Trigeminal neuralgia: symptoms, treatment,the reasons

Update: December 2018

Before describing the symptoms of trigeminal neuralgia,
try to explain what constitutes the trigeminal nerve. how
It is known that in the human body there are 12 pairs of cranial nerves.
The trigeminal nerve is representative of the fifth pair. It consists of three
branches – ocular, mandibular and maxillary. So, if
the nerve branch of the nerve is affected – the pain will be localized to
forehead, temple, eyebrow.

With the defeat of 2 branches, the pain manifests itself in the nasal region, the upper
jaw, facial muscles. The defeat of the 3 branches is characterized by pain,
localized in the lower jaw, chin, neck. Often
with the defeat of the second and third branches arises the strongest tooth
pain.

Types of neuralgia

Conventionally, all types of trigeminal neuralgia can be divided into
primary (true) and secondary neuralgia.

  • Primary (true) neuralgia is considered a separate pathology,
    caused by compression of the nerve or circulatory disorders
    in this region.
  • Secondary neuralgia is the result of other pathologies. To them
    include tumor processes, severe infectious
    diseases.

Neuralgia can affect all nerve branches at once, and
manifest inflammation of one or two branches.

Causes of Neuralgia

In order to find adequate treatment for neuralgia
trigeminal nerve, one must have a good understanding of the causes
ailment. And there are a lot of them: Невралгия тройничного нерва симптомы

  • Compression of all or one branch of the trigeminal nerve;
  • Inflammatory diseases of the paranasal sinuses
  • Cerebral vascular aneurysm;
  • Diseases of the teeth;
  • Chronic infectious diseases – tuberculosis, brucellosis,
    malaria;
  • Metabolic disorders – diabetes, gout
  • Brain tumors (see signs of a brain tumor)

Signs of disease

Neuralgia of the trigeminal nerve gives symptoms quite bright,
therefore, the diagnosis of the disease does not cause difficulties.
The disease is characterized by the appearance of a sharp, burning pain in the face,
arising suddenly. A pain attack does not last long, in
for a maximum of 2 minutes or seconds (10-20), after which it passes
by itself. how мы уже писали выше, боли возникают в той области,
where one of the three branches of the nerve is affected. Most affected
patients in whom all three branches of the trigeminal nerve are affected.

Pain always occurs on one side of the face. Sometimes she can
to be transient – to affect one branch of the nerve, then the other. Pains
give to the eye, ear, neck, occipital region, patients call this
pain shooting, compared with an electric discharge.

The attack of neuralgia is accompanied by convulsive contractions.
facial (facial, masticatory) muscles, while the patient does not cry,
not crying, but trying to minimize movement. In patients
усиливается слюноотделение,  слезотечение, потоотделение (см.
the reasons повышенной потливости). The skin reddens can
appear signs of rhinitis.

The pain arises both for no apparent reason, and with additional
irritations: talking, shaving, chewing. In the periods between pain
attacks no signs of disease can not be detected.
Mild soreness is sometimes noted if pressure is applied to points.
facial nerve exit.

Usually, the localization of pain remains unchanged for several
years old. Since patients with similar neuralgia are more likely to chew food on
healthy side, with time on the sore part of the face may occur
muscle compacting, degeneration of the masticatory muscles, reduction
sensitivity.

The illness is characterized by painful pains. When taking the history and
On examination, doctors note that patients are horrified to talk about
pain, trying not to touch the area of ​​the face where
there was an attack. Patients are usually tense, anxious in
waiting for acute neuralgia. This should be considered when choosing
treatment of trigeminal neuralgia – very important to calm
patient, instill in him the confidence that the treatment will be effective
and the pain will not return.

Which doctor to contact? Having experienced an attack of the strongest facial
pain, especially if it manifests itself in the jaws and teeth,
most patients associate its occurrence with
dental pathologies. This is not true. Your road lies to
doctor – neurologist.

how лечить невралгию тройничного нерва?

Drug treatment is used to treat this disease.
treatment, physiotherapy and surgery
intervention.

Drug treatment

The main drug for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia
considered to be carbamazepine. It develops inhibitory processes in the nervous
cells that are prone to paroxysmal activity (painful
excitement). The dosage of the drug is selected by the doctor, so we do not
We will dwell on the used medicinal
schemes. We only say that carbamazepine is taken for
a long time, up to 8 weeks.

In addition, the drug is quite toxic. Affects
on the liver, urinary, bronchial system. Among the side
effects of taking carbamazepine are marked by various mental
disturbances, memory impairment, drowsiness.

Carbamazepine is contraindicated in pregnant women. The drug has
teratogenic effect – has a toxic effect on
embryo. Also, do not take carbamazepine to persons with glaucoma,
heart block, blood disorders.

Interesting! It is known that while taking carbamazepine
use grapefruit juice – it enhances the toxic effect
drug.

We hope we have convinced you not to take
carbamazepine without a prescription. While taking this drug
with trigeminal neuralgia, symptoms stop in 1-2 days,
its analgesic effect is felt; its duration is 3-4
hours

  • Similar drugs – antconvulsants can also be used.
    in the complex treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. This is Phenibut,
    Pantogam, Baclofen.
  • Ambulance specialists to relieve pain
    intravenous administration of sodium oxybutyrate can be used.
    Однако  эффект от таких инъекций непродолжительный, боль
    removed for several hours.
  • Antihistamines may enhance the therapeutic effect.
    carbamazepine (Pipolfen, diphenhydramine).
  • Assigned tranquilizers (Tazepam, Diazepam) and neuroleptics
    (Pimozide), as an additional drug neurologists can use
    well known to you Glycine long course.
  • In cases of vascular diseases of the brain, vasotonic can be prescribed.
    – Cavinton, Trental, Nicotinic acid, etc.
  • Vitamin therapy, especially vitamin C and vitamins of group B.
    The latter are often prescribed in injectable form during the acute period.
    diseases.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs – see shots from
    the pains.

Physiotherapy

В комплексе с медикаментозным  назначается
physiotherapy treatment. The following methods are used:

  • Acupuncture;
  • Magnetic therapy;
  • Ultrasound;
  • Laser therapy;
  • Electrophoresis with drugs.

Radical treatment

In the absence of the effect of ongoing conservative treatment
the patient may be offered a surgical solution
by. Currently, there are several types of radical
treatment. Let us dwell on these methods:

  • Rhizotomy

Through the skin incision behind the ear is the rupture of the trigeminal nerve,
what is the therapeutic effect.

  • Microvascular decompression

The operation is performed by neurosurgeons. This operation removes
or move blood vessels that come in contact with
nerve roots. The effectiveness of such an operation reaches 80%.

  • Radiofrequency ablation

Воздействие  на нервный узел высокой температурой.
Лечение  проводится с помощью местной анестезии.
Hospitalization is optional. Pains прекращаются не сразу,
final recovery comes a month later.

  • Glycerin injections

It is carried out with the help of a long thin needle, with the help of which
the doctor penetrates into the area of ​​branching of the trigeminal nerve. Injections
help well, but relapses of the disease are sometimes noted
late dates.

New Developments

The most modern and effective treatment for neuralgia
trigeminal nerve can be called radiosurgery with
помощью Кибер  Ножа. This device uses to treat
photon flux that penetrates exactly into the area of ​​inflammation and
eliminates it. Cyber ​​Knife treatment provides high
Accuracy of radiation doses, comfortable and fast healing. Besides,
The procedure is absolutely safe for the patient.

Modern treatment with the help of Cyber ​​Knife can be considered the most
productive. This technique is used not only abroad, but also
in the spaces of the former USSR: in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus. Note,
treatment in Moscow will cost 180,000 rubles.

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