Ulcerative colitis of the intestine – what is it,causes, symptoms, treatment and proper diet

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory process in
colonic mucosa, accompanied by the appearance of
non-healing ulcers, areas of necrosis and bleeding. This pathology
different from simple inflammation. With ней на слизистой толстой
ulcers form ulcers. Long course of the disease
increases the likelihood of developing cancer.

Поэтому при малейшем подозрении на данный недуг follows
consult a doctor who will recommend the correct treatment
язвенного colitis при помощи лекарственных препаратов и народными
means.

What is ulcerative colitis?

Язвенный колит

Язвенный колит кишечника — это хроническое воспалительное
Colon mucosal disease that occurs in
the result of the interaction between genetic factors and factors
внешней среды, характеризующееся aggravationsми. UC strikes
the rectum, gradually gradually spreading or immediately
захватывая остальные части толстой guts. Also this disease
called nonspecific ulcerative colitis (UC).

Usually found in adults between the ages of 20 and 35 or
after 60. In children, this disease is extremely rare and
makes up only 10-15% of cases from among all the identified pathologies.
With этом наибольшему риску развития недуга среди подростков
girls are exposed, and in the preschool and elementary school periods,
on the contrary, boys.

Ulcerative colitis is classified:

  • on the clinical course – typical and fulmicant; chronic
    form (recurrent and continuous);
  • localization – distal (proctitis, proctosigmoiditis);
    left-side (to the middle of the transverse gut); subtotal;
    total (pancolith); total with reflux ileitis (against
    тотального colitis в процесс вовлекается участок подвздошной
    guts);
  • severity of clinical manifestations.

Pathological anatomy (morphological substrate of the disease)
язвенного неспецифического colitis представлена диффузным
поверхностным поражением стенок толстого intestine. Overwhelmingly
most cases, the disease is localized in the terminal (end)
parts of the large intestine: sigmoid and rectum. Defeat
the entire large intestine is much less common. Defeat
The end section of the small intestine is very rare.

Withчины

Unfortunately, the exact etiology of this disease is unknown –
scientists managed to find out what plays a role in the formation of the disease
autoimmune process, genetic inheritance and certain
infectious agents.

Ulcerative colitis is more susceptible to people in developed cities.
countries. As a rule, the disease develops either in young people,
or those over the age of 60, although actually getting sick
disease can a person of any age.

It has been suggested that it can provoke:

  • some unknown infection (but ulcerative colitis does not
    contagious);
  • unbalanced diet (fast food, diet with lack of
    cellulose, etc.);
  • genetic mutations;
  • drugs (non-hormonal anti-inflammatory
    drugs, contraceptives, etc.);
  • stress;
  • shifts intestinal microflora.

Under the influence of these factors develop symptoms of ulcerative
colitis в результате аутоиммунных процессов в организме.

Симптомы язвенного colitis кишечника

Ulcerative colitis has an acute phase and a remission phase. Onчинается
the disease first gradually but quickly gaining momentum when
признаки become more pronounced.

Симптомы язвенного colitis со стороны пищеварительной
systems:

  • cramping abdominal pain with localization
    on the left, which is difficult to remove drugs;
  • diarrhea or unformed stools mixed with mucus, blood or pus,
    aggravated at night or in the morning;
  • constipation replacing diarrhea caused by spasm
    intestines;
  • bloating (flatulence);
  • frequent false urge to defecate (tenesmus) arising from
    retention of feces above the inflammatory area;
  • spontaneous discharge of mucus, pus and blood (not during
    defecation) as a result of imperative (irresistible)
    the urge.

In 10% of cases besides the mentioned intestinal and general symptoms
extraintestinal manifestations occur:

  • articular lesions;
  • various eruptions on the skin and mucous membranes (for example, in the mouth);
  • eye disorders;
  • damage to the liver and bile ducts;
  • thrombosis and others.

They may precede intestinal disorders. Expressiveness
extraintestinal manifestations sometimes depend on the activity of the inflammatory
lesions of the intestine, and in some cases completely not associated with it.

With легкой степени язвенного colitis больные жалуются на
cramping or abdominal discomfort, weakness. Available
semi-liquid stool 2–4 times a day with a small amount of blood and
mucus.

If ulcerative colitis is more severe, loose stools
happens up to 8 times a day with a significant admixture of mucus, blood and
pus. With этой форме заболевания отмечаются:

  • pain in the abdomen, usually in the left half of it (flank).
  • бывает weakness,
  • небольшая fever,
  • weight loss.
  • may be tachycardia,
  • pain in the liver.

на фото язвенный колит в кишечнике

Symptoms during aggravations

В период aggravations появляются симптомы интоксикации:

  • fever,
  • weakness,
  • malaise.

The hallmark of ulcerative colitis from simple catarrhal
– weight loss. Patients often look exhausted. They have lowered
appetite. With colitis of the intestine ulcers are formed. With
passing stool they may bleed.

Symptoms may become weaker, augmenting
again. If ongoing treatment is carried out, then the phase comes
remission, and symptoms subside. How often occur
relapses, it is determined by treatment, and not by how affected
intestines.

Consequences and possible complications

With отсутствии медикаментозной терапии и несоблюдении диеты
complications may develop. In this case, the symptoms of ulcerative colitis
become more pronounced. The following are possible
последствия воспаления толстого кишечника:

  • massive bleeding;
  • blood anemia;
  • toxic expansion of the intestine (the formation of megacolon);
  • peritonitis;
  • perforation;
  • malignancy of ulcers;
  • inflammation of the joints;
  • damage to internal organs (gallbladder, liver,
    skin).

Learn how spastic colitis manifests

Diagnostics

The diagnosis and treatment of ulcerative colitis is handled by a specialist.
therapeutic profile or gastroenterologist. Suspicion
the disease causes a complex of relevant symptoms:

  • diarrhea with blood, mucus and pus
  • abdominal pain;
  • arthritis of the eye due to general intoxication
    organism.

Laboratory diagnostic methods:

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  • CBC (increase in the number of
    лейкоцитов и СОЭ, снижение уровня гемоглобина и
    red blood cells);
  • biochemical blood analysis (increase in the content of C-reactive
    protein and immunoglobulins);
  • biopsy – histological examination of tissue samples;
  • fecal calprotectin analysis – a special marker
    diagnosis of diseases of the intestines, which in ulcerative colitis
    may rise to 100 – 150;
  • coprogram (presence of hidden blood, leukocytes and
    red blood cells).

Often, at the initial stages, some
microbiological studies to exclude
the bacterial or parasitic nature of the disease. It is known that
clinical picture similar to ulcerative non-specific colitis
дизентерия и амебиаз.

If the results of the tests confirm the presence of
disease, the doctor prescribes instrumental examination. Held
endoscopy to detect possible swelling on the mucous membrane, the presence
pseudopolyps, pus, mucus, blood in the intestines and determine the scale
organ damage.

Endoscopic examinations (colonoscopy, rectosigmoidoscopy)
allows you to identify the patient complex characteristic of the pathology
symptoms:

  • the presence of mucus, blood, pus in the intestinal lumen;
  • contact bleeding;
  • pseudopolyps;
  • granular nature, hyperemia and edema of the mucous membrane;
  • atrophy of the mucous membrane is noted in the remission phase
    intestine.

X-ray examination also applies to effective
methods for the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis. As a contrast
substances in this procedure using a barium mixture. On
X-ray of a patient with ulcerative colitis clearly
a dilation in the lumen of the large intestine is visualized,
shortening of the intestine, the presence of ulcers, polyps.

Ulcerative Colitis Treatment

The treatment will be symptomatic, it should eliminate the process.
inflammation and support remission; and prevent complications.
If medications are not effective, it may be indicated.
surgical intervention.

Задачами лечения больного ЯК are:

  • achieving and maintaining remission (clinical,
    endoscopic, histological),
  • minimization of indications for surgical treatment,
  • reducing the frequency of complications and side effects of the drug
    therapies
  • reduction of terms of hospitalization and cost of treatment,
  • improving the quality of life of the patient.

The results of treatment largely depend not only on the efforts and
the qualifications of the doctor, but also on the strength of the patient’s will,
performing medical recommendations. Available in the doctor’s arsenal
modern medicines allow many patients
back to normal.

Medications

To implement these goals into reality, experts prescribe
больным кишечным язвенным колитом следующие способы
treatment:

  • taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, for example,
    Salofalk, Dipentum, Sulfasalazine;
  • use of corticosteroids (Metiprednisolone,
    Prednisolone);
  • antibiotic therapy by using such
    medicines like Tienam, Digran, Ciprofloxacin,
    Ceftriaxone;
  • receiving immunomodulators (azathioprine, cyclosporine,
    Infliximab, Methotrexate);
  • the use of calcium and vitamins A, C, K.

In case of development of purulent complications or infection
systemic antibacterial drugs are used. Some medications
cannot cure a person. In remission in the absence of pain and
bleeding prescribed physiotherapy. Onиболее
often held:

  • Exposure to alternating current.
  • Diadynamic therapy.
  • Interference therapy.

Patients with light and moderate ulcerative variants colitis
can be treated on an outpatient basis. Severe patients must
be examined and treated in the hospital, since both diagnostic and
medical interventions can have serious and even life-threatening
complications.

With правильном выполнении рекомендаций врача, ежедневном
compliance with dietary requirements, as well as maintenance therapy
can significantly increase the time of remission and improve quality
life of the patient, however, full recovery, unfortunately, with
treatment of this disease is impossible to achieve.

Operation

Оперативное лечение язвенного colitis показано пациентам, которым
conservative methods don’t help. Indications for surgery
are:

  • perforation (perforation of the intestinal wall);
  • signs of intestinal obstruction;
  • abscess;
  • the presence of toxic megacolon;
  • profuse bleeding;
  • fistulae
  • рак intestine.

Лечить язвенный кишечный колит хирургически сегодня
possible in the following ways:

  1. through partial or total colectomy – excision
    colon;
  2. with the help of proctocolectomy – removal of the colon and rectum
    leaving the anus;
  3. by proctocolectomy and the imposition of a temporary or lifelong
    ileostomy, through which the body excretes natural
    waste.

It is necessary to pay attention to possible physical and
emotional problems after surgery; follows
make sure that the patient receives all the necessary
instructions before and after surgery and render him
full medical and psychological support.

Knowing exactly what it is ulcerative colitis and how to treat it, you can
with confidence to say that the prognosis of the disease is quite
favorable. The pathological process is curable thanks to modern
methods of therapy. Most patients have complete
remission, and only in 10% of cases unexpressed
clinical symptoms.

Diet and proper nutrition

With данном заболевании первостепенное значение имеет
normalization of nutrition. Diet for ulcerative colitis is aimed at
mechanical, thermal and chemical schizhenie mucous colon
guts.

Nutritional recommendations are quite strict, worth all life.
keep track of your menu and do not eat prohibited foods.

  1. The diet is based on eating chopped, sparing food,
    steamed or boiled.
  2. Onвсегда стоит забыть об острых соусах, жирных приправах,
    alcohol, cigarettes.
  3. Fruits and vegetables should be consumed only in heat-treated
    the form, because in their raw form they contain a lot of fiber, which
    негативно сказывается на работе пораженного intestine.
  4. With обострении рацион включает жидкие и протертые каши
    (rice, semolina) on water (milk and broths are excluded). Buckwheat
    porridge enhances motility, so when exacerbation is not recommended.
    It is convenient to use cereals for baby food, but they are half
    need to be diluted with water.
 Permitted Products: With язвенном колите из рациона нужно исключить следующие
food and meals:
  • boiled chicken
  • turkey
  • boiled veal
  • rabbit
  • dried pears
  • dried blueberries
  • buckwheat
  • semolina
  • oat groats
  • white rice
  • white bread crackers
  • butter
  • flour products: pasta, pastries, cookies, cakes;
  • rich, fatty and milk soups;
  • fatty meats or fish;
  • canned food;
  • dairy products: eggs, raw, fried, kefir, sour cream,
    milk;
  • cereals: barley, millet, barley;
  • any snacks and smoked meats;
  • sweets, chocolate;
  • fruits and berries, dried fruits;
  • jams, preserves;
  • sauces, mayonnaise, tomato;
  • any alcohol;
  • spices.

In order to know exactly what foods you are allowed to eat,
consult your health care provider.

Menu for ulcerative colitis per day

Diet for ulcerative colitis of the intestine can be realized through
next menu option.

  1. Breakfast: cereal porridge with 1 tsp. ghee,
    steam cutlet, broth hips.
  2. Lunch: curd mass, berry jelly.
  3. Lunch: potato soup with meatballs, rice casserole and
    ground beef, compote.
  4. Tea time: green tea, crackers.
  5. Dinner: steamed vegetables, fishcake, tea.
  6. Bedtime: kefir / baked apple.

Этот вариант меню подходит для периода после aggravations.
Additionally, you can eat 200-250 grams of dried bread, 1 cup
jelly or compote.

Diet for ulcerative colitis of the colon, including direct,
leads to a number of positive changes:

  • contributes to the speedy restoration of normal stool,
    eliminating diarrhea or constipation;
  • increases the effectiveness of medications as it reimburses
    loss of protein, accelerates healing of the mucous membrane, due to
    what a number of drugs begins to act more actively;
  • возмещает потерю полезных веществ, восстанавливает
    metabolism and energy reserve.

Читайте также: основные симптомы эрозивного colitis

Onродные средства

It is allowed to use folk remedies in medical therapy, but
only if the disease is at an early stage
development and treatment in coordination with the doctor. Onиболее действенным
methods of treating a disease, according to patients, are
starvation, refusal of the use of animal food, transition to
raw foods Of herbal remedies are good help broths
yarrow, alder cones, wormwood, sage, potato
the juice.

  1. 100 g in dried watermelon peel pour 2 cups boiling water,
    insist and strain. Withнимать до 6 раз в день по 100 г. Это
    allows you to relieve inflammation in the intestines with acute and chronic
    form of the disease.
  2. Excellent removes inflammation in the intestines
    картофельный the juice. It is enough to grate a potato,
    squeeze juice out of it and drink half an hour before meals.
  3. Take an equal amount of peppermint leaf, camomile inflorescences,
    Potentilla Potentilla erect. 1 tablespoon infusion
    30 minutes in 1 cup boiling water, strain. Withнимать по 1 стакану 2-3
    times a day for colitis.
  4. Вылечить симптомы aggravations хорошо помогает черемуха.
    Onродными целителями рекомендуется приготовить отвар (на стакан
    water one spoonful of flowers). Withнимать три раза, каждый день по ¼
    glasses.

Prevention

Prevention развития этой патологии кишечника заключается в
proper nutrition and periodic examination. Important timely
to treat chronic diseases of the digestive tract. Prediction
язвенном колите при отсутствии осложнений favorable.

Ulcerative colitis is a serious disease that requires
immediate and competent treatment. Do not postpone the visit to
to the doctor when the first symptoms appear. It is important to remember that in the case of
development of the acute form of the disease, the organ is affected quickly, which can
lead to cancer or various complications.

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