Urethritis – causes, symptoms in adults,diagnosis and treatment

Urethritis is a chronic or acute inflammation.
urethra (urethra). The disease is capable of leaking
in infectious or non-infectious form.

What is the cause of urethritis, what are the signs of
adults and what is prescribed as a diagnostic and
treatment, we will look further.

What is urethritis?


Urethritis — это воспаление стенки urethra.
Usually has an infectious nature. It rarely develops without
the presence of an infectious agent (radiation, toxic, allergic).
Sometimes the cause of the disease becomes injury when
conducting a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure (catheterization
bladder in men, drug administration, etc.).

In men, urethritis is slightly more common than in women, and
always proceeds in more severe forms. It’s connected with
the anatomical features of the male and female urinary

Common signs of urethritis are pains of varying intensity with
urination, mucous or purulent discharge from the urethral
channel and redness of the tissues that surround the exit
urethra The severity of symptoms depends on the clinical form
diseases – acute, subacute or chronic.


Allocate primary and secondary urethritis.

  1. With primary inflammation of the urethra, the infection penetrates
    directly into the urethra, most often – with
    having sex with a partner who has a disease
    sexually transmitted.
  2. Secondary urethritis occurs when the infection spreads from
    inflammatory lesion located in another organ (from the pelvic
    organs, seminal vesicles, bladder, prostate

In accordance with the localization of the inflammatory process urethritis
happens the following types:

  • anterior – if inflammation is localized in the area from
    external opening to the external urethral sphincter;
  • posterior – with a lesion of the urethra, located between
    sphincter and opening opening into the urinary cavity
    a bubble;
  • total.

Gonorrheal urethritis

The causative agent of the disease are gonococci that fall into
organism during sexual intercourse. In addition, infection can
occur through common objects for example

The main symptoms are discharge from the urethra and acute pain during
urination. At first, the discharge of the urethra is quite meager and
mucous, but quickly turns into plentiful and purulent. Exactly these
signs distinguish gonococcal urethritis from non-gonococcal.

Candidaotic urethritis

Yeast-like fungi act as pathogen.
Inflammation of the urethra fungal etiology is rare, usually
is a complication after prolonged treatment with antibacterial
drugs. Sometimes develops after sexual contact with a woman
who suffers from candidiotic vulvovaginitis.

The risk of infection increases with the presence in history
воспалительных заболеваний или повреждений urethra

Patients complain of:

  • slight burning sensation
  • weak itching
  • беловатые скудные выделения из urethra


The causative agents of Trichomonas urethritis are considered single-celled
microorganisms Trichomonas vaginalis falling into
urethra during sexual contact with infected
partner. Excreted by trichomonadus waste products
damage epithelial tissues in the area of ​​infection, allowing toxins
free to penetrate the extracellular space.

Symptoms do not appear immediately, but after about 5-15 days.
Whitish discharge of foamy consistency is characteristic of this species.
from the urethra, as well as slight itching in the genital area

Chlamydia form

The reason – infection with chlamydia. Urethral discharge may
contain pus or mucus or do not appear at all. Unnoticed
or untreated urethritis can lead to

In men, the symptoms of this type may not manifest at all, which
makes such patients the main source of infection with trichomonas


воспаление уретры

The causative agents of the disease are bacteria and viruses. Often
cause of urinary tract inflammation is Escherichia coli,
and infections that cause sexually transmitted diseases (chlamydia,

For viral reasons can be attributed – cytomegalovirus and virus
herpes simplex

Among the infectious agents that trigger the development of urethritis,
The most common are:

  • herpes simplex virus;
  • cytomegalovirus;
  • E. coli;
  • gonococcus (diplococcus family Neisseriae);
  • trichomonas;
  • staphylo-, entero-, pneumo-, streptococci;
  • fungi of the genus Candida;
  • chlamydia;
  • mycoplasma;
  • ureaplasma;
  • gardnerella

Quite often it is not possible to isolate a single pathogen,
caused urethritis, is determined by the combination of several
pathogenic microorganisms.


Non-infectious urethritis is provoked by hypothermia, the influence of
allergens, may be due to mucosal injury
the shell of the urethra or exposure to it
aggressive chemical compounds.

To the main risk factors for urethritis include:

  • Reproductive age;
  • Promiscuous sex life;
  • Repeatedly repeated venereal diseases.

Urethritis symptoms in adults

Symptoms that need attention:

  • One of the first symptoms of urethritis becomes
    болезненные urination. Appeal to a specialist is desirable
    it is at this stage, since it is likely to prevent
    further spread of inflammation.
  • If you continue to ignore the discomfort arising
    during urination, purulent become the next symptom
  • In some cases, inflammation of the outer can be observed.
    отверстия urethra

With each subsequent exacerbation of the disease inflammation
affects more and more significant part of the mucous membrane
urethra. Therefore, the symptoms of urethritis with each
exacerbations are becoming more pronounced. If the disease is not
treat with adequate methods

Urethritis Symptoms
among women
  • Pain in the lower abdomen;
  • Burning pain when urinating;
  • Sometimes fever and chills;
  • Vaginal discharge;
  • Oftenе мочеиспускание;
in men
  • Blood in urine or semen;
  • Sometimes fever;
  • Oftenе мочеиспускание;
  • Acute pain when urinating (dysuria);
  • Feeling of pain, itching or swelling in the inguinal
  • Highlight.

Acute Urethritis

Symptoms of acute urethritis appear after several days.
(продолжительность периода зависит от вида — от 2-3 дней
up to 5-20 days). Appear:

  • urethral discharge
  • беспокоят боль во время urination.

Common symptoms:

  • зуд и другие неприятные ощущения во время
  • боли в области лобка – периодические, ноющие;
  • in men – нарушение мочеиспускания, затруднение оттока мочи,
    up to acute delay;
  • purulent discharge from the urethra;
  • примеси крови в моче – гематурия;
  • the external opening of the urethra in the morning as it were
    glued together.

Chronic Urethritis

In chronic urethritis, which is due to
the wrong approach to treatment or the complete absence of such
possible neurotic phenomena. Most often with this form
urethritis present: small discharge from the urethral

They become more abundant subject to the availability of some
factors causing aggravation of the disease. It can be plentiful
alcohol consumption, agitation, hypothermia.

The course of the disease can be long lasting, which
implies not only months, but also years that, in
Ultimately, it may cause a visit to the doctor (if
It was done earlier, before the transition of the disease to this form).

The prolonged course of this form of urethritis can provoke
urethral stricture, in which the urethra is in the lumen
begins to narrow, causing urination to change
jets of urine (it becomes weak) and soreness.


A complication of urethritis can be:

  • process chronization;
  • вагинит, бартолинит among women;
  • prostatitis, Cooperite, epididymitis, vesiculitis, erectile
    дисфункция, фимоз, баланит, баланопостит и т. д. in men;
  • periurethral abscess;
  • ascending infection (cystitis, nephritis);
  • paraurethritis;
  • deformity of the urethra (cicatricial


Diagnostics включает:

  1. Laboratory diagnosis of bacterial urethritis is carried out with
    microscopic and microbiological analysis of urine.
    The presence of white blood cells, red blood cells, mucus and bacteria in the samples
    proves the fact of urinary tract infection.
  2. It is recommended to conduct urine bakposeva and smear from the urethra,
    determination of pathogen sensitivity to antibiotics. it
    allows you to treat more rationally and accurately.
  3. An exception is made for sexually active people.
    sexually transmitted diseases. The best method is polymerase.
    chain reaction (PCR). The technology allows for diagnostics
    any infections quickly and accurately.

How to treat urethritis?

Identification of any symptoms indicating the development of urethritis,
is the basis for seeking advice from a urologist.
The diagnosis is clarified on the basis of the patient’s complaints,
results of examining his genitalia and conducting a series of laboratory tests.
research (KLA, OAM, taking a smear from the urethra, seeding
sensitivity to antibacterial drugs).

Treatment of urethritis begins with antibiotics. Medicine picked up in
depending on the pathogen and the severity of inflammation. With acute
the process is immediately prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics,
then move on to the drugs that are detected sensitivity
microflora in a particular case.

The main treatment measures used are washing with
using antiseptic preparations oriented
directly to the area of ​​the urethra can also
apply antibiotics. Efficacy in the treatment of urethritis
determines the use of erythromycin and tetracyclines.

An additional effect is achieved by:

  • physiotherapy procedures (warming applications, electrophoresis and
  • local treatment (for example, broth-based sit trays
  • receiving immunostimulants and immunomodulators.

Directions of treatment of chronic urethritis:

  1. применение антибактериальных препаратов – тех же, что и
    in acute urethritis, taking into account the sensitivity of microorganisms to
    antibiotics (periodically monitored — smears are taken from
    urethra for bacteriological examination and determination
    sensitivity of microorganisms to antibacterial
  2. инстилляции (промывания) мочеиспускательного канала
    antiseptic solutions, for example, furatsillina;
  3. иммунокорректоры – лекарственные препараты, которые
    increase the body’s defenses;
  4. витаминно-минеральные комплексы – необходимы для
    maintaining protective forces and restoring the mucous membrane

Folk remedies only complement the main treatment. Tea from
pharmaceutical chamomile, parsley roots and greens, carrots and celery,
lingonberries and cranberries, beets – products are introduced into the daily diet.
Separately prepare herbal fees and take them for at least a month.
(St. John’s wort, sage, field horsetail).

After treatment, urethritis is examined.
в результате которого устанавливают, здоров ли пациент.
The criteria for cure are:

  • Отсутствие посторонних выделений из уретры в течение
    two weeks after the course of treatment.
  • Отсутствие воспалений urethra.
  • Исчезновение зуда и жжения в процессе


The probability of occurrence of the disease can be minimized,
If you follow some simple rules:

  • First of all, you should avoid random links.
  • Personal hygiene also reduces the likelihood
  • Refusal of bad habits: smoking and excessive use
  • Regular preventive observation at the urologist.
  • Dieting: do not abuse spicy, pickled,
    salty food.
  • Timely treatment of infectious diseases of the organs
    genitourinary system.
  • Avoid hypothermia.

Urethritis, like any other urological disease, requires
timely treatment. In case of unpleasant symptoms
urination, be sure to visit the urologist for setting accurate

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