Transient ischemic attack: causes andTIA treatment

Transient ischemic атака Transient ischemic
The attack is a special case of a transient violation.
кровоснабжения головного the brain. Tia lasts for a short
of time. Minimum period – a few minutes, maximum – 24
hours Despite the short duration of the symptoms of the danger situation
can not be underestimated. At any time, ischemic attack may
develop into a full stroke with unpredictable
the consequences.

general description

According to medical data, this disease occurs in
50 out of 100,000 inhabitants. Most often, it affects people in the elderly and
old age, with the majority of cases
accounts for men aged 65 to 69 years. Probability
The development of pathology in women rises in age from 75 to 79 years.
People under the age of 60 face TIA very rarely.

Ischemic brain attack looks like a sharp drop in pressure in
vessels of cerebral blood supply, which causes a disturbance in
the work of the nervous system. Symptoms of pathology are temporary, so she
called transient.

Причины развития патологииTO слову, необычайно короткий срок
manifestations of the main features distinguishes TIA from other diseases.
The main symptoms usually go away within 24 hours. Heavy
There are no consequences at first. The point is that the attack
accompanied by minor damage to brain tissue.
The latter do not have a significant impact on livelihoods.

Despite this, pathology should be considered as a precursor
stroke It develops in a third of all patients with acute
нарушением мозгового blood flow. Timely diagnosis of TIA and
correct treatment will avoid or significantly delay
the development of a more severe disease.

Causes of pathology

In most cases, a transient ischemic attack occurs in
the result of vascular spasm in the presence of atherosclerotic plaques.
The following factors are of particular importance:

  • Признаки ТИАInferiority of blood vessels of the circulatory system.
    This is usually associated with any genetic pathology.
  • Problems with blood clotting. In case of hyperprothrombinemia
    the number of blood clots increases significantly.
  • The patient has autoallergy. This pathology causes congestion on
    the inner walls of blood vessels complexes of antibodies that prevent
    normal blood flow.
  • Immunopathological inflammation of blood vessels. The disease often leads
    to their stenosis.

Even with short breaks in the supply of blood to the brain
Tissues are impaired energy synthesis. It provokes
hypoxia, metabolic processes in the cells completely stop.
With the resumption of blood flow symptoms quickly passes.

Ischemia and transient attack have the same causes. TO ним

  • TOак бороться с транзиторной ишемической атакойProgressive
    atherosclerosis. The disease is accompanied by narrowing of the veins and arteries,
    the decay of atheromatous plaques, which leads to a drift of crystals
    cholesterol into smaller vessels with their subsequent thrombosis.
    The result of this process is often ischemia and
    microscopic foci of necrosis.
  • Thromboembolism. Pathology often occurs on the background of various
    heart disease: valve disease, heart attack, arrhythmia, congestive
    heart failure, endocarditis, etc.
  • Attacks of sudden arterial hypotension. They may occur
    in Takayasu disease.
  • Obliterating endarteritis. In particular, Buerger’s disease.
  • Osteochondrosis accompanied by vascular compression or
    angiospasm. It is he who most often causes ischemia in
    basin of the vertebral artery.
  • TOоагулопатия и большая кровопотеря. Small clots
    platelets, moving with the blood flow, can get stuck in small
    artery and clog it. The result will be ischemia.
  • Obesity on the background of metabolic disorders. Also here you can
    include endocrine system pathology.
  • Systemic diseases of the autoimmune nature (lupus erythematosus and
  • Alcohol poisoning. Another option is too frequent.
    libations Even with minimal doses of alcohol can
    develop transient ischemic attack.
  • Structural changes in the bone processes of the cervical vertebrae
    of the spine. In fact, these are the consequences of osteochondrosis.

It is believed that TIA occurs in people older than 50 years. But
major heart and endocrine problems can cause
pathology even in young children. These diseases change the reaction
vessels to increase the need for nutrients during
physical and mental stress, instead of the necessary gain
blood flow occurs angiospasm, neurons receive significantly
less nutrients, which leads to TIA.

Symptoms of attack

Диагностика при подозрении на ТИАIschemic lesion
symptoms largely depend on the place where the damaged
vessels and tissues. In neurology, there are 2 clinical pictures:
cerebral and local.

The first is manifested by dizziness and headaches wearing
paroxysmal character. The patient is sick, he feels weak in
limbs. Some people may fall short in

The second has more specific manifestations. They depend on
localization of the lesion and for certain areas of the head brain
will always be typical. They can determine the form of the transient
attacks in a particular patient.

The intensity of the symptoms allows doctors to identify 3
severity of attacks:

  1. Easy The duration of the attack does not exceed 10 minutes.
  2. Average. Symptoms can persist for up to several hours.
  3. Heavy The duration of the attack reaches days. Wherein
    mild symptoms may persist for several
    next days.

TIA has specific precursors by which
determine the impending attack. TO ним relate:

  • Unmotivated headaches.
  • Sudden dizziness.
  • Eye problems: muddy veil and flies.
  • Numbness in parts of the body.

Симптомы заболевания ТИАThe attack itself begins with a headache.
pain, which quickly increases and is localized in
a specific area. Then come dizziness and nausea,
gagging is possible. It becomes difficult for a person to think, not
manages to navigate the terrain. Manifests confusion
of consciousness.

TOак правило, ишемические атаки локализуются в двух сосудистых
pools: carotid and vertebrobasilar. The first supplies
полушария brain и отвечает за движение, письмо, память и речь, а
второй обеспечивает кровоток в стволе brain, отвечает за дыхание и

TIA in the carotid pool

Acute symptoms manifest in just a couple of minutes.
Impaired blood circulation in the carotid pool leads to
following violations:

  • Методика лечения заболевания Loss of ability to move
    limbs. Most often, paralysis occurs on one side of the body,
    moreover, both one limb and both can become immobilized
    right away In rare cases, the patient has paralyzed the entire body.
  • Violation of the sensitivity and mobility of the facial muscles. Problem
    becomes noticeable when the patient is asked to smile: is detected
    asymmetry in raising the upper lip. If the patient tries to lift
    eyebrows, then uneven wrinkles will appear on his forehead.
  • Problems with sensitivity in the whole body or in one of his
    half, with the border always passing along the line from the tip of the nose to
  • The inability to speak normally. Speech становится
    incomprehensible, the ability to understand what is about
    other people say. The patient looks scared and is actively trying
    communicate with the doctor, but his words have no connection with each other.
    In some cases, the patient understands that he cannot properly
    pronounce the words. Then he tries to reduce conversations to
    the minimum.
  • Visual impairment. They can manifest themselves in different ways. Some
    patients have problems with the mobility of the eyeballs, others
    strabismus arises. Blindness is also possible. Is involved in it
    one or both organs of vision.
  • Decrease in intellectual abilities. Difficult for a patient
    simple account, it is poorly oriented in space, does not know
    what time of day is now, etc.

Almost all the victims have problems with higher nervous
activities. They are unable to read the simplest text, see
the words and letters in it are randomly mixed. When trying to write
patients confuse letters and whole syllables.

Circulatory disorders in the vertebrobasilar artery

Рекомендации врачей The patient has vestibular
ataxia and cerebellar syndrome. The man notes that he can not
walk hard Appeared dizziness accompanied by increased


Transient ischemic атака в вертебробазилярном бассейне
accompanied by severe headaches located in the area
back of the head. Wherein пациенту кажется, что мир кружится вокруг него,
man tries to grab hold of items in an attempt to keep
balance, and he does it regardless of the position of the body.

When walking, the patient swings heavily from side to side.
Trying to do something with his hands, he looks awkward. All movements
too sweeping and inaccurate.

There is a visual impairment. The patient sees flashes before his eyes.
Sveta. He falls part of the field of view, there is a doubling in

Against the background of blood pressure fluctuations in patients often
a temporary memory impairment occurs. Some affected not
can swallow.

TOак лечить заболевание ТИА

Patients look pale, their skin is wet. When TIA in VBB they
involuntary eye movement is detected horizontally
plane. If you ask the patient to reach with his fingertip
nose, he will not be able to do that.

Diagnosis definition

The attack of TIA passes very quickly, so the diagnostic
activities during it are usually impossible. But причины
pathologies do not go anywhere, and doctors have the opportunity to
to reveal.

If TIA is suspected, the doctors will do the following.

  • Collecting family history.
  • Neurological examination.
  • Measurement and control of blood pressure.
  • Listening to the carotid artery.
  • Complete blood count to study leukocyte formula.
  • Tests for cholesterol and TAG.
  • The study of blood coagulation.
  • Blood biochemistry.
  • Electrocardiogram and duplex scanning.
  • Lipidogram to determine the ratio of triglycerides and
    lipoproteins with different density.
  • Urinalysis to check the work of the kidneys and liver.
  • Angiography of the vessels to identify violations blood flow.
  • Electroencephalogram for detecting possible damage
    the brain.

All patients who at least
once faced with local or cerebral symptoms
transient attack. Unfortunately, due to the fact that the attacks pass
very quickly, most patients ignore their symptoms, and
Only people in the clinic are examined. By this
For the same reason, it is impossible to speak precisely about the prevalence

Диагностика и лечение заболевания

Making an accurate diagnosis is complicated by the fact that many
neurological diseases have TIA-like symptoms. Speech
talking about migraine, diabetes, epilepsy, global amnesia and
multiple sclerosis in the initial stage.

Treatment of the disease

Therapeutic measures serve several purposes:
elimination of the ischemic process, restoration of blood circulation,
normalization of metabolism.

Often TIA is treated in polyclinic conditions. But due to the fact that the attack
always a precursor of a stroke, many experts give
patients referral to a hospital where doctors are the first thing
restore blood flow. For this drugs are used, in
The composition of which includes acetylsalicylic acid:

  • Clopidogrel.
  • Dipyridamole.
  • Ticlopidine.

In order to normalize blood circulation is prohibited to use.
Heparin and its analogues. Such drugs can provoke
hemorrhagic stroke.

Acceptance of indirect anticoagulants is allowed, but only
if the pathology was provoked by vascular embolism. TO
such agents include phenyndione, acenocoumarol,

Transient ischemic attack: causes and TIA treatmentFor
Improvements of pressure indicators to the patient are prescribed droppers on
based on glucose with dextran or salt suspensions. With them you can
use special drugs that improve blood circulation in
cerebral arteries.

To prevent the death of neurocytes in the brain, the patient
drugs are prescribed to improve their nutrition. Speech идет о
препаратах TOарнитин, Пирацетам, Диавитол.

For устранения тошноты больному дают Тиэтилперазин или
Metoclopramide. Migraine doctors clean Diclofenac. With puffiness
brain tissue assigned to furosemide.

Treatment will not be complete without physiotherapeutic procedures –
electrophoresis, massage of the neck and neck area, radon baths,
Darsonval therapy. Also, the patient is prescribed medical gymnastics,
since moderate exercise perfectly restores
blood flow.

Consequences and preventive measures

The appearance of TIA is not dangerous in itself. But this is a clear signal that
that the body has serious problems. Few bouts
ischemic attack will ultimately lead to ischemic
stroke that will seriously threaten not only health, but also
patient’s life.

It should also be remembered that every tenth patient with TIA
ends with myocardial infarction and organic lesion
головного the brain. Therefore, in no case after the appearance of the first
symptoms can not be delayed visit to the doctor.

For того чтобы транзиторные атаки не повторялись, пациент должен
change your lifestyle. Further depends on this
forecast. It is recommended to adhere to the following

  • Правильное питание и отказ от вредных привычекFully
    give up alcoholic beverages.
  • Forget about smoking.
  • Be sure to give yourself physical activity in the form of fitness,
    swimming, yoga, walking.
  • Continuously monitor blood pressure.
  • Track your cholesterol levels.
  • Regularly take drugs that prevent the formation of
    blood clots.
  • Treat pathologies that provoke transient attacks.

Special attention should be paid to nutrition. Perfect option –
a diet made up by a doctor. It will have to stick to life.
TOак правило, в рационе к минимуму сводятся содержащие животный жир
and high-calorie foods. It is recommended to add a low-fat menu
fish and dairy products. On the table should always be as possible
more vegetables and fruits.

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