Uterine fibroids symptoms and treatment, signs,causes and consequences

Update: December 2018

If a doctor on the basis of an ultrasound scan tells the woman that she has fibroids
Uterus, of course, it covers anxiety, panic. Why
appeared uterine fibroids and what is it? Do not despair
and get upset, be sure to after the next menstruation
repeat the examination at the same doctor on the device with vaginal
for the accuracy of another specialist to
confirm or exclude this diagnosis. What is uterine fibroids,
symptoms and treatment, causes and how to treat myoma
uterus – these questions we will consider in this article.

What is uterine fibroids?

Uterine fibroids, as well as leiomyoma, fibromyoma is
benign tumor (not oncology), the growth of which occurs in
the walls of the cervix or in the walls of the uterus itself. By the size of such
overgrowth can be several millimeters or several
centimeters, most often in women there is multiple myoma,
when several tumors form at once. For comfort
estimates of fibroids, gynecologists use the uterus size analogy
in women during pregnancy, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, etc. Given
the location of uterine fibroids, in medicine there are several

  • Subserous fibroids – when the tumor is located with
    the outer side on the surface of the uterus, under the membrane that separates
    abdominal organs from the uterus.
  • Intramuscular or interstitial fibroids – in this case fibroids
    located inside the muscular wall of the uterus.
  • Submucosa or submucous myoma – when the tumor grows
    inside the uterus, right under the mucous membrane and goes into her
  • Uterine fibroids on the pedicle is not a separate gradation, because
    there may be subserous myoma on the leg and submucosa on the pedicle.
    Only the leg can be narrow or wide, i.e. fibroids on a wide

Causes of uterine fibroids in women

The development of fibroids is a consequence of hormonal disorders
in women, it is considered the main cause of uterine fibroids. Therefore
most often, fibroids are formed in young women, and may
self-dissolve during menopause, at a time when
estrogen levels are markedly reduced. So, the main reasons
the appearance of uterine fibroids:

  • Hereditary dispositionUterine fibroids symptoms and treatment, signs, causes and consequences
  • Hormonal disorders
  • Adenomyosis
  • Inflammatory gynecological diseases, as well as violation
    metabolism, diabetes, chronic internal diseases
  • Prolonged or constant stress – depressing the work of the ovaries,
    adrenal gland, thyroid gland
  • Sedentary lifestyle, obesity
  • Frequent abortions (consequences), use of intrauterine devices
  • Lack of orgasm during intercourse

Consider some causes of uterine fibroids in more detail:

Excess estrogen, progesterone deficiency

Uterine myoma is considered a hormone-dependent tumor, so its
practically does not happen in girls before the onset of the period of sexual
maturation, that is, before the first menstruation and in women in
postmenopausal period. In case of violation of local regulation
hormones that feed this organ when their level rises,
происходит рост myomas. Moreover, many researchers argue that
not just a high level of estrogen “guilty” in its growth, but
estrogenic imbalance, which a single analysis to establish
impossible, for this you should determine the full hormonal status
women. Also chemicals like xenoestrogens,
which are present in the body, have estrogen-like
action, and their increase can affect the development of endometriosis,
uterine fibroids.

Number of pregnancies, childbirth, abortions

When determining the hormonal status of women are taken into account –
when the first menstruation began, the number of interrupted and full-term
pregnancy, lactation duration and other factors. Have
women who gave birth to at least one child, the likelihood of developing fibroids

Woman nutrition

Haveвеличению уровня эстрогенов способствует нарушение обмена
substances, obesity, and even just regular use
refined products, lack of fiber, an excess of saturated
жирных кислот в ежедневном рационе women. Proved that
overweight, more precisely excess fat mass in relation to
lean body mass is also a contributing factor
excessive formation of female sex hormones, because fatty
fiber promotes the transfer of androgens to estrogens, which
increases the risk of breast cancer, endometriosis, fibroids

Have вегетарианцев риск развития гормонозависимых заболеваний
женских половых bodies намного ниже. Diet containing mostly
vegetables, cereals, fruits, dairy products with a small amount
жиров — снижают риск development of fibroids. Every extra 10 kg. weights
increase by 20% the risk of its development. This observation is interesting,
that most women with elevated estrogen levels are fat,
very energetic, healthy, look younger than his years, very

Lack of orgasm during sexual intercourse

The lack of harmony in intimate life, the absence of orgasm
intercourse when blood rush after sexual arousal not
leaves and stagnates in the pelvis, it causes tension
vessels and venous stasis (one of the causes of pain during
sex). If a woman is not satisfied for a long time
from sex, it can provoke hormone imbalance and
development of fibroids.

Diabetes mellitus and hypertension

Women with metabolic disorders, and suffering from hypertension
with their early development, that is, up to 35 years, also have a high risk
development of fibroids. About this inclination can speak the figure of a woman
if it resembles an apple and fat deposits are concentrated in
waist area is a greater risk of growth of fibroids than with a figure
resembling a pear when clumps of excess adipose tissue in
mainly in the hips.

  • The risk of fibroids among urban women is higher than among women living in
  • Oral contraceptive use
  • Damage to the genital organs, inflammatory diseases

Studies show that traumatic labor, frequent
medical abortions, diagnostic curettage, inflammatory
diseases of the genital organs contribute to hormonal disruptions and
are the trigger for the appearance of uterine fibroids.

Symptoms of uterine fibroids

In almost all cases with small sizes of uterine fibroids,
symptoms are absent, and the disease is recorded in most
accidental cases during a routine inspection or when a patient refers to
gynecologist for other diseases. When developing
interstitial or subserous uterine fibroids, symptoms in many
cases are absent, and if the tumor is already large, then complaints
will be required.

Very rarely, fibroids can manifest symptoms, but if they
this is not 100% evidence of fibroids, since such
manifestations may be with other diseases – endometriosis,
ovarian cancer, uterine cancer. Therefore, when they appear,
be sure to consult a doctor for complete

Signs, symptoms of uterine fibroids may be as follows:

  • Menstrual irregularities, irregular periods,
    mid-cycle spotting
  • Long-term constipation, frequent urination – this is due to
    compression of the adjacent organs by the tumor: intestine and urinary
  • Submucous myoma is characterized by bleeding, sometimes very
    profuse, lengthening of menses and increase in volume
    menstrual blood. All this leads to the development of chronic anemia.
    (see uterine bleeding)
  • Persistent sterility
  • Feeling of pressure in the lower abdomen, frequent prolonged nagging pains,
  • The growth of the circumference of the abdomen, without the growth of body weight.

Is it possible to treat uterus myoma without surgery?

In the case when a woman approaches premenopausal (see first
signs of menopause), the size of fibroids is less than 12 weeks, it grows
slowly and the woman is not worried about the severe symptoms of uterine fibroids, then
perhaps her conservative treatment, since with the onset
menopausal woman growth fibroids stops. Treatment of uterine fibroids
without surgery is to use the following medicinal

Combined oral contraceptives

These combinations include: desogestrel with ethinyl estradiol
(Mersilon, Marvelon, Novinet), ethinyl estradiol with norgestrel
(Ovidon, Rigavidon). These remedies effectively help reduce
symptoms of uterine fibroids, such as abdominal pain, bleeding.
However, for the treatment of uterine fibroids in order to reduce its size,
tablets of this group are not priorities, as it is not always
lead to fewer knots. Under the influence of such therapy only
nodes, the initial size of which did not exceed 1.5 cm, can
shrink in size.

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists

К препаратам этой группы относят: трипторелин  —
(Dekapeptil, Diferelin, Dekapep-til depot), buserelin, goserelin
(Zoladex), leuprorelin (Lyukrin Depot). Disadvantage of use
of these remedies for treating uterine fibroids is that after
end of therapy nodes can be restored in size, and
long-term use of these drugs is not acceptable, as it may
lead to the development of osteoporosis and other consequences for the female
organism due to lack of estrogen. Within six months
the use of these funds, the size of fibroids can be reduced by 50%,
and the intensity of fibroid symptoms may decrease. Often these
medications are used to reduce the size of fibroids
uterus before surgery to reduce blood loss when
surgical intervention.


Mifepristone (RU-486) ​​is often used to treat uterine fibroids.
or during preparatory therapy before surgery. This means how
eliminates the symptoms of fibroids, and contributes to reducing the size


Danazol (Vero-Danazol, Danazol, Danoval, Danol, Danogen),
Gestrinon (Nemestran). With uterine myoma, treatment with these drugs
rarely used because they cannot reduce the size of nodes,
and only contribute to reducing the intensity of fibroid symptoms, more
In addition, they have a number of undesirable side effects, such as
the appearance of acne, changes in voice, hair growth on the body and face.
These drugs for myoma can be used only for small
the effectiveness of other treatments.


The use of these tools today is controversial,
an open question, some doctors consider their use unacceptable
with uterine myoma, especially a drug like didrogesterone
(Duphaston). Others consider its use justified, since
lack of progesterone leads to the growth of fibroids. Efficiency
использования таких средств, как нор-этистерон (Примолют-Нор,
Norkolut), medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera, Provera),
lynestrenol (Escluton, Orgametril) with myoma has not been proven, and
The use of many gynecologists is not recommended. But,
it is believed that their use is justified when combining fibroids and
endometrial hyperplasia. Myoma growth is not caused simply by
lack or excess of a particular hormone, but rather from a common
hormonal imbalance, so the use of these drugs
should not be in all cases, but by indications.

FUS ablation

FUS ablation is a relapse-free, non-invasive technique.
устранения миоматозных knots. Modern method of treatment of uterine fibroids
without surgery, which is expressed in the evaporation of fibroids with
ultrasound beam.  This procedure is performed
an ultrasonic beam that accurately, focused is directed to
localization of the tumor, for more accurate beam pointing to
site surgeon uses an MRI. Tomography use
also contributes to tracking the degree of destruction and the degree
the effects of the ultrasound beam on the tumor in real time.

Advantages of FUS ablation:

  • Lack of blood loss, anesthesia, trauma
  • Preservation of childbearing function, organ-preserving method
  • High effect even with large nodes and multiple
  • Significant reduction in the size of nodes, by 2-3 times
  • No side effects, no pain, no temperature, no
  • No recurrence, treatment of uterine fibroid symptoms
  • The shortest time of rehabilitation, the possibility of the procedure
    on an outpatient basis

With this treatment method, uterine fibroids do not require intensive
infusion procedures, there is no intervention in the body, because
the procedure occurs remotely, the uterus is not injured,
no risk of future infertility or miscarriage
of pregnancy. In the process of conducting FUS ablation should not occur
burning of the skin, lower back pain, lower abdomen, pain,
radiating to the foot.

Basic principles of non-surgical treatment of uterine fibroids

When treating uterine fibroids without surgery, conservative therapy
includes diet food, the use of homeopathic
drugs, immunomodulatory drugs, 
phytotherapy, physiotherapy, and hormonal
drugs. The main directions of conservative treatment of uterine fibroids

  • Sanitation of genital infections
  • Stimulation, activation of immunity with the help of herbal medicine and other
  • Correction of nutrition, food intake mode
  • Normalization of metabolism
  • Normalization of psycho-emotional state
  • Treatment of anemia, normalization of the menstrual cycle, elimination

How to treat uterine fibroids – one of the latest research

Belgian researchers want to create an effective drug for
treatment of uterine fibroids, if its progressive growth requires
radical hysterectomy. They created the new EsmyaTM tablets,
состав которых входит улипристала ацетат — это селективный
progesterone receptor modulator and this active substance is included
as part of an emergency contraceptive.

Once it was determined that the occurrence and
the rapid growth of fibroids is influenced not by estrogen alone, but by
also progesterone, research scientists have taken up the study of action
medicines, блокирующих эффект гестагенов. Then team
researchers in Brussels at the University Hospital St. Luke,
it became interesting the effect of emergency contraceptive pills with
ulistristal acetate.

To study the effect on uterine myoma in EsmyaТМ experiment
550 women participated who were preparing for an operation to remove
myomas. For 3 months, one group was given a placebo (see
amazing facts about placebo), another pill EsmyaTM.
At the same time, another study was conducted in which
tested the effect of these drugs in comparison with injections
hormone blockers. According to the results of both studies succeeded
establish that the use of EsmyaTM reduces the size of fibroids, as well as
intensity of clinical symptoms and signs of uterine fibroids.

The result of the study is the following conclusion: 90%
patients treated with EsmyaTM, was registered positive
effect, 50% eliminated the need for surgery, the effect is comparable to
действием инъекций hormone blockers. After taking EsmyaTM no
such side effects are bone degeneration and hot flashes that
happen with injections of blockers. It is also important that a month after
Injections, fibroids in women began to grow again, and in patients,
treated with EsmyaTM, the growth of fibroids was not observed even after 6 months.
Perhaps soon, the question of how to treat myoma of the uterus will be
easier to solve than now.

When is a uterus surgery shown?

Cases when it is not necessary to hesitate with operation:

  • The size of the nodes, the size of the tumor for more than 12 weeks, it puts pressure on
    neighboring organs
  • Myoma promotes strong uterine bleeding
  • Fast growth (for 4 weeks in 6 – 12 months)
  • Myoma node death
  • An emerging submucosal site (emergency laparotomy) or
    node necrosis
  • The combination of fibroids with adenomyosis, submucosa myoma

Depending on the type of fibroids, its location, size, doctor
выбирает тип операции по удалению myomas. Myomectomy for today
a day is done in 3 ways:

  • Laparoscopy – through small openings in the abdomen
  • When hysteroscopy – is introduced into the uterus through the vagina
    special tool
  • Band surgery through the incision in the lower abdomen is very
  • When it is impossible to stop the growth of fibroids in any other way,
    and sparing operations are impossible, with such uterine myoma, treatment
    consists in the complete removal of the uterus – hysterectomy.

Laparoscopy and hysteroscopy are the most popular.
operations, because they have several advantages: almost complete
no trace of the operation, preserving the woman’s ability
future childbirth, very fast recovery after
operations. On the consequences of hysteroscopy.

Uterine artery embolization – a modern unique method
myoma therapy

A very effective way to treat uterine fibroids. The uniqueness of this
the operation is that with the introduction of a small probe, doctors determine
which vessels supply myoma with blood, they are injected into them
substances that clog these vessels. After such an operation,
nutrition of the fibroids stops, it decreases and resolves. Alone
Doctors say that after such an operation a woman can
get pregnant and make a healthy baby, others think it is
can be problematic, everything is very individual and depends on the type
миомы, ее размера, удачной operations.

Is it possible to treat uterine fibroids at home, folk

Very many women are looking for any effective folk
means for the treatment of uterine fibroids. Virtually all treatments in
home conditions are reduced to the introduction of tampons and douching
herbal therapeutic solutions. There is no one
effective folk remedies to change deep
внутренние причины возникновения myomas. Especially not worth it
do douching for uterine myoma, why? See that
is douching as far as it can be dangerous. In any
case before trying any traditional treatments
fibroids, you should definitely report this to your doctor and
discuss this way.

Complications and consequences of fibroids

  • The most serious, dangerous complication of uterine fibroids is
    развитие злокачественного процесса на фоне myomas. It is believed that
    the risk of such a transformation into cancer is not high, however, it exists and
    a woman with such a pathology should be regularly examined
    gynecologist, monitor the dynamics of the size of fibroids, because
    the rapid growth of fibroids is the main symptom of her
  • Other less terrible consequences of uterine fibroids, not
    life-threatening, is the development of anemia, amid abundant
    bleeding при менструации, а также бесплодие. In recent years
    the number of women who have to completely remove increases
    uterus due to fibroids, which is a serious stress and can
    worsen the quality of life of a woman.
  • Necrosis of the node and the birth of the submucous node, torsion subserous
    knot on the leg – this requires an emergency laparotomy.

If such an operation is unavoidable, the woman should calm down and
make the right decision. The uterus is the organ that is needed.
woman only for carrying a child, and in case she already has
there is a child, and the price of the question is the possible degeneration of fibroids in
a malignant tumor or removal of the uterus that has already performed
its function. The best option speaks for itself.

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