Uterine bleeding – symptoms, causesoccurrence

Update: November 2018

Uterine bleeding in medicine is called
dysfunctional uterine bleeding is pathological
profuse bleeding from the uterus. They are one of the most
striking manifestations of hormonal dysfunction in women. because
the main cause of uterine bleeding often lies in
violation of the production of female sex hormones. This pathology can
be in any woman, at any age, so uterine
bleeding is classified by age as follows
in the following way:

  • Uterine hemorrhages at the age of 12-18 years – during the period of sexual
    ripening or juvenile age
  • During the reproductive age of 18-45 years
  • In menopause 45-55 years, when ovarian function
    fading away

Symptoms or signs of uterine bleeding are expressed either
significant discharge of blood during menstruation, or
an increase in the duration of menstruation, as well as acyclic
bleeding or metrorrhagia when within 6 to 8 or more
weeks there is no menstruation, and then bleeding develops
different intensity.

How to independently determine uterine bleeding – symptoms
blood loss

  • Маточные кровотечения причиныCharacteristic of any age
    the symptom of bleeding in a woman is prolonged abundant
    discharge lasting more than a week with signs of anemia,
    confirmed by a blood test and the following symptoms:

    • Weakness, fatigue
    • Dizziness, headaches
    • Paleness of the skin
    • Hypotension – low blood pressure
  • What it means copious discharge is when an hour happens
    tampon filling or full padding if wet
    even at night to change the gaskets. Sometimes a woman is not able to go on
    work, cannot do household chores, and most
    time forced to lie down, rest.
  • In addition to intensity, bleeding is different.
    the presence of a significant number of blood clots.
  • Bleeding is also considered the release of blood after sexual
    of the act.
  • If menstruation lasts more than a week with significant pain.
    lower abdomen and lower back pain.

Causes of uterine bleeding

Рассмотрим причины occurrence дисфункциональных маточных
bleeding depending on the age of the woman since in
different periods of a woman’s life, risk factors for development
bleeding is different.

Uterine bleeding at the age of 12-18

In this period, uterine bleeding appears in almost 20% of all
gynecological pathologies in girls, this is due to a violation
formation of hormonal regulation for a number of reasons:

  • Provocative factors are mental or physical.
    injuries
  • Hypovitaminosis, malnutrition
  • Impaired function of the adrenal cortex and thyroid gland
  • Various serious childhood infectious diseases also
    affect the appearance of signs of uterine bleeding in girls
    adolescence – flu, chronic tonsillitis, chickenpox,
    measles (see symptoms of measles in adults), mumps, whooping cough (signs
    pertussis in a child), etc.
  • If a girl was born to a mother with a complicated course
    pregnancy and pathological childbirth.
  • Rarely, but there are times when the cause of bleeding is
    blood clotting disorders or female genital tuberculosis
    organs.

Causes of uterine bleeding у женщин репродуктивного
age

In childbearing age, this pathology among all gynecological
disease accounts for only 5% of cases. Usually uterine
bleeding accompanied by ovarian dysfunction, the causes of which
serves a number of provoking factors:

  • Stressful situations, chronic neuropsychic stress,
    overwork
  • Professional harm, living in cities with developed
    chemical and metallurgical industry
  • Changing of the climate
  • Various inflammatory and infectious diseases of the female
    reproductive systems that lead to a thickening of the capsule
    ovaries, and also reduce the sensitivity of their tissues to
    gonadotropins, as well as:

    • Chronic endometritis, endometriosis of the uterus
    • Myoma
    • Polyps and malignant neoplasms of the cervix and most
      uterus
    • Ovarian tumors
  • Surgical or medical termination of pregnancy
    miscarriages, ectopic pregnancy (signs)
  • Drug use causing dysfunction
    hypothalamus-pituitary systems.

Uterine bleeding menopause

This is the most common pathology found in women in
Premenopause – 15% among all gynecological diseases
this age category. This is due to the natural decrease in
gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary gland, therefore, during menopause
the release of hormones occurs irregularly, disrupting the ovulation cycle,
development of the corpus luteum, folliculogenesis. Especially often uterine
bleeding is accompanied by menopausal syndrome – in 30% of cases,
when the symptoms of menopause in women are significantly pronounced and intense.
With a typical for menopausal deficit
progesterone, hyperestrogenia and overgrowth develop
endometrium.

If a woman is 45-55 years old there are uterine
кровотечения, следует  исключить прочие патологии, которые
can cause them, so the woman should be hysteroscopy
twice – both before and after diagnostic curettage. More often
The causes of uterine bleeding in this case are:

  • Endometriosis
  • Myoma uterus
  • Полипы uterus
  • Rarely – hormone-active ovarian tumors

Общие причины occurrence маточных кровотечений

  • Нарушения функции щитовидной железы — при
    diseases such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism increases the risk
    the appearance of symptoms of uterine bleeding.
  • Violation of hormonal levels. This is
    the most common cause of uterine bleeding in young girls and
    women after 45 years. With a normal hormonal background, when the balance
    между прогестероном и эстрогеном оптимален, blood loss при
    menstruation is usually minimal. When does this imbalance
    нарушается, there are uterine кровотечения.
  • Diseases of the circulatory system. By reducing
    platelet levels, as well as for other blood diseases, also
    possible bleeding in women.
  • Myoma uterus. Especially bleeding
    открываются у женщин при внутренней миоме uterus, когда единственным
    the output is surgery.
  • Adenomyosis. This disease is characterized by
    сращиванием внутреннего и мышечного слоя uterus, менструации при
    adenomyosis become painful, long and abundant,
    as the menstruating area increases significantly.
  • Polyps. These are benign formations,
    которые часто бывают у женщин детородного age. With
    their significant number or size shows their removal,
    because they are the cause of uterine bleeding, and
    pain of menstruation.
  • Ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, premature
    отслоение плаценты
    . These complications during pregnancy
    women have recently been quite frequent. With
    any bleeding during pregnancy, a woman needs
    promptly call an ambulance because the bleeding
    can threaten the life of not only the baby, but also the future mother.
  • Malignant tumors of the genital
    organs.
      This is the most serious reason for the possible.
    bleeding, and regardless of the location of the tumor –
    матка, шейка uterus, яичники, при любом кровотечении женщине следует
    First of all, eliminate cancer, because in our time
    онкологическая напряженность ageет с каждым годом, и уже не
    has a clear age limit, oncology occurs like a very
    young women and women in menopause.
  • Breakthrough uterine bleeding. This reason
    directly related to the use of intrauterine contraceptives –
    spirals or hormonal contraceptives.
    Особенно ageет риск кровотечения после одновременного приема
    и контрацептивов, и антикоагулянтов (аспирин). Breakthroughs
    bleeding may be minor when you start using
    contraceptive hormonal drugs, as an adaptation to the drug.
    In these cases, the dosage should be revised or abolished.
    If this does not help, then you should look for another reason.
    uterine bleeding. Также blood loss возникают на фоне
    повреждения uterus внутриматочной спиралью, при этом следует ее
    remove as soon as possible.

If something unusual happens during menstruation,
mid-cycle, during pregnancy or premenopausal
period, at the slightest suspicion of starting bleeding,
a woman should immediately contact her gynecologist for
consultation, examination and finding the true cause
uterine bleeding, since only knowing the exact diagnosis can
start adequate and timely treatment.

For urgent symptomatic treatment of uterine bleeding
Experts recommend the following hemostatic drugs:
этамзилат, викасол, дицинон, аминокапроновая кислота,
calcium supplements.

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