – as a laboratory model of infection fit
only monkeys that were available in sufficient quantities
is impossible. Meanwhile, the incidence was increasing and acquiring
epidemic character. So, in the period from 1955 to 1958 on
территории СССР ежегодно регистрировалось 22 000 случаев
Since the beginning of the 20th century, it was known that once
polio, the person does not re-infect them. Consequently,
the infection left behind a strong immunity, and in this case
vaccination is the most promising method of dealing with the disease. Forces
leading scientists were thrown on the development of methods of accumulating the virus
in laboratory cell cultures, its isolation and preparation
In 1950, the American scientist Salk, who had previously created
effective and safe flu vaccine developed
inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). In 1954
The American pharmaceutical company has released the first series
a drug that has successfully passed clinical trials. The president
USA Eisenhower donated to the development of other countries and with
From this moment on, the era of polio vaccination began.
the whole world. Just 2 years after the start of the vaccination program
the incidence of infection has decreased to small outbreaks, and
subsequently, only isolated cases were recorded.
Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV)
Inactivated polio vaccine is a suspension
nonviable viral particles in a liquid medium. Salk developed
virus culture technology in the laboratory: it
brought in material from a polio-infected animal to the culture
living cells derived from the kidney green monkey. Viral
particles successfully multiplied and accumulated in suitable
cages. When reaching the desired concentration of the pathogen scientist
destroyed the cells and filtered the mixture to separate
virus particles from cell debris. The resulting culture he
formalinized for 12 days and got in the end
non-viable vaccine strain.
The largest modern manufacturer of IPV – French Institute
Sanofi Pasteur – for cleaning the drug from bacterial contamination
uses antibiotics: polymyxin B, streptomycin, neomycin. They
are stored in the finished vaccine in trace amounts along with
insignificant admixture of formalin. This composition gives the vaccine
additional durability and allows you to store it for a long time
outside the fridge.
Vaccine safety has been tested before clinical
tests introducing it into the central nervous system of the monkey.
Suitable for vaccination of people did not cause the drug in an animal
poliomyelitis clinics, but provoked the production of protective antibodies
immune system. The antibodies subsequently protected the person from
poliomyelitis virus infection or contributed to the easy flow
However, already in the first years of vaccine use, its
low immunogenicity – not enough immunity was formed
stressful and for the graft remained the danger of infection.
Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV)
The solution to the problem was the creation in the 60s of the 20th century a living
weakened (attenuated) oral vaccine –
OPV It was received by the Soviet scientist Koprovsky, who repeatedly
transplanted the same virus strain from an infected rat to
healthy. Such a transplant gradually reduced the infectiousness of the virus.
and as a result, a pathogen safe for humans was obtained.
Viral частицы после введения размножались в клетках миндалин
and intestines, causing an active immune response and the production of large
the amount of protective antibodies. A significant disadvantage of OPV is risk.
complications in the form of post-vaccination flaccid paralysis, which
является одной из форм poliomyelitis.
Thus, for vaccination against polio used 2 types
- inactivated for subcutaneous administration;
- liquid for oral administration (poliomyelitis drops).
Comparative characteristics of drugs for vaccinations
When are they vaccinated?
- the drug is administered to children aged 3, 4.5 and 6 months
- first revaccination at 18 months
- the second is at 20 months
- the third is at the age of 14.
Побочные действия vaccinations
Помимо специфических осложнений, после vaccinations от полиомиелита
inactivated vaccine may be non-specific in the form of:
- local reactions – edema, pain, redness in place
administrations lasting no more than 48 hours;
- swollen lymph nodes;
- urticaria – an itchy skin rash;
- anaphylactic shock;
- Quincke’s edema;
- muscle and joint pain;
- increase in body temperature;
- seizures during fever;
- increased excitability within 2 weeks after
The listed reactions occur rarely and are usually associated with
violation of the rules of vaccination: the drug is administered to a child with reduced
immunity or recently suffered a disease.
Read more about the effects of vaccinations.
Contraindications for vaccination
Vaccinating a child is a responsible task and responsibility in
the first place lies with his parents. Immediately before
vaccination should be taken from the district pediatrician direction to
complete blood count and urinalysis, and pass them to the clinic
or in a private medical center. Based on received
results and examination of the child pediatrician concludes that
whether he can enter the vaccine at the moment. Immunity
reflects the number of leukocytes and their ratio in the overall analysis
blood, acute inflammation detected by urinalysis.
Contraindications for vaccination include:
- acute infection or exacerbation of chronic;
- acute inflammatory process of any localization or its
- decrease in the number of leukocytes – immunodeficiency;
- tumors of lymphoid and hematopoietic tissue;
- гиперчувствительность к компонентам vaccines.
After acute illness / exacerbation of chronic
child can be vaccinated no earlier than 2 weeks from
recovery provided normalization of blood parameters. The same
restrictions exist in situations if the baby is healthy but sick
infectious disease of any household. After the introduction
vaccines for infants should stop the introduction for 7 days
General characteristics of polio
Poliomyelitis is an infection with a fecal-oral mechanism.
transfer, otherwise it can be called “dirty hands disease”. AT
the vast majority of cases the disease is asymptomatic or
виде ОРATИ, легкой кишечной infections. Severe Polio
associated with the penetration of the virus into the central nervous system and
damage to the motor neurons of the spinal cord.
The source of infection is a person suffering from any form of
poliomyelitis. It secretes the virus into the environment with feces,
mucus from the pharynx and upper respiratory tract. Man becomes
contagious from the end of the incubation period when there is no
clinical manifestations of the disease – during this period it is most dangerous
for others. Contagiousness in some cases persists on
throughout 2 months after clinical recovery.
Infection with polio occurs when:
- non-compliance with personal hygiene;
- consuming raw contaminated water;
- not washed berries, fruits, vegetables (especially if
for fertilizer human feces are used).
ATыделяют 4 клинические формы полиомиелита у детей:
This is the most frequent variant of the interaction of the pathogen with the body.
child, is found in 72% of cases of infection. ATирус размножается в
cells of the tonsils and intestines, without causing any
clinical picture. One can only learn about the infection that occurred.
laboratory methods when detected in the blood of a child
class G immunoglobulin (less often – M) to the pathogen.
This is the second most common option, occurs in 24%
infected. The infection proceeds with non-specific symptoms, not
related to polio:
- The child’s body temperature rises, he becomes sluggish,
irritable, complains of headache.
- The patient’s appetite is absent, vomiting and liquid possible.
- AT ряде случаев признаки кишечной infections are combined with
oropharyngeal lesion: redness of the throat, enlarged tonsils,
pain and sore throat, dry cough.
The disease lasts for several days, after which comes the full
recovery. You can learn about past polio infection
laboratory methods in the study of feces for viral antigens and
blood for antibodies to it.
Эта форма возникает у 4% детей от общего числа infected. ATирус
penetrates the meninges and causes inflammation in them
the process that manifests symptoms of meningitis:
- The child’s body temperature rises, he suffers from
unbearable headache, sharply negative reaction to bright light,
the sound is unpleasant to him.
- Often there is vomiting by a fountain without prior nausea or
loose stools, no appetite.
The disease lasts from 2-10 days, after which comes rapid and
полное recovery. After polio in the blood of a child
antibodies to poliovirus are detected.
This form occurs in less than 1% of cases (on average, 1 case
per 1000 infected). ATирус проникает через мозговые оболочки и
enters the motor neurons of the spinal cord. He calls in them
pathological changes that manifest flaccid paralysis
– a decrease or complete lack of muscle strength in the limbs.
- Symptoms паралича возникают в первые часы или несколько суток
- The child loses the ability to walk, perform movements with his hands,
swallow food depending on the level of spinal / head injury
- The acute period lasts 2-3 weeks, after which comes
recovery period lasting up to a year.
The effects of poliomyelitis are finally evaluated after 12 months.
от начала diseases. As a rule, they represent
disability of varying severity: from limping and weakness
in legs to complete loss of mobility.
ATо всех случаях, кроме паралитической формы болезни перенесенную
polioinfection is established only by laboratory methods. AT первую
queue are conducting a fecal PCR test to detect
viral RNA. With a positive result, blood is examined for
antibodies to poliovirus. About acute infection says high titer
immunoglobulin M – they begin to be produced from the first days
infections. Detection of high titer of immunoglobulin G is
a sign of infection within 2-3 months
AT общем анализе крови изменения происходят только в период
acute infection – the amount of hemoglobin, red blood cells is reduced,
leukocyte count increases, ESR accelerates. With
meningeal disease additionally perform puncture
spinal canal and cerebrospinal fluid sampling for analysis. AT ликворе
PCR detects poliovirus RNA, increases
the number of lymphocytes and protein.
Treatmentм полиомиелита занимается врач-инфекционист, при
paralytic form of the disease he leads the patient along with
a neurologist. The patient is hospitalized in an infectious hospital and
isolated in a separate box for at least 40 days. AT остром
during the period of illness he is shown a strict bed rest.
Specific antiviral drugs for the treatment of poliomyelitis
not developed. Symptomatic and tonic
treatment by administering immunoglobulin, vitamins, drugs for
protection of the nervous system (nootropics). Children after polio in
first of all, competent and intensive rehabilitation is necessary,
чтобы восстановить активность нейронов спинного the brain. For this
apply methods of physiotherapy, physical therapy, massage.
Is polio vaccine given to children?
AT РФ полиомиелитная вакцина входит в национальный календарь
vaccinations and is mandatory for the introduction of children of early years
of life. AT последнее время набирает силу движение
�”Anti-vaccination”, which positions vaccines as unconditional
harm to children’s health.
However, each parent, before making a choice between
vaccination and rejection of it, you should think: how long
saw smallpox, polio, measles in their children or among children
friends? Only widespread and widespread introduction to medical
the practice of preventive vaccinations allowed to make a living
современных детей безопасной и healthy.
Foci of poliovirus infection to this day retain their
активность в странах Африки и Ближнего ATостока, что связано с
low standard of living and inaccessibility of medical care, including
числе и vaccination. Active migration processes, developed tourism
contribute to the importation of infection into the territory of the Russian Federation.
It will not be distributed only if more than 70%
children will be covered by preventive vaccination.
A large number of unvaccinated children is a high risk of epidemic
polio, which means hundreds and thousands
Disabled human lives.