Trichinosis: causes, symptoms, diagnosis andtreatment

Signs of трихинеллеза у человекаHelminthic diseases
quite common among animals and people. Especially
there are similar pathologies in the warm season. One of
diseases is trichinosis. The disease develops as a result
getting into the body of a small nematode worm that is there
parasitic and provokes many organ disorders and
systems. To prevent complications must be timely
начать treatment.

Inзбудитель и пути заражения

Источник патологического состояния — круглый
червь
, который в медицине носит название trichinella
spiralis. Its name suggests that the parasite is twisted in
spiral. The size is small from 0.5 to 1.9 mm. Males rarely
exceed 2 mm in length, and fertilized females can reach 5
mm

The worms enter the human digestive tract and begin
multiply rapidly, spreading through other organs and even
the muscles. As they increase in the body of an infected person
начинают проявляться симптомы pathology. You can become infected
two ways:

  1. The alimentary consists in eating the meat of animals, which
    infected with parasites, especially if it is insufficient
    heat treatment.
  2. Communicating with a sick person who already has in the body
    sexually mature individuals can also cause.

Especially susceptible to the disease people with reduced immunity,
who often suffer from colds, viral pathologies. how
typically, the immune system of such patients cannot withstand
parasites.

how проявляется заражение трихинеллезомOne day after
penetration into the stomach of the larva becomes a full-fledged worm.
3-4 days are enough for the female to lay eggs that are current
blood is spread throughout the body. More often они выбирают
habitat muscle tissue. One mature individual may
deferred to 2000 larvae, which makes the pathology very dangerous.

It is noted that the female can lay eggs for more than 6
weeks. That is why the disease develops rapidly. After 2−3
weeks the larvae that hit the muscles become dangerous again
immersed in a capsule and can cause various disturbances. AT
in some cases, the larvae may persist in muscle tissue from 10
up to 35 years. Pathology также поражает диких животных, которые поедают
meat of infected individuals. Wild boars, bears, foxes, badgers and
nutria often suffer from parasites. The disease is pretty
common, and the pathogen is different in that it is very resistant
to low and high temperatures.

Clinical manifestations

Обследования при подозрениях на трихинеллезSigns of
Trichinosis in humans does not appear immediately, the infected can on
for several years unaware of the presence of the parasite in
the body. The pathogens themselves do not cause negative reactions and do not
harm the tissues, but their body consists of a kind of protein, which
It is considered the strongest allergen. After the larvae enter the body
the incubation period begins, which lasts from 5 to 30
days

It is noted that severe cases of pathological condition occur
с более продолжительным инкубационным периодом. After him
the end of the patient is worried about the following symptoms:

  • Симптомы трихинеллезswelling of the face, limbs or whole body in
    depending on the severity of the patient’s condition, which
    become the result of the body’s reaction to a foreign protein;
  • severe vascular lesion, spasm or excessive
    expansion;
  • permanently elevated body temperature to subfebrile numbers or
    severe fever over a long period;
  • severe muscle pain;
  • a rash on the body of various shapes and sizes;
  • coughing, shortness of breath and difficulty swallowing solid foods;
  • blistering or papular rash that quickly
    spreads.

Что такое трихинеллезIt is worth noting that the pain can be
of different intensity and appear already on the third or fourth day
after infection. Experts claim that early appearance
дискомфорта свидетельствует о более тяжелой форме pathology. AT
the first few days the patient speaks of pain in the calf muscles.
Further, the gluteal, femoral, back,
abdominals and hands.

When feeling or prolonged pain pain
is increasing. The patient begins to tire quickly, performance
it’s dropping. Observed headaches, dizziness, decreased
or increased blood pressure, nausea, sometimes vomiting,
loss of appetite. With the progression of the pathological
the process appears frequent loose stools, abdominal pain, increased
flatulence, flatulence, smooth muscle spasms
intestine.

The body temperature in the early stages does not exceed 37
degrees In the following stages it can increase daily to 40
degrees and very difficult to reduce. Patient feels
very bad, psycho-emotional state is disturbed, sometimes
There is delusions or hallucinations on the background of hyperthermia.

how правило, пациент не предполагает, что страдает именно
parasitic disease because the symptoms of trichinosis in humans
resemble an allergic reaction or myositis. Only under development
pathology complications can be without examination differentiate from
other violations.

Possible complications

Signs of поражения трихинеллезомIf the patient does not refer to
specialist or pathology in the initial stages proceeds without
expressed clinical manifestations, begins the development of severe
complications from other organs. The first will be a decrease
mobility or complete immobility of the patient. Pain syndrome
so intense that a person tries to move less with
purpose of easing the discomfort. Gradually muscle fibers
atrophy, and when the patient tries to regain activity
symptoms are aggravated.

This condition is very dangerous because
need a long period, a lot of drugs and specially
Selected set of exercises. Quite often cells are affected.
liver and develops hepatitis. It flows particularly hard,
because the gradual increase in the number of parasites poisons
organism and negatively affects the state of the liver. Sick organ not
copes with detoxification function, which affects the course
diseases.

Лечение трихинеллеза

Damage to the lungs and the development of eosinophilic pneumonia also
refers to quite common complications. These cells
are produced in the body in response to foreign proteins. When their
the amount exceeds the allowable rate, begins accumulation in
lungs that provokes inflammation. The disease is pretty
difficult, difficult to treat and often complicated. The patient
developing bronchial asthma or pleurisy, which further worsens
state. In some cases, pathology leads to
менингиту или энцефалиту, когда воспаление развивается в
cells and membranes of the brain. Diseases are very hard
and often lead to disability.

A negative effect on the urinary system is manifested in
the form of jade of varying severity. Kidneys can’t handle their
function, inflammation develops in tissues, the process is disturbed
filtering and excretion of urine. This only enhances the swelling of tissues.
and makes treatment difficult.

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The most serious complication is myocarditis. Pathology
is an inflammatory process of the heart muscle.
Developed due to the fact that the body actively produces
antibodies in response to a foreign protein. It is very difficult and
becomes the most likely cause of death.
Mortality at the onset of myocarditis symptoms is 30% of
of all cases.

Diagnostic methods

Диагностирование трихинеллезаDiagnosis of pathological
states presents some complexity because the symptoms
similar to other disorders. In the incubation period when
symptoms are mild or nonexistent, patients in
exceptional cases, contact a specialist, therefore, the identification
pathology difficult.

The first step will be a survey of the patient, the definition of habits
nutrition, lifestyle, professional activities. This information
help the doctor make up the big picture. Further, it is important to identify
the presence of chronic pathologies of organs and systems that may
be complicated during therapy.

The next step is to examine the patient, assess the condition of the skin
integuments, mucous membranes. Specialist without fail
palpating the abdomen, determining the presence of bloating and other complications.
Bad breath, hyperemia of the mucous membranes, small
hemorrhages due to capillary fragility will be signs
the initial stage of the pathological process.

The obligatory moment in the examination is a complete blood count
and urine. The results will show the degree of neglect of pathology, the presence of
focus of inflammation. Leukocyte elevation, sedimentation rate
Erythrocyte clearly indicates impairment. If do
detailed analysis, you can determine the number of eosinophils,
which accurately speaks of the body’s reaction to an alien protein.

Additional examination

Preventive measures при трихинеллезеThere are a few
additional methods that will also be informative and
help in the diagnosis. It is very important to conduct serological
a study that accurately indicates the type of antibodies, as well as their
способность связываться с эритроцитами, лейкоцитами и
enzymes. Quite often this method helps exactly
establish the diagnosis and stage of the pathological process. Held in
conditions of the medical institution through careful examination
patient’s blood.

If the specialist does not have enough data after several methods
examination, he prescribes a special allergy test. In
during the procedure, the patient is intracutaneously injected with a special solution with
antigens. For several hours the doctor watches
patient response.

If a clear red spot appears at the injection site or
medium sized blister, the test is considered positive and indicates
начальной стадии diseases. In время инкубационного периода такой
the method cannot be used because it is valid only after 2−3
weeks after infection.

An additional method is muscle biopsy. Sample
taken from the gastrocnemius by puncture. The procedure is carried out
only a doctor in a hospital. Differs in pain and
often requires prior local anesthesia. Received by
material detail examine with a microscope for the presence of
parasite larvae.

Quite often it is necessary to do an analysis of meat that is sick.
used before the onset of clinical signs. It is possible
only in the case of a short incubation period and an acute onset
pathological process. Based on diagnostic data
The examination specialist is determined with a treatment plan.

Drug therapy

Treatment of trichinosis begins with determining the stage
pathological process. It is necessary for the appointment of adequate
therapy. The first step in the classic scheme will be to use
special anthelmintic drugs. More often
используются следующие
:

  1. Препараты для лечения трихинеллезаMebendazole is considered
    effective drug. Available in tablet
    form and is recommended for admission courses for 10−14 days. Principle
    action of the drug is based on the negative effect of active
    component of the drug for worms. It suppresses their livelihoods.
    due to impaired glucose uptake and ATP synthesis. This leads to
    rapid death of all parasites. The drug is contraindicated in patients.
    with allergies to its components, pregnant and lactating women.
  2. Albendazole has a similar mechanism of action and is effective
    copes with pathology, destroying not only mature individuals,
    but also the larvae. Available in tablets and taken in courses of 2
    of the week. As a rule, this time is enough to eliminate brightly.
    выраженных симптомов diseases. Drug not
    assigned to patients with severe allergies, in the period
    pregnancy and lactation, patients with lesions of the retina.
  3. Vermox in its composition has an active component in the form
    mebendazole, therefore, has a similar mechanism of action. Available
    in tablet form and allows for 10−14 days completely
    get rid of the symptoms of pathology. Not used in therapy
    patients with severe disorders of the liver, kidneys, heart,
    in the period of carrying a baby and breastfeeding, with intolerance
    main substance.
  4. Tiabendazole also contains the active substance
    mebendazole and has a pronounced therapeutic effect
    infection of the body by parasites. Its effectiveness is more than
    90%, which allows you to assign a tool even at a running stage
    pathological condition. The course of therapy lasts from 10 to 21 days in
    depending on the degree of neglect of the disease.

The decision to choose one of the medicines takes
specialist after careful examination and identification of the stage
diseases. After the course it is recommended to take blood and samples again.
muscle tissue to study to determine the absence of larvae
and antibodies.

Auxiliary means

Anthelmintic drugs cope only with the pathogen
pathology. However, additional recovery is required.
therapy to eliminate associated symptoms from
опорно-двигательного аппарата и внутренних органов. Usually
The following means are used:

  1. Список препаратов от трихинеллезаAntipyretic drugs,
    for example, Paracetamol and its analogues, in severe cases the solution
    Infulgan. The second agent is introduced by dropper into
    hospital conditions when body temperature cannot be reduced
    other medicines. As a rule, 1 procedure is enough, but in
    some cases require 3-4 sessions. The dosage determines only
    doctor.
  2. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to eliminate
    сильных болей и замедления развития diseases. At the initial
    stages enough pill form in severe cases
    intramuscular injections are prescribed. More often используется
    Inльтарен, Диклак, Наклофен, Диклофенак. There is also a drug
    Nimesil in the form of a powder that helps not only remove
    inflammation, pain, but also reduces body temperature. Therapy is rare
    Lasts more than 7 days, since such funds have
    negative effect on the digestive system organs.
  3. Muscle relaxants are also needed to normalize the condition.
    the patient. Used only by appointment of a specialist and
    exceptional cases. Helps relieve muscle spasm and loosen
    pain sensations. The most effective means of this group
    are Mydocalm and Baclofen.
  4. Hormonal drugs, such as Prednisolone, Dexamethasone and
    others. They are appointed in severe cases. Used short
    courses for 7−10 days. Usually применяется минимальная дозировка,
    which cannot harm the patient. Lack of funds is
    that when discontinuing use in many patients
    develops withdrawal syndrome. The condition is extremely serious and often
    provokes a lethal outcome.
  5. Diuretic drugs are used in case of severe edema or
    development of brain pathologies. Usually достаточно 2−3 приемов
    diuretic to cope with the disorder. In this case, it is better not
    use potent medicines with cumulative
    effect. Assign Lasix or Furosemide, which act gently
    for 5−6 hours. After this diuretic action
    is terminated.

If the patients as the pathological progression
process develop complications from the organs and systems,
specialist assigns additional funds. Treatment should
be carried out in the hospital because the disease in any period
can go into a difficult stage.

After the acute stage and the end of the main therapeutic course
the patient is recommended to undergo rehabilitation through massage and
physiotherapy exercises. This will help restore normal
функционирование скелетных мышц и улучшит общее состояние the patient.
To strengthen the immune system and fill the shortage of valuable
components should take vitamin complexes for
months after discontinuing medication.

Full recovery occurs no earlier than 6 weeks.
However, it is worth noting that the intradermal allergy test
patients with trichinosis in history will be positive even on
over 5–10 years. This is considered normal since immunity
after cure is formed rather weak.

Preventive measures

Методика лечения трихинеллезаTo prevent reuse
or even primary infection is recommended to abide by several
preventive measures. Do not buy animal meat in
unverified locations. It must pass sanitary
verification. Evidence of this procedure is a special stamp.
on the carcass.

Cooking meat dishes should be thorough. Not
it is recommended to use unroasted meat with blood or dried
product. This will increase the risk of infection several times. In время варки
The product should warm up inside at least 75 degrees.
Only at a temperature that lasts at least 3 minutes,
you can destroy the larvae. If a person is hunting himself,
mined meat should be cooked very carefully, and better at all
refuse to use it.

When the first symptoms of the disease are recommended
immediately contact a specialist for timely
diagnosis and treatment. This will help avoid serious complications and
save a life.

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