Трtheirомониаз — симптомы, первые признаки,причины, диагностика и лечение трtheirомоноза у взрослых

Трtheirомониаз (или трtheirомоноз) урогенитальный является
a disease of the human urinary system only.
Возбудитель трtheirомониаза – влагалищная (вагинальная) трtheirомонада,
передающаяся sexually.

Next, consider what the disease is, what causes
occurrences, modes of transmission and symptoms in adults, and why
It is important to make correct diagnostics and start treatment at an early
stage, so as not to have serious consequences.

Что такое трtheirомониаз?

Трtheirомониаз (трtheirомоноз)

Трtheirомониаз — заболевание, передающееся половым путем, причиной
которого является заражение человека влагалищной трtheirоманадой
(Trichomonas vaginalis).

Трtheirомониаз поражает органы мочеполовой системы человека и
вызывается специфическим возбудителем – влагалищной трtheirомонадой.
It belongs to the group of protozoal infections and is characterized by
the ability to persist for a long time inside the urogenital organs even
при неблагоприятных условиях и действии различных drugs.

Трtheirомонадная инфекция имеется у 30–70% всего женского
населения, причем у почти половины из заболевшtheir характерные
symptoms of a disease are absent or poorly expressed.

Основной путь передачи трtheirомониаза – половой, 
contact-household way is somehow not considered, although there is
point of view that infection is possible through just
used bath accessories that could stay
свежие выделения больного трtheirомониазом.

  • In men возбудителей обнаруживают в уретре, предстательной
    gland and seminal vesicles, from secretions – in semen and secretion
    prostate
  • In infected women – in the vagina and Bartholin glands,
    cervical canal, urethra. Часто внутри трtheirомонад находят
    нейссерий и хламидий, в этtheir случаях гонорея и хламидиоз
    сопутствуют трtheirомонозу, усложняя диагностику и лечение
    diseases.

Features of the pathogen

Trichomonas vaginalis (влагалищная трtheirомонада) — это простейший
organism parasitizing in human urinary tract. He inhabits
mucous and causes one of the most common genital
инфекций — урогенитальный трtheirомониаз.

The incubation period, that is, the time from infection to
the appearance of the first symptoms of the disease ranges from 1 day to 1
месяца, в среднем — от 5 до 15 days

During this time, the parasite through contact with the cells
epithelium through the spaces between them and the lymph network fissure
penetrates the connective tissue below the layers
epithelium. In the mucous membranes of the urogenital tract, it is fixed on
эпителиальных клетках, проникает в железы и щели между their
by cells.

Трtheirомонады:

  • quickly lose their vitality outside the human body.
    Prerequisite for life is the presence of moisture, with
    drying they quickly die.
  • Not resistant to heat (over 40 ° C), straight
    солнечным лучам, воздействию антисептическtheir средств.

Формы трtheirомониаза:

  1. Свежая – до двух months.
  2. Chronic. It is characterized, as a rule, by torpid flow.
    длительностью свыше двух months.
  3. Носительство трtheirомонадной инфекции. With лабораторном выявлении
    трtheirомонад отсутствуют клинические симптомы diseases.

Withчины трtheirомоноза

Фактически 90 % населения являются носителями трtheirомонады, но у
most people, it does not manifest itself.

In 10 percent of carriers of the infection, the parasite has pathogenic
effect on the body. Предполагается, что на поведение трtheirомонады
affects the environment in which it lives.

Как можно заразиться трtheirомониазом?

  • unprotected sex;
  • a large number of sexual partners;
  • early transferred or not fully cured venereal
    diseases.

Развитию трtheirомонад в организме способствуют гормональные сбои,
metabolic disorders, reducing the body’s immune response.
Иммунитет к трtheirомониазу не вырабатывается, поэтому заразиться
can be reused.

Ways of transmission:

  1. Передается трtheirомониаз половым путем, хотя и не исключено и
    non-sex infection: vertical transmission of the pathogen during
    childbirth, during the passage of the fetus through infected generic
    of the way.
  2. There is also a household contact transmission, but
    the risk of infection is very insignificant, because on clothes, towels
    bed linen parasites continue to live outside the body very
    a short time, about 10-15 minutes.

Factors contributing to the development of urogenital
трtheirомониаза:

  • endocrine disorders;
  • metabolic disorders;
  • hypovitaminosis;
  • bacterial contamination of the vagina, accompanied by
    change its acidity;
  • menstruation and postmenstrual period.

First signs

Трtheirомониаз, как и гонорею, распознать самостоятельно
almost impossible, except for frequent discharge from the genital
organs. Прозрачная, большtheir размеров капля – единственный симптом,
присущий каждому при трtheirомониазе.

Не прямые признаки трtheirомониаза:

  • pain when urinating (as with gonorrhea);
  • severe intermittent burning sensation;
  • itching;
  • pain in the lumbar part of the body.

With острой фазе трtheirомониаза признаки начинают manifest
quite expressed in the form:

  • temperature rise;
  • increased ESR;
  • development of leukocytosis.

Symptoms of trichomoniasis in adults

Usually the incubation period of trichomoniasis lasts from 2 days to 2
months. If trichomoniasis occurs in erased form, the first
symptoms may appear several months after infection
while reducing immunity or exacerbation of other chronic
infections.

Trichomoniasis (depending on the severity of symptoms and
duration) can occur in acute, adjusting, chronic
forms and how trichomonadal beings.

The onset of acute inflammation predominantly
characterized by the appearance of vaginal discharge, as well as discharge
from the urethra. It is the discharge arising from
genital tract, are the main and most common symptom,
moreover, such discharge is noted in about 75% of cases.

The main symptoms of trichomoniasis are urethral discharge or
vagina, entrance gate infection. Among women, this feature
observed in about 8 out of 10, in men – in half the cases
trichomoniasis.

Among women

With the development of trichomoniasis in women appear characteristic
complaints:

  • discharge from the genitals (abundant, often serous-purulent,
    frothy – typical of trichomoniasis);
  • зуд, жжение, резь при мочеиспускании;
  • swelling and hyperemia (redness);
  • the occurrence of erosion in the folds of the vaginal mucosa;
  • pain when viewed from pressure
    the urethra – the appearance of discharge;
  • macerated leather;

Often, genital warts occur along the way.

If the disease affects the cervix (endocervicitis), then
there is swelling of the cervix, accompanied by abundant
secretions. Often formed erosion.

In men

After urogenital trichomonas hit the male
the organism, its vital activity provokes the development of the so-called
trichomonas urethritis. It is an infectious and inflammatory disease.
accompanied by a number of such clinical symptoms:

  • Burning sensation during urination or after intimate
    proximity;
  • Mucopurulent discharge from the urethral canal,
    accompanied by discomfort and unpleasant smell;
  • The formation of a seal (strictures) in the urethra;
  • Signs of inflammatory lesions of the testes and their appendages, and
    also prostate gland.

An infected person may not suspect that he is the source.
spread of infection, and transmit trichomonas to sexual
partners or family members.

Therefore, if a man has even the slightest signs
urogenital infection, you need to contact your urologist and pass tests
not only for trichomoniasis, but also for other STIs.

As a rule, the symptoms of the acute form of trichomoniasis appear
about 1-2 weeks, after which the clinic manifestations or
is subject to decrease, or disappearance, or transition to chronic
form of the disease.

Complications

Complications течения трtheirомониаза:

  • Acute or chronic inflammation of the genital area
    women and men: endometritis, oophoritis, urethritis, prostatitis and
    t. n.
  • During pregnancy increases the risk of miscarriage, premature
    childbirth, infection of the fetus, the development of septic complications
    postpartum period.
  • Male and female infertility.
  • Increased risk of infection from other infections transmitted
    sexually. It is proved that the presence of trichomoniasis in women
    doubles the risk of infection with herpes viruses of the second type and
    human papillomavirus infection as well as HIV.

Diagnostics

Microscopic examination does not always allow to find
the causative agent of the disease. Not always with pronounced symptoms.
trichomoniasis parasites are found in the secretions material
urethra. Therefore, the diagnosis of trichomoniasis should
be carried out by all possible laboratory methods and repeatedly.
Only then will it be possible to achieve positive results.

From laboratory diagnostic methods used:

  • microscopic examination of native vaginal smears,
    urethra and cervix (reliable only with fast microscopy
    freshly smeared strokes);
  • microscopic examination of stained Gram smears;
  • culture method (seeding mucus and urethral contents on
    nutrient medium, but requires 4 to 7 days);
  • PCR (polymerase chain reaction) – isolation of Trichomonas DNA from
    discharge of the urethra or vagina (very costly analysis).

In most cases, trichomoniasis is accompanied by the following
infections:

  • gonorrhea;
  • bacterial vaginosis;
  • chlamydia;
  • mycoplasmosis;
  • fungal lesions (thrush in women).

This information should be considered when assigning
appropriate course of therapy.

Лечение трtheirомониаза

Treatment involves the need to adhere to several
The basic principles include the following:

  • treatment of the disease in a simultaneous manner, that is, it
    involves the treatment of both sexual partners;
  • ban on sex at the time of treatment
    diseases;
  • elimination of factors provoking a decrease in resilience
    organism, which implies the need to cure
    related diseases, hypovitaminosis and other similar their
    varieties;
  • применение противотрtheirомонадных препаратов в комплексе с
    local and general hygiene procedures.

Лекарственные препараты при трtheirомониазе

Before using any drug, be sure to
consult a doctor because there are contraindications.

Drugs Instruction
Metronidazole (трtheirопол) The first day take 1 tablet 4 times inside, drinking
water. From the second to the seventh day, inclusive, take 1
pill 3 times a day, also inside with a glass of water.
Metronidazole Antiprotozoal, antimicrobial drug. Mechanism of action
is a depressant effect on the genetic apparatus
bacteria. At the same time all biological
cell processes and the microorganism dies. Contraindications are:

  • pregnancy
  • hypersensitivity to the drug.
Tinidazole 4 tablets of 500 mg are taken at once
каждая.Или на протяжении 7 дней по 1/3 таблетки 2 раза в
day.Contraindications:

  • blood disorders,
  • pregnancy и период лактации,
  • hypersensitivity to the drug
Klion – D The combined preparation which contains equal parts
metronidazole and miconazole (antifungal drug). Mean
as vaginal suppositories, 1 per night for 10 days.

Существует утвержденная схема лечения хронического трtheirомониаза,
as well as recurrent and various localizations:

  • однократный в течение суток прием 2,0 г Metronidazoleа 7-10 дней
    or 500 mg 3 times a day for the same amount
    days
  • Tinidazoleа — по 2,0 г однократно ежедневно в течение 3-х
    days
  • Highly effective with good tolerance and low
    the number of possible side effects is Ornidazole, or Ornizole,
    в дозе по 0,5 г — 2 раза в сутки 10 days

Immunomodulatory agents are also used, which also have
suppression of the development of a co-infection, for example, fungal –
3 irrigation of the vagina and cervical area with a 0.04% solution of the drug
Gepon dose of 5 ml – 1 irrigation with 2 – 3-day
interval.

In addition, to reduce the harmful effects of antimicrobial
drugs on the intestinal microflora, it is recommended to take
medicinal drugs containing bifidobacteria.

После приёма Metronidazoleа, категорически запрещено употреблять
alcohol within 24 hours.

Если пациент принимает Tinidazole, то продолжительность
abstaining from alcohol is at least 72 hours. With
non-observance of the specified restrictions, the person risks to face
adverse reactions such as dizziness, nausea and
vomiting.

Трtheirомониаз считают излечённым, когда возбудитель при
диагностике не выявляется, и клиническtheir симптомов не наблюдается.
Sex life during treatment is excluded. Must be reported
своему половому партнеру о наличии трtheirомониаза и другtheir ЗППП, о
the need for examination and treatment.

Результат лечения трtheirомониаза зависит от нормализации
microflora of the genitourinary system and the organism as a whole. Among women с этой
целью используют вакцину против  из инактивированных
acidophilic lactobacilli. Возможно назначение иммуномодулирующtheir
drugs.

Prevention

Prevention трtheirомониаза сводится к соблюдению правил,
предупреждающtheir заражение венерическими болезнями. Main
recommendations:

  • use condoms;
  • pay attention to the choice of partners;
  • avoid casual sex;
  • do not use shared towels, washcloths and other hygienic
    accessories.

Учтите также, что трtheirомониаз легко передается во время полового
of the act, therefore, if there is suspicion of infection
It is necessary to be examined at once to both partners.

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