Treatment атеромы: операция по удалению under кожейhead, face, back, ear

Update: December 2018

Contrary to popular belief, atheroma is not a tumor.
This confusion arose due to several reasons, first of all,
due to the characteristic for tumors of the suffix (lipoma,
hemangioma, myoma, etc.). By nature, it is non-inflammatory.
a disease of the sebaceous gland in which a cyst is formed.

Atheroma can be located almost anywhere on the body,
but it is much more common in areas with “oily” skin – on
face, behind the ears, on the back of the head, in the projection of the forehead, on the back between
shoulder blades, tailbone, etc. This is due to an increased number of
sebaceous glands in these areas. About the treatment of atheroma we and
let’s talk

Withчины появления

For the occurrence of atheroma, one condition is necessary – blockage.
протока sebaceous gland. As a result of this, substances that
are created in the gland (components of sebum) do not go on
skin surface. They accumulate inside the duct, which leads to
increase its size. The body is trying to stop this process.
and forms a cyst – a cavity bounded by walls of
connective tissue.

The following may cause occlusion of the sebaceous gland.
factors:

  • Non-compliance with personal hygiene – particles of dirt, dust, earth and
    other substances must be regularly removed from the skin so that excreta
    the ducts of the glands could open freely to its surface;
  • Skin injuries (especially blunt or rough objects) – cells
    damaged epidermis can also get into the sebaceous duct
    gland and close its lumen;
  • Hormonal disorders (especially an increase in the number of male
    hormones – testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone) – these substances
    affect the composition of the sebaceous glands secretion. Than he is “thicker”
    the higher the risk of atheroma skin;
  • Cystic fibrosis – this disease often leads to the formation of cysts in
    excretory ducts, due to the increased density of secretions of all glands. TO
    Fortunately, it is quite rare;
  • Postmenopause – after cessation of menstruation, in women
    decreases the content of estrogen in the blood. itт фактор также может
    lead to changes in the composition of sebum, and the formation
    atheroma.

In rare cases, congenital ear atheroma occurs in a child.
In 86% it is located somewhat anterior to the auricle and
is a small formation in the form of a ball size
0,5-2 см. Withчина ее формирования – небольшой дефект развития кожи
in this region. TOак правило, это никак не отражается в будущем на
condition of the child and is not accompanied by other vices.

Symptoms

Common atheroma is a non-inflammatory disease. That is why
она не проявляется какими-либо общими реакциями (underъемом
temperature, decreased appetite, weakness, etc.). Also for cyst
The sebaceous glands are not characterized by discoloration and consistency of the skin.
Therefore, the symptoms of not festering atheroma, as a rule, boil down to
cosmetic defect.

Typical sebaceous cyst locations
are:атерома на голове

  • Голова – лицо (ухо и область вокруг, лоб), затылок,
    underбородок;
  • Back – often affects the area of ​​skin between the shoulder blades, but can
    be any other;
  • Axillary hollows;
  • Crotch area;
  • Genitals;
  • TOопчик;
  • Popliteal fossa.

Aterom is never on the feet and on the palms, as in these
areas lack sebaceous glands.

TOак выглядит атерома

With осмотре невоспаленной атеромы, можно увидеть только
the formation of a rounded shape. Since it is located in the skin,
even with a small cyst, it can be detected
to the naked eye. The diameter of atheroma can vary – from 0.5 cm
up to 20 cm and more. The longer the disease proceeds without treatment, the
more will be the size of education.

With прощупывании, участок кожи с кистой можно сместить в
parties. Its walls will be compacted compared to the surrounding
tissues, due to the presence of connective tissue structures. Withкосновения
to her painless.

TOак отличить атерому от других образований

Under the skin can form a number of other formations that
легко перепутать с кистой sebaceous gland. To roughly determine
before examining what exactly the patient encountered,
оценить внешний вид, underвижность кожи и консистенцию
pathological focus.

Atheroma should be distinguished from lipoma, fibroids and enlarged
lymph node. Другие опухолевидные образования under кожей
can be met quite rarely.

Characteristic feature Atheroma Lipoma Fibroma Lymph node
Skin mobility over education Atheroma смещается вместе с кожей, так как находится в ее толще.
They cannot be shifted relative to each other.
TOожа underвижна, так как образования находятся глубже
Appearance TOак правило, возвышается над кожей, в виде округлого
education, the correct form.
Most often, education is not visible. Only with significant
увеличении их можно обнаружить to the naked eye.
Density of education Lipoma и атерома достаточно мягкие при прощупывании. Fibroma и лимфоузел имеют плотную консистенцию
Soreness when probing Non-inflamed atheroma is painless. Bacterial cyst can
call occurrence of pain while probing
Painless Painful

Thanks to these signs, you can pre-distinguish atheroma
from other diseases similar in appearance.

Festering atheroma

Virtually the only complication that can happen to
кистой сальной железы – это ее inflammation. The reason for the development –
microbes getting into its cavity. it может произойти из-за любых
skin injuries: cuts, punctures, scraping, etc. For athero on
face and head characterized by suppuration, after attempting to self
squeezing.

How will inflammation appear? In a short time, cyst
slightly increase in size (usually a few cm).
The skin above it will turn red, it will be possible to detect
slight puffiness. When you try to test festering atheroma,
severe enough pain will be noted.

Pus tends to melt tissue, which is why a cyst can
independently break through the skin. In this case, it is recommended
put a small bandage or a bactericidal plaster on her
(depends on the size of the education) and consult a doctor – he
carefully examine the wound and remove the remaining capsules.

Do not try to treat yourself, as in the home
conditions are extremely difficult to remove the remains of atheroma. If this is not
do – it will reappear shortly after spontaneous
breakthrough.

Diagnostics

For statement of the diagnosis, it is enough carrying out ultrasonography of education,
similar to atheroma. Если метод underтвердит наличие полости, высока
the likelihood of a sebaceous cyst. Laboratory
research and other instrumental diagnostic methods like
usually uninformative.

Treatment

First of all it should be noted that the treatment of atheroma without
surgery will not allow to get rid of this disease. Any medication
or traditional medicine can not completely destroy the cyst
sebaceous gland. Even if the patient feels temporary improvement,
after a certain time, a relapse will occur.

The presence of festering atheroma is an indication for emergency
operations. If you notice signs of inflammation of the cyst,
should contact the emergency room of the surgical hospital or
outpatient surgical service (if it is in your city).
Non-inflamed atheromas are operated in a planned manner, according to
prior consultation with the attending doctor.

The main goal of operations in atheroma is to remove a cyst along with
contents, or completely destroy these structures. To do this
can be in several ways:

Treatment method Principle of the method Benefits
Classic (bloody) method

An ordinary scalpel is used to cut the skin above the surface.
atheroma. Its length depends on the size of education.

After this, a cyst is secreted and completely removed.
�”Bag”.

The suture after removal of atheroma is imposed non-absorbable
threads – their doctor removes after healing the wound.

  • Low price;
  • Wide availability (to be held in any hospital
    surgical profile);
  • As a rule, edema after the removal of atheroma on the head is pronounced
    less than with other methods.
Argon plasma coagulation The operation is performed with a special scalpel, at the end of which
is directed plasma beam. He with high accuracy
destroys the pathological formation and simultaneously stops
blood from the wound after removal of atheroma on the head.
  • The technique is available in large urban clinics and regional
    centers under the policy OMS;
  • The operation goes without blood;
  • Небольшая вероятность формирования шрама после operations.
Laser method By creating an intense and focused laser
bundle, the cyst is destroyed along with its contents.
  • Practically bloodless methods of removal by atheromas;
  • Low probability of recurrence of the disease;
  • Postoperative scar, most often, is not formed or pronounced
    slightly.

The negative point is the high price of these techniques and how
typically, lack of equipment in public hospitals.

Electrocoagulation With this technique, the sebaceous cyst collapses.
high frequency electric current.
Radio wave method itт способ основывается на способности интенсивного
radio wave radiation “burn” pathological tissues.

Regardless of the method of operation, atheroma surgery
выполняются under местным обезболиванием. Their average
Duration 15-20 minutes.

Treatment нагноившейся атеромы

The procedures for the treatment of atheroma are the same as
uncomplicated form. The fundamental difference is the completion
surgical intervention. After removing the usual cyst, the wound
sutured tightly to accelerate the healing and fusion of the edges. With
inflamed formation of this can not be done.

After removing atheroma with a laser, scalpel, argon, or any
otherwise, the wound is left open. Inside it is inserted
rubber graduate (a piece of rubber from a medical glove),
предварительно обработав ткани antiseptic. Operation ends
imposing aseptic dressings.

Postoperative period

В послеоперационном period важно контролировать состояние раны.
In the first days, dressings are performed every day or every other day, under
control by the attending surgeon. If the cyst was inflamed daily
rubber graduates change and fabrics are processed
antiseptic.

On average, the healing process lasts about 2 weeks.
The patient is on outpatient treatment, hospitalized
patients with only severe forms of cysts. The stitches are removed after
formations of good connective tissue “bridges” between the edges
wounds. This procedure is painless, does not require local
anesthesia and takes 3-5 minutes.

What signs should alert the patient in the postoperative
period

  1. Temperature increase after removal of atheroma. it
    adverse sign that may indicate the presence of
    infections. Already on the 2-3rd day the body temperature should be
    normal;
  2. Blood drenching the bandage. May be observed in patients with
    increased bleeding: taking anticoagulants
    drugs (Clexane, Heparin, Aspirin, Cardiomagnyl, TromboAss,
    Clopidogrel and others), with liver damage, enlargement of the spleen,
    in hemophilia and thrombocytopenia;
  3. Presence of purulent discharge after removal of non-inflammatory
    atheroma;
  4. Dissociation of wound edges or suture failure. itт признак
    can be independently detected during a dressing change.

Detection of one of these symptoms is a reason for immediate
appeal to the doctor (especially – the presence of bleeding). He will appreciate
the severity of the situation and will adjust tactics in the postoperative
period.

FAQ

Вопрос: Может ли она возникнуть повторно?

Yes, relapses of this disease occur quite often. Believed
that if a part of cells from a cyst is preserved in a wound, they can give
the beginning of a new atheroma.

Вопрос: TOакого размера шов после удаления атеромы?
Is it possible to avoid a skin incision?

For treatment, access to the cyst is necessary, but with
different methods of their size is different. Smallest cut
used in the radio wave method, the widest – in the bloody
method (scalpel). If possible use radio wave
there is no equipment and the cosmetic effect is important, it is recommended
excision of tissue by argon-plasma method. At the same time, the scar after
operations are formed quite rarely.

Вопрос: Чем отличается она от липомы?

Lipoma (common name “wen”) is the real
benign tumor. When it is observed excessive growth
connective tissue cells. It is not located in the skin, and
somewhat deeper – in adipose tissue.

Вопрос: TOак можно профилактировать ее
occurrence?

Currently, there are no funds for specific prophylaxis.
Doctors recommend personal hygiene, treat areas
oily skin scrubs, monitor the condition of your hormonal
background.

Вопрос: Может ли возникнуть рак из-за атеромы?

Not. Atheroma is not a precancerous condition. Of cases
the degeneration of sebaceous cysts into cancer in medicine is not
have met.

Вопрос: Может ли она рассосаться самостоятельно?

Not. The cyst can persist for a long time in a non-inflamed state,
however, its self-destruction does not occur even after prolonged
term.

Вопрос: У меня есть невоспаленная атерома, но
the surgeon refused to operate it. Why and how to treat it correctly?

it достаточно сложный вопрос. The fact is that doctors
limited to insurance companies. That is, they cannot
provide a service that is not on your local health insurance policy. In some
regions of our country, surgical treatment of non-inflammatory atheroma
not paid from the MLA. Therefore, the surgeon can not take you to
operation There are two ways out in this case – to apply for your own
money to a private hospital or wait for it to fester. Of course
the second option is more unfavorable in terms of cosmetic
effect.

Вопрос: Можно ли выдавить ее самостоятельно?

In no case, especially when atheroma is located on the head
(behind the ear, in the forehead, occiput, etc.). If it is inflamed, then
pus through the blood vessels can get into the brain and cause severe
inflammation. If not, it may lead to suppuration of the cyst.
The best option is to immediately contact a surgeon for treatment.

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