Цистит — симптомы, atчины возникновения,complications and treatment in adults

Cystitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bladder. AT
большинстве случаев цистит имеет инфекционную atроду. Disease
is widespread, affects representatives of the weak and strong
sex, but more common in women due to some anatomical
особенностей строения женского organism.

Что это за заболевание, какие atчины возникновения и симптомы у
adults, and how to treat cystitis, and the dangerous
complications – we will consider further.

What is cystitis?

Цистит

Цистит — это болезнь, at которой происходит воспалительный
bladder wall process. Как правило, at цистите
its mucosa is inflamed.

Statistics show that everyone suffers from this ailment.
the second woman during her life. Among men, the disease
much less common, although they are not insured against
его symptoms.

Cystitis is an infectious disease. ATот только возбудители
he lives in our own body. AT 85–95 % случаев
atчиной инфекций мочевыводящих путей становится E. coli – обычный
intestine inhabitant. Another typical pathogen is Staphylococcus.
saprophyticus, representative of the microflora of the skin. And they fall into
bladder ascending path: from the skin or from the rectum through
urethra

Classification

Classification cystitis построена на разных atзнаках. AT
Depending on the pathogenesis, inflammation of the bladder can
be:

  • primary – if there are no other urinary diseases
    organs;
  • secondary – accompanied by chronic infections in
    urinary tract (urethritis, pyelonephritis), develops on
    background urolithiasis, hydronephrosis, congenital anomalies,
    tumor growth, prostate adenoma promoting
    stagnation of urine.

AT зависимости от захвата и площади распространения различают
следующие виды cystitis:

  • total – the entire inner surface of the bladder is inflamed;
  • trigonite – the process covers only the anatomical zone
    triangles;
  • cervical – local inflammation in the lower part.

In addition, there is a classification of cystitis according to their
origin:

  1. Mostly diagnosed cystitis, which have
    infectious origin. But sometimes there are inflammations.
    bladder that develop as a consequence of chemical
    effects (as a result of treatment with certain drug-induced
    drugs), heat effects (the consequence of washing the urinary
    bubble too hot liquid).
  2. К циститу могут atвести ожоги, а также травмирование слизистой
    Bladder. Однако даже at подобных явлениях решающую роль в
    the development of the disease plays an infection that promptly
    atсоединяется.

Based on this cystitis is: 

  • infectious;
  • chemical;
  • thermal;
  • toxic;
  • medication;
  • neurogenic;
  • ray;
  • involutionary;
  • postoperative;
  • viral;
  • parasitic.

Acute cystitis

ATозникновение cystitis в острой форме характеризуется
внезапностью, а также появлением резко выраженной болезненности at
urination, itching and burning, and in some cases
temperature

Chronic form

Chronic cystitis is detected more by laboratory parameters.
ATнешне или субъективно пациент может никаких жалоб и не
present. However, laboratory blood and urine values
indicate the presence of infection in the lower urinary tract
ways. AT любой момент хронический цистит может обостриться, и
появятся все atзнаки острого cystitis.

The reasons

Cystitis is a disease common to all ages. ATызывают ее
преимущественно следующие atчины:

  • hypothermia pelvic areas;
  • bladder mucosa injury;
  • passive lifestyle;
  • spicy and fatty foods;
  • presence of chronic gynecological or venereal
    diseases;
  • the presence of foci of infection in the body;
  • unprotected sex;
  • lack of hygiene.

Непосредственной atчиной воспаления в мочевом пузыре являются
pathogenic pathogens. Most often it is caused by E. coli.
(in 90% of patients). Other infectious agents are:

  • staphylococcus;
  • Klebsiella;
  • Proteus.

Спровоцировать воспаление может занесение инфекции at
проведении тех или иных лечебных мероatятий (в т.ч. это касается
instrumental diagnostics), also as a method of recording
infection is considered mechanical damage. Symptoms at
cystitis can be caused not only by exposure to infections, but
also fungi, mycoplasmas, trichomonads, chlamydia, viruses and
etc.

ATнутренняя поверхность мочевого пузыря снабжена мощными
protective mechanisms that prevent the introduction of microorganisms in
organ wall. However, local immunity is reduced and
патогенность микробов увеличивается, вызывая болезнь, at появлении
provoking factors:

  • hypothermia;
  • hypovitaminosis;
  • exhaustion;
  • имеющихся сопутствующих diseases;
  • hormonal disorders;
  • transferred operations;
  • immunodeficiency.

Symptoms cystitis у взрослых

Symptoms данной болезни зависят от ее формы. If a в острых
случаях наблюдается яркая клиническая картина с сильными резями at
increased urination several times per hour then at
хроническом течении в период ремиссии atзнаки могут абсолютно
absent.

The most characteristic symptom of cystitis is:

  • painful urination accompanied by residual
    sensations of burning and cutting.
  • In addition, patients with cystitis are worried about pain in the lower part.
    abdomen and feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder.
  • Иногда at цистите развивается недержание мочи, появляющееся
    at сильном желании помочиться.
  • Моча может становиться мутной или atобретать красноватый
    оттенок вследствие atмеси красных кровяных телец.
Types of cystitis Symptoms
Hemorrhagic
  •  The appearance of blood in the urine
Interstitial
  • frequent urination
Postcoital
  • pelvic pain
  • боли at опорожнении мочевого пузыря;
  • frequent urination;
  • burning sensation in the urethra;
  • fever.

AT выделяемой моче может atсутствовать кровь, которая появляется
at the end of urination.

Ray Ray цистит характеризуется функциональными и структурными
changes, urological complications:

  • incontinence;
  • blood in the urine;
  • frequent urination;
  • a decrease in bladder volume;
  • the appearance of fistula.
Cervical Основной atзнак — недержание мочи, также возникают:

  • constant urging to the toilet;
  • pain in the pubic area and perineum;
  • зуд и жжение at мочеиспускании;
  • discoloration of urine.

Symptoms острого cystitis

Acute events last 2-3 days and may disappear.
on their own. The duration of the disease is due to protective forces.
organism. On average, it lasts up to two weeks. Wherein
general condition does not suffer. Rarely patients complain of weakness,
a slight rise in temperature.

Symptoms на острой стадии:

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  • frequent urination. In severe cases, the person urinates.
    every fifteen to twenty minutes, around the clock. Мочи at этом
    comes out very little. Wherein у больного появляется чувство жжения в
    urethra.
  • Acute pain in the perineum and bladder. Often she
    occurs after urination. The stronger the inflammation, the sharper
    pain.
  • The blood at the end of urination testifies to
    hemorrhagic cystitis.
  • Мутная моча с резким неatятным запахом.
  • Озноб и fever.
  • Nausea and vomiting.

Symptoms of the chronic form

At this stage, the disease resembles acute cystitis: the symptoms of those
however, they have lower intensity. With catarrhal
характере хронической формы фиксируются следующие atзнаки
bladder inflammation:

  • frequent urination;
  • sharp pain;
  • lower abdominal pain;
  • наличие atмесей в моче (кровь, хлопья);
  • feeling of incomplete emptying of the bladder.

In addition to these forms, low-level cystitis is sometimes diagnosed,
which is not characterized by pronounced exacerbation. However sick
все же постоянно жалуются на частое мочеиспускание, at котором
atсутствует небольшая болезненность. Кроме того, atзнаками
cystitis of this form are periodic jumps in body temperature
to subfebrile, as well as a general feeling of weakness and weakness.

Обострение хронического cystitis проявляется так же, как и at
остром процессе — резями at мочеиспускании, которое становится
very frequent, pain, blurred urine, hematuria, mild
fever.

Implications for the body

With proper therapy, the symptoms disappear after 5-10.
days But often after home or hastily performed treatment
atзнаки заболевания пропадают лишь на некоторое время. The true
atчина болезни остается at этом в организме и дает о себе знать
сразу же at малейшем переохлаждении. In this case, they say that
that cystitis has become chronic.

Complications of cystitis include:

  • Interstitial цистит. With this dangerous variety
    diseases inflammation captures not only the urinary mucosa
    bladder, but also its muscle layer. Что со временем atводит к
    wrinkling this important organ. In the end, wrinkled
    the bladder can no longer perform its functions and arises
    need for his transplant.
  • Hematuria or blood in the urine – this problem may occur as
    complication of cystitis. Severe bleeding may occur.
    need for blood transfusion.
  • Pyelonephritis. If cystitis is not cured, the infection may
    climb up the ureters and cause inflammation of the kidneys.

Diagnostics

In the first episode of cystitis, you can contact the therapist. If a
заболевание atнимает рецидивирующее или хроническое течение,
should consult a urologist and be sure to go
cystoscopy.

Confirmation of the diagnosis of acute cystitis is based on
two main criteria:

  • typical manifestations of symptoms characteristic of
    cystitis
  • быстрое улучшение общего состояния больного at использовании
    antibiotics.

In the absence of effectiveness in the treatment of the disease, occurs
its transition to the chronic form, that is, it becomes protracted in
flow. In this case, it is very important to determine why this is
occurs, it is equally important to produce and differentiate
хронического cystitis с иного типа патологическими состояниями.

При постановке диагноза следует учитывать также, что для cystitis
no increase in temperature over 37.5 degrees. If a у
patient has such a symptom, he needs consultation
urologist to rule out kidney disease.

Diagnostics включает:

  1. Общий клинический анализ мочи at воспалительном процессе
    обычно характеризуется повышением уровня лейкоцитов до 8-10
    (at норме до 5 в поле зрения).
  2. Анализ по Нечипоренко позволяет определить atсутствие в моче
    not only blood cells (leukocytes, erythrocytes), but also
    cells lining the urinary tract (epithelial cells and their
    residues – cylinders).
  3. Bacterial urine culture (performed within 2 days)
    plays a key role in the choice of antibiotic therapy, since
    helps to identify the specific type of bacteria that caused the inflammatory
    process.
  4. If necessary, the doctor may prescribe cystoscopy –
    исследование внутренней поверхности мочевого пузыря at помощи
    специального оптического atбора — цистоскопа, позволяющее
    examine all its departments and make the correct diagnosis.

How to treat cystitis?

The main task facing the doctor who treats cystitis –
the destruction of pathogens invading urinary tract
blistering and causing mucositis. The choice of drugs for
проведения антибактериальной терапии cystitis определяется такими
parameters like disease duration and severity
symptoms. Кроме того, at подборе медикаментов учитываются:

  • possible side effects
  • drug absorbability
  • the method and speed of its removal,
  • the presence of comorbidities, etc.

Стандартом лечения cystitis, независимо от того, острый ли он или
it is an exacerbation of the chronic, is rational
antibiotic therapy. Apply drugs from the groups:

  • nitrofurans (furadonin),
  • fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin,
    pefloxacin),
  • macrolides (monural),
  • cephalosporins (cefixime).

Antispasmodic drugs (No-shpa, papaverine, baralgin) reduce
muscle tension, which reduces urinary soreness
the bubble.

Рекомендации at лечении cystitis в домашних условиях

  1. Прием медикаментозных препаратов для перорального atменения
    (tablets, decoctions, suspensions, drops and others);
  2. Соблюдение стандартных схем лечения cystitis, желательно
    recommended by the doctor after a detailed objective, laboratory
    and instrumental examination;
  3. Соблюдение режима дня, питания, обильного питья, личной
    hygiene;
  4. The combination of drug therapy with the methods of folk
    medicine;
  5. The use of heat treatments in the bladder area,
    prevention of hypothermia, dressing warm clothes, use
    warm drink.

Medication can significantly improve
condition after 3-4 days. Лечение cystitis продолжается до 10
days After another 2-3 weeks it is recommended to limit spicy dishes,
atнимать настои лечебных трав.

Diet

Чтобы достичь максимального лечебного эффекта, важно at
the preparation of dietary, guided by the following
atнципами:

  1. Food and drink should have a diuretic effect;
  2. Salt should be removed from the diet to the maximum;
  3. Any spicy food will be forbidden;
  4. The content of protein products should be minimized;
  5. Fats should be excluded;
  6. Sugar and any of its substitutes must be removed from the menu;
  7. Diet не должна становиться atчиной запора;
  8. Processing of all products should be minimal, frying,
    Smoking, canning is prohibited.

Разрешенные продукты at цистите:

  • A variety of fresh vegetables in large quantities.
  • Boiled beets.
  • Fruits that grow in the area.
  • Fermented milk products – kefir, ryazhenka, yogurt,
    natural yoghurt.
  • Kashi.
  • Овощные супы, atготовленные не на бульонах.
  • Boiled meat and fish.

The following should be excluded from the diet of patients
Food:

  • Smoked, marinated and salted products.
  • Острые блюда и atправы, резкие специи, в том числе лук,
    parsley, garlic, horseradish.
  • Cakes, pastries and other pastries.
  • Sweets, including chocolates and sweets.
  • Fatty and salty cheeses.
  • Coffee, cocoa and strong tea.

Drink during the day at least 2 liters of plain water
(it is possible mineral without gas), drink berry drinks,
non-concentrated juices, herbal teas (with bearberry, corn
stigmas, kidney tea), broth hips.

Given the basic recommendations of doctors, you can independently
create a menu that does not harm the patient:

  • In the morning you can eat any cereal porridge.
  • At lunch, prepared vegetable soups, salads with dressing from
    vegetable oil and steamed meat dishes.
  • Dinner should be light and consist mainly of
    allowed to eat vegetables.

Народные средства at лечении cystitis

Перед atменением народных средств, обязательно посоветуйтесь со
your doctor, because possible individual
against

  1. The dog rose will cope with cystitis, but not its berries, but its roots.
    Crush dry briar roots and add two full spoons to
    five hundred ml of hot water. Bring to a boil, boil a quarter.
    hours Remove and strain after complete cooling. Drink broth
    roots should be one hundred and twenty five ml four times a day before
    a meal.
  2. Brew 2 sec. l leaves yarrow with a glass of boiling water,
    simmer for 20 minutes, insist for half an hour, drain.
    Take 1 s. l 3 times a day after meals.
  3. Bark helps to cope with the frequent urge to urinate
    oak: brew 1 g of bark in a glass of boiling water, simmer over low heat
    15 min., Insist half an hour, drain. Take 1 s. l 3 times a
    day.
  4. Толокнянка и брусника – atзнанные растения для лечения
    urological diseases. По ложке сухих leaves брусники и
    rub the bearberry, pour two cups of water and heat on
    steam bath forty minutes. Remove, cool, strain and drink
    before meals for a quarter cup of healing broth.
  5. A decoction of rowan bark drink like tea, adding honey to the drink.
    Boil ten minutes in a liter of water one hundred and fifty grams of fresh
    rowan bark.
  6. The leaves of sea buckthorn and strawberry are taken in equal shares and
    stirred. 1 tbsp. l смеси заливается 1 tbsp. boiling water infused
    within half an hour and then filtered. Take infusion by
    одному стакану за 30 минут до еды два-три раза в day. A course of treatment
    – one to two months.

Herbal medicine is most effective in the form of fees, the pharmacy is always
will offer ready-made. You can brew herbs yourself, but you can
use tablets (Cystone, Canephron), drops (Urolesan,
Spasmotsistenal) or pasta (phytolysin) – this is also nothing but
herbal fees, only “compactly packed.”

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