Ringworm – a highly contagious fungal infection of the skin
human, as well as nails and hair. The causative agents of this species are depriving
are the sweatshops fungi Microsporum and Trichophyton. This is the most
the type of lichen that has been studied has two main names in medicine
Trichophytosis and Microsporia, depending on the fungus that caused
ringworm in a person. Its treatment mainly consists in
local therapy and oral administration of antifungal drugs in
Since this is a fungal skin disease, besides the popular
names – ringworm – doctors use such terms –
Dermatomycosis, Dermatophytosis, Dermatophytosis, as well as Trichophytosis and
Microsporia. Difference trichophytosis from microsporia is that
the latter is transmitted to humans from pets, most often from
cats, and trichophytosis parasitizes only on the human body.
Risk factors and ways to contract ringworm
The main route of infection is deprived of contact-household, with
direct contact with a sick person or animal:
- Children from 4 to 15 are most susceptible to ringworm infection.
years, especially easily transmitted microsporia when in contact with
- Both trichophytosis and microsporia can be transmitted from the patient.
of a person to a healthy contact-household way, that is, through
household items, clothes, combs, linen.
- Even at the hairdresser, with no disinfection tools
for haircuts and shaving, you can become infected with ringworm.
- Contact with affected skin of the patient is also possible.
However, in addition to contact of the pathogen on the skin to
infection and reproduction of fungi on the skin, nails and
healthy person’s hair requires certain
provoking conditions because with a strong immune system and
no damage to the skin, the risk of developing the disease
In compliance with the rules of personal hygiene, all pathogenic fungi at
skin contact simply washed off after showering and other
hygiene procedures. If there is a patient in your environment
ringworm, should be very careful, neat,
observe the rules of personal hygiene, do not use hairbrushes and
other common household items that come into contact with skin
the patient. Risk factors for ringworm include
- Skin maceration – softening of the skin with prolonged
contact with water.
- Violation of the integrity of the skin – injuries, abrasions, scratches, burns and
- Low immunity and the presence of other skin diseases. Permanent
stress, depression are the strongest factor
leading to a decrease in the body’s defenses.
What does ringworm look like and its differential
To establish the diagnosis of ringworm, except primary
examination by a dermatologist, for more accurate diagnosis is necessary
do a bacteriological examination of the scraping taken from the hearth
inflammations, while hemping hair and skin flakes on
subject to the presence of fungi. If it is ringworm, then find spores.
- If ringworm
localized on the hairline, it should be differentiated
from baldness and favus (another kind of fungal infection
- If ringworm расположен на теле, то его следует
distinguish from eczema and psoriasis.
- With the chronic course of the disease, ringworm
differentiate with candidiasis, acne, psoriasis, nail eczema and
flat red lichen.
- With deep ringworm in a person, the symptoms should
differentiate from staphylococcal sycosis, iodine and bromoderma,
ostiofollikulita and phlegmon.
Symptoms, signs of ringworm
How is and how to treat ringworm? This kind of lichen
can affect almost any part of the body, and doctors divide
ringworm localization in the following areas:
- skin of arms, legs, torso
- nails of hands and feet
- groin and underarm folds
- scalp skin
- hands, palms
- skin on the face
Depending on the location of depriving, the depth of the skin
lesions, and a state of the immune system that cannot cope with
ringworm, symptoms and signs of the disease may vary.
Therefore, all types of flow of fungal disease are accepted.
classify as follows:
Infection with superficial ringworm in children is usually
comes from sick adults or from pets. AND
if such a lichen is not cured in childhood, it will leak
chronically up to 13-15 years – the period of puberty. Have boys
at this age self-healing occurs more often than not.
not returned, but in girls without adequate treatment, it can
prolong and acquire a chronic form. Symptoms of ringworm
depriving on the head:
- When the ringworm have
the human part of the scalp is affected, first formed
round foci in which hair thinning is observed, they may be
and a few, or maybe just a single site.
- In the area of lesion, the skinlessness peel off forming
gray or whitish little scales that can be taken for
- As the disease progresses, hair begins to
break off as if this area has been trimmed 1-2 mm from the skin
- This may be accompanied by a slight reddening of the skin. By
the edges of the affected area are formed small bubbles, which in
further converted into yellowish crusts.
- By размеру участки, пораженные лишаем, могут быть достаточно
large, in diameter of 3-10 cm and even more.
- Byверхностный лишай этого вида не приводит к воспалению, и
only some patients may have a slight
itching. However, such versicolor delivers considerable psychological
discomfort because the aesthetic appearance of the head and scalp
Byверхностный стригущий лишай на гладкой коже
- On smooth skin without hair
ringworm cover for the primary symptoms can be confused with
rosy lichen, treatment of which is completely different. Honors
ringworm is that it can affect any area
body, and pink does not happen on the face, hands, on the feet,
also pink lichen usually does not last more than 2 months, and ringworm
deprive, microsporia without treatment can last for years with periodic
- ANDзлюбленной локализацией стригущего лишая на гладкой коже
is – face and neck, as well as it can be on the legs and body.
- Distinctive feature of this
lichen is clear contours of spots, the edges of which are formed
as if a roller of bright color, consisting of bubbles and pink knots
colors. In the center of the spot, the skin usually has a lighter color with
- With the progression of the disease, foci increase in
- This lichen is usually accompanied by itching.
In adults, chronic ringworm is found only among
women who have not cured superficial ringworm in childhood
lichen. It usually occurs when a woman has a disorder.
functions of the thyroid gland, ovaries, with a lack of vitamins and
general weakening of the immune system. Symptoms of chronic ringworm
у женщин following:
- It can be both on the scalp and on the smooth.
skin and nails. ANDзлюбленная его локализация на голове — затылок и
- If the focus is localized on the hair area of the skin, then the hair
break under the very root, and the resulting stain is called black
point, while the center is usually quite small up to 1 cm, flaky
scar, without inflammatory symptoms.
- If the lichen is localized on smooth skin, then
as a rule, these are elbows, palms, thighs and buttocks. Contours of spots
become fuzzy, their sizes can be quite significant,
color varies from pink to bluish, also characteristic
peeling of the skin.
- For any type of chronic lichen except for itching and external
aesthetic appearance versicolor does not show itself anymore.
- With the defeat of the nails, they become either gray or
dull, dull, the edges quickly crumble, jags appear,
this nail can be too thick or very thin
(see crumble, exfoliate nails: reasons for what to do).
Deep Ringworm: Infiltrative-Purulent
- This type of ringworm is transmitted to humans only from
animals whose pathogens multiply in hair follicles
- Usually with deep ringworm in a person, the symptoms
присоединяется увеличение и болезненность лимфатических
nodes, increased body temperature, allergic rashes and general
- On average, the inflammatory process lasts 2-3 months.
- A sign of deep ringworm on the scalp
the formation of large bright red plaques 5-10 cm, they
uneven, lumpy, resemble tumor growths. it
due to purulent inflammation of the follicles, swelling of the skin, therefore
бляшки значительно возвышаются над кожей heads.
- it очень болезненный вид стригущего лишая, к тому же при
autopsy from the follicles is a purulent fluid.
- By мере затихания воспалительного процесса в центре бляшек
образуются рыхлые корочки коричневого colors.
- In men, deprive versicolor can be located not only on
hair of the head, but also hit the mustache and beard.
Treatment for ringworm in humans
In the treatment of ringworm in humans, the basis of therapy
is the fight against fungus that caused ringworm. Treatment
назначается только врачом дерматологом, которое
combines topical ointment treatment for depriving – with antifungal
creams, sprays, shampoos with antifungal drugs
- For local treatment, the doctor may recommend various ointments,
creams, shampoos containing clotrimazole, ketoconazole, mikoseptin,
Terbinafin, Mikoconazole. (Local antifungal agents –
creams, sprays, gels)
- Ringworm smooth skin is better treatable
Terbinafine and tolnaftate.
- For treatment of lichen in the morning usually use a 5% solution of iodine.
And in the evening, as a rule, sulfur-salicylic or
sulfur-ointment ointment, it is also possible to clean salicylic
- The doctor can write a prescription for the manufacture of prescription department
Vidal milk pharmacies – alcohol, camphor, salicylic acid, lotion
with sulfur, boric acid, glycerin. Or Lassar paste – Vaseline,
starch, salicylic acid, zinc oxide.
For systemic treatment of ringworm use
Griseofulvin is a natural antimycotic that has a narrow
spectrum of action, namely active against fungal dermatomycetes,
Trichophyton, Microsporum, Epydermophyton, Achorionum.
- Treatment of ringworm and skin and hair
necessarily accompanied by ingestion of griseofulvina. Him
should be taken within 15-25 days, and donated once a week
bacterioscopic scrape for fungus detection. As soon as the fungus
will not be detected, griseofulvina is continued every other day,
the same dose that the doctor calculated, for another 14 days, so as not to
there was a recurrence of the disease.
- If the fungus affects the feet, they are recommended to complete the course.
treatment with ketoconazole or clotrimazole orally and externally
impose selenium sulfide.
For the treatment of chronic ringworm other than antifungal
both local and oral (Griseofulvin), shown
also vitamin therapy, immunomodulators, drugs that strengthen
vessels and improves microcirculation.
After the treatment of ringworm is finished, a scraping is given again.
bacterial analysis from the surface of the skin in places where it used to be
deprive him, he is handed over 3 times – immediately upon completion of treatment,
in a week and in 2-3 months. Only in case all 3
analysis give a negative result, ringworm is considered
cured. If the results are positive, then you should review
treatment and assign another scheme.
Автор: Мельникова Светлана Георгиевна врач-дерматолог