Update: October 2018
Sample Zimnitsky refers to the additional, extended
laboratory tests of urine and allows us to evaluate kidney function,
identify violations in their work. Analysis developed in 1924
general practitioner Zimnitsky S.S. and still relevant.
Most commonly prescribed for acute or chronic suspected
inflammatory process that leads to a breakdown of the kidneys, and
also renal failure on the background of non-sugar and sugar
The method does not require special equipment, therefore
to simple, accessible and informative urine test options.
Most often carried out in a medical institution when
the person is in hospital or on examination.
Patients with chronic kidney disease are prescribed for
control the function of organs.
The study includes the determination of a number of indicators (density
urine, the daily amount of excreted urine, the distribution of total
urine during the day, etc.), the interpretation of which is carried out by the treating
The essence of the technique
Sample Zimnitsky allows you to determine the concentration of dissolved
in the urine of substances, i.e. kidney concentration function.
During the day, the kidneys perform the most important work, taking from
blood unnecessary substances (metabolic products) and delaying
necessary components. Osmotic renal capacity
concentrate and then dilute urine directly depends on
neurohumoral regulation, efficient work of nephrons,
hemodynamics and rheological properties of blood, renal blood flow and
other factors. Failure in any link leads to dysfunction
Urinalysis according to Zimnitsky – how to collect?
Urine collection for this test is done at certain hours.
days. No restrictions on eating and drinking regime
To prepare for the analysis, you need:
- 8 clean jars with a volume of about 200-500 ml. Each jar
marked accordingly on a separate three-hour
period: the surname and initials of the patient, the sample number (from 1 to and
- clock with alarm function (not to forget about the time when
need to urinate);
- a sheet of paper to record fluid consumption during the day, in
urine is collected (including the volume of fluid flowing from
first dish, milk, etc.);
Within 8 three-hour intervals within 24 hours you need
collect urine in separate jars. Those. each jar should
contain urine excreted during a specific three-hour period.
- Between 6.00 and 7.00 in the morning, you should urinate in
toilet bowl, i.e. no need to collect night urine.
- Then at regular intervals of 3 hours should urinate
in jars (for every urination – a new jar). Begins
urine collection after night urination, until 9.00 am (the first
jar), ends until 6.00 am the next day (last,
- It is not necessary to go to the toilet on an alarm clock (exactly at 9, 12 am
etc.) and endure 3 hours. It is important that all urine excreted in
three-hour period, was placed in the appropriate jar.
- It should be carefully written on a piece of paper all consumed
during these days the liquid and its amount.
- Each jar сразу после мочеиспускания ставится для хранения
in the fridge.
- If at the right time urge to urinate
missing, the jar is left empty. And with polyuria, when
jar is filled before the end of the 3-hour
gap, the patient urinates in an additional jar, but does not pour out
urine down the toilet.
- In the morning after the last urination, all the jars (including
and additional) along with a leaf of records of drunk fluids
should be taken to a laboratory within 2 hours.
|9 -00 am||12-00||15-00||18-00||21-00||24-00||3-00||6-00 h. Morning|
Deciphering the result of the sample Zimnitsky
- The total daily volume of urine produced 1500-2000 ml.
- The ratio of body fluid and daily volume
- The amount of urine released during the daytime is 2/3, at night – 1/3.
- Significant increase in urination after drinking
- Fluctuation of urine density in samples within 1 003-1 035
g / l.
- Urine density in several or one jar more than 1020
g / l.
- Плотность мочи во всех пробах менее 1035 g / l.
|Hypostenuria||This is a low urine density. Diagnosed with urine density
во всех баночках менее 1012-1013 g / l. In this state, the reverse
absorption of primary urine is weak.
|Hypertension||This is a high urine density. Diagnosed with urine density
в одной из баночек более 1035 g / l. Condition when the opposite
absorption exceeds the filtration rate of urine in the glomeruli
|Polyuria||This is an increase in the volume of daily urine with a low specific weight.
A condition in which there is an increase in the formation of primary
urine during filtration.
|Oliguria||This is a decrease in daily urine that has a high
specific gravity. There is a violation of the filtering process.
|Nocturia||This is an increase in the amount of urine released at night (more
1/3 of the daily volume).
Indicators for children and adult patients differ daily
diuresis. The exact volume of daily urine in children under 10 years
calculated as follows: 600 + 100 * (n – 1), where n –
age of the child. Normal diuresis in children from 10 years old approaches
adult rate and approximately 1.5 liters.
In conclusion, the laboratory doctor indicates the results obtained.
Compliance. Оценку же проводит лечащий doctor.
Автор: врач-гигиенист, эпидемиолог