Urticaria – symptoms, causes, types, likelooks on the skin, treatment and complications

Urticaria is one of the most common diseases
to the treatment of which resorted to an allergist. In general, the term
urticaria implies a number of certain diseases,
characterized by a different nature of the occurrence, but
manifest in the same way.

What is the cause of occurrence, what are the first signs of
adults and what is prescribed as a treatment, we will look further into
article and show how the rash looks on the photo at different

What is urticaria?


Urticaria is a disease that is heterogeneous in causative factors,
the main clinical manifestation of which is a skin rash in
in the form of common or limited blisters disappearing
spontaneously or under the influence of appropriate treatment.

Usually, hives are more of a symptom than
independent disease. For example, it may be cutaneous.
manifestation of allergic shock, bronchial asthma, some
autoimmune disease. Extremely rare urticaria happens
self-allergic reaction, without concomitant

The frequency of manifestation in the population of urticaria is quite high, that,
accordingly, defines it as a common disease.
Moreover, at least once in a life of the order from 10 to 35% of the population
faced its manifestation. Most unfavorable option
course is chronic urticaria, the duration of which
is over 5-7 weeks.


В зависимости от распространенности по телу болезнь
subdivided into options:

  • localized – in a certain limited area
  • генерализованный (распространение элементов сыпи по всему
    body), a life-threatening condition, especially
    at localization in the field of organs with vital

Kinds крапивницы в зависимости от продолжительности болезни:

  • Острая hives. When urticaria
    runs up to 6 weeks, it is considered acute. Duration
    the course of the disease is determined from the appearance of the first rash to
    the disappearance of the latter.
  • Chronic form. If the urticaria lasts more than 6 weeks, it
    considered chronic. Associated with autointoxication and occur
    with diseases of the digestive system, liver. Foci of chronic
    infections in the tonsils and gall bladder, caries and various helminthic
    инвазии также могут сенсибилизировать организм и являться
    причиной хронической формы.
  • Chronic recurrent urticaria – can occur in
    over several decades with periods of partial or complete
    remission (weakening). It is often accompanied by angioedema.
    Severe itching causes patients to comb their skin to the blood.

Acute form, with the development of angioedema. This kind of urticaria
accompanied by edema of subcutaneous fat and mucous membranes
shell. Особенно опасны такие отеки в области  гортани, так
how can cause asphyxia (choking). Angioedema
accompanied by deterioration of vision, severe itching and the appearance
волдырей бело-розового colors.


Dermographic urticaria (dermographism) is a type of urticaria,
in which scars like scars appear on the patient’s skin,
resulting from mechanical stress. Characteristic of
The sign of this disorder is a sudden appearance and rapid
исчезновение symptoms. Often in patients with dermographism
self-healing occurs.

Solar urticaria

When hypersensitivity to ultraviolet light appears solar
urticaria in people with sensitive skin in spring and summer
in open areas of the skin after sun exposure
blisters. Solar urticaria mainly affects women with
fair skin and fair hair.

Холодовая форма

Cold urticaria develops a few minutes later with
moment of contact with such influencing factors as cold
water or excessively cold air, icy wind. Manifestations
symptoms are reduced to the appearance of itching, burning, erythema (pronounced
redness of the skin), as well as blister or / and edema. Predominantly
the concentration of these manifestations is similar to the previous case with
solar urticaria.


Pathology caused by medication can develop immediately,
a few minutes after taking the medicine, and maybe
manifest only a few weeks later when taking the drug
is terminated. Чаще всего лекарственную форму провоцируют:

  • aspirin;
  • other NSAIDs;
  • steroids, etc.

Contact urticaria

Occurs due to allergy to any material. For example, when
wool allergies this type of disease develops if a person
puts on woolen clothes. Blisters and зуд появляются в том месте,
where the allergen is in contact with the skin.


Progression of external signs of urticaria due
increased local vascular permeability, due to which in short
timing develops swelling. Important factor
возможности возникновения этой патологии является
наследственная предрасположенность к аллергии.

Urticaria – polyetiological variable disease
the beginning of the course, and tell which allergen caused its
sometimes does not appear in each case
possible. They can be:

  • various physical factors (temperature, humidity,
  • direct contact with the allergen or its ingestion inside the body;
  • various endogenous factors (pathological processes in the digestive tract,
    bacterial infection, diseases of internal organs, disorders
    endocrine system activity, metabolic processes or
    neurohumoral regulation).

Among all chronic forms of urticaria, idiopathic (with
Unidentified cause) occurs on average in 75-80%, in 15% –
caused by a physical factor, in 5% caused by other
factors, including allergic.

Various diseases can serve as a trigger, often

  • Viral infections: hepatitis, herpes
  • Diseases caused by parasites
  • Pharyngitis, tonsillitis
  • Fungal skin lesions
  • Intestinal and digestive disorders
    systems: gastritis, ulcer
  • Гормональные сбои (патология может дать о себе знать после
    use of hormonal drugs during the illness
  • Serum sickness
  • Cryoglobulinemia
  • Rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus
  • Diseases of the lymphoreticular system
  • Malfunctions of the thyroid gland.

Symptoms of urticaria + photo rash

The main signs of urticaria are: sudden onset
specific rash and accompanying itching. Rashes represent
are small patches of redness of the skin (erythema) that
quite quickly transformed into blisters.

In addition to severe itching, burning, depending on the vastness of the focus
lesions, a person may experience:

  • headache,
  • nausea
  • drowsiness,
  • weakness.

Temperature increase is possible – nettle fever. Blisters and
symptoms may disappear without a trace in a few hours, or
condition is characterized by a stable or undulating course on
over several days or even months. Usually after
the disappearance on the skin does not leave any traces.

The rash with urticaria can be localized on any sites
the skin – on the scalp, on the body, on the arms and
feet, including areas of the palms and the plantar surface of the feet.

On the face and neck, the density of mast cells is very
high, so usually the number of elements here is greater than
with other parts of the body. Often they occur on the mucous
shells, especially on the lips, soft palate and larynx.


Symptoms of acute urticaria:

  • the sudden appearance of rashes without clear boundaries;
  • fever, malaise, chills;
  • painful itching;
  • abrupt termination after a few hours or days
    favorable flow).

Peculiarities of rash with chronic urticaria:

  • chronic urticaria is characterized by not so abundant rash,
    as in the acute form of the disease;
  • blisters rise above the surface of the skin, have a flat
    shape and clearly defined edges;
  • visually the elements of the rash are like traces of insect bites, and
    their diameter can vary from millimeter to several
  • at first the blisters have a pink or red color, but with
    time become brighter;
  • skin rashes itch and can form large solid
  • rash appears spontaneously, for no apparent reason;
  • in some cases, blistering is preceded by such
    factors like climate change, various colds,
    stress exposure.

What does urticaria look like: photo

фото 1

фото 2

The appearance of blisters on the skin with urticaria

Symptoms of danger

Often is one of the manifestations of anaphylactic shock, as well as
often combined with angioedema. In this regard, when
The following symptoms should be given immediate medical attention:

  • Lowering blood pressure;
  • Respiratory failure (hoarseness, hoarseness, lack of
  • Swelling of the tongue, neck;
  • Acute abdominal pain;
  • Loss of consciousness.


The most serious consequences are Quincke edema. In some
In cases of rapid swelling of the tongue, larynx, there is a threat
choking. Combing the body can cause:

  • the addition of a fungal or bacterial infection;
  • пиодермию (гнойные поражения кожи);
  • folliculitis;
  • furunculosis.


Diagnostics обычно начинается с тщательного сбора анамнеза. Doctor

  • when and under what circumstances rashes appeared;
  • how long the attack lasted;
  • what products and medicines were used;
  • whether vaccination was given.

Hives can be difficult to distinguish from toxicoderma or bites.

Often doctors prescribe provocation-oriented tests.
the occurrence of an allergic reaction.

Recommended laboratory and instrumental methods

  • blood tests – clinical, biochemical;
  • general urine analysis;
  • colonoscopy;
  • bicycle ergometry;
  • X-ray of PPN and OGK;
  • Ultrasound – according to indications;
  • ECG and EGDS;
  • parasitological examination;
  • bacteriological cultures from the pharyngeal mucosa on the flora;
  • bacteriological examination of faeces, duodenal
  • x-rays of the paranasal sinuses and
    organs of the chest cavity.

Treatment of urticaria in adults

The most effective way to treat urticaria is
identification and elimination of the allergen. But if there is no opportunity
to establish an allergen or urticaria is episodic then
local therapy and antihistamine medications help quickly
eliminate the symptoms. It is important during the period of treatment to comply
hypoallergenic diet, do not use perfumes and contact
with aggressive substances, so as not to provoke a new attack

Special points in the treatment:

  • The initial choice of the drug in the first place
    depends on the severity.
  • In most cases, treatment of chronic urticaria requires
    a long time (from several weeks to months).
  • It is worth remembering that the disease often stops spontaneously in
    50% of cases.
  • It is necessary to treat the existing chronic foci of infection,
    restore normal intestinal microflora.

Etiotropic treatment involves the elimination of provocative
factor a. It is important to exclude possible contacts with
allergens of any nature. It is necessary to adjust the diet
food, conduct a thorough cleaning of the premises. If urticaria
was caused by taking certain medicines, their use
becomes unacceptable for life.

В качестве средств системной терапии у adults пациентов
The following medications are used:

  1. Антигистаминные лекарства. In their number
    входят дифенингидрамин, цетиризин, лоратадин и другие
  2. Systemic glucocorticosteroid drugs in the case of
    generalized form of pathology (dexamethasone, prednisone).
  3. Means for desensitization. To them
    относятся: кокарбоксилаза, унитиол, хлористый кальций.
  4. Адреналина гидрохлорид в случае острого отека и угрозе
    patient’s life.

Антигистаминные средства, относящиеся ко второму и третьему

A drug Act
Erius This drug contributes to the effective suppression of symptoms.
puffiness and mucous membranes under the influence of
allergens. Fights acute forms of the disease and
Zyrtec Effectively inhibits the symptoms of itching and inflammation.
process, 30 minutes after taking suppresses allergic
manifestations and cough, as well as other accompanying phenomena.
Tazepam The tool is aimed at soothing the body and stabilize
work of the nervous system. Suppresses the feeling of headaches and nausea,
а также борется с прочими симптоматиками urticaria.
Loratadine Act препарата направлено против возникновения аллергии. is he
helps to remove itching and burning and can relieve symptoms
urticaria and swelling QUINKE.

After identifying an allergen, it is often recommended:

  • Гиперсенсибилизацию (это метод, позволяющий снизить
    the body’s sensitivity to the allergen)
  • Снятие раздражения кожи в виде зуда и жжения (чаще всего,
    these manifestations help remove pills from urticaria, for example,
    Tavegil, Suprastin)
  • Провести санацию очагов инфекции (профилактику)
  • Get tested for stomach ailments and if they
    detected, perform their treatment
  • Дегельминтизацию (это комплекс мероприятий, нацеленный на
    elimination of diseases caused by various parasites, for example,

First aid

With severe puffiness, difficulty breathing, blister immediately
call the ambulance. Before the arrival of the medical team:

  • stop contact with the allergen;
  • unbutton all pressure clothing;
  • open a window or window;
  • give the victim any antihistamine medication;
  • Recommended any sorbents, which you will find in the first-aid kit –
    activated or white coal, Polysorb, Enterosgel;
  • drip nose vasoconstrictor drops;
  • water man mineral water;
  • if you are allergic to insect bites, apply to the affected place
    cold compress.


Diet при крапивнице является неотъемлемой частью лечения,
because the disease belongs to a heterogeneous group
dermatoses, which in most cases develop as
allergic reactions to various provoking factors.

Diet должна строится на следующих принципах:

  • exclude from the diet known to you food agents,
    provoking allergic reactions and foods that cause you
    cross-reaction (for example, all vegetables, berries and fruits are red
  • Avoid excess protein in the diet.
  • Do not include in the menu unknown to you, as well as genetically
    modified products;
  • eat simple foods that contain a minimum of ingredients,
    eliminate complex dishes, including various seasonings and
  • use only fresh products, avoid products
    long-term storage (canned food, preservation);
  • Give preference to homemade dishes, do not include in the diet
    semi-finished products;
  • try to diversify the menu as well as the product,
    frequently eaten can have a sensitizing
  • limit the intake of table salt and simple carbohydrates, and
    also fried, spicy and salty foods;
  • completely eliminate the use of alcohol

When prescribing a diet for acute urticaria recommended
include in the diet such products:

  • cereals, with the exception of manna;
  • dairy products (without any additives);
  • soft cheese;
  • lean meat (beef, rabbit, turkey);
  • cabbage all species (except red), zucchini, pumpkin,
    fresh green peas and string beans, dill and
  • apples (with green or yellow skin), pears, yellow cherries,
    white currant and gooseberry;
  • butter, refined vegetable oil;
  • grain bread or bread.

As the clinical manifestations subside in the diet in small
doses of various vegetables and fruits are administered: first, having a green or
yellow color, and after a few days, in the absence of rashes,
representatives of these families of orange (pumpkin) and red

Doctorи рекомендуют завести дневник питания. In it, the patient needs
fix what he ate and when, and most importantly – did not appear
hives. In this way, you can accurately set the allergen product and
determine what products should be excluded as much as possible
diet after urticaria.

Folk remedies

Before using any folk remedies for urticaria, you need
specialist advice.

  1. As a sedative and tonic used
    tincture of hawthorn and valerian. To do this, the ingredients are mixed in
    equal proportions and take before bedtime in the amount of 30 drops,
    washing down the mixture with water.
  2. Root has a good anti-edema and diuretic action.
    celery It is rubbed on a grater, the mass is squeezed through gauze,
    take the juice take one tablespoon three times a day
    before eating.
  3. Infusion of yarrow (1 tablespoon per 200 g of boiling water, give
    brew for 45 minutes) drink one third of the glass three times a day
    before eating. Herbal decoction is prepared in the same proportion as
    infusion, boil for 10 min. Take the same pattern as
  4. Small pieces (10-15g) licorice root taken twice a
    the day before meals.
  5. Prepare an infusion of mint leaves and take it three times a day.
    50 g a day. Infusion has a slight sedative effect and
    has a beneficial effect on the digestive tract.

When the first symptoms of urticaria appear, immediately refer to
dermatologist or allergist. In case of untimely rendered
help, complications are possible. Take care of yourself and your health!

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