Tracheitis in children: treatment, symptoms,the reasons

Update: February 2019

Respiratory diseases in children rarely occur in isolation.
Usually they combine the defeat of several anatomical zones.
There is no exception and inflammation of the trachea. Most often he
accompanies laryngitis, can flow together with rhinitis,
pharyngitis or bronchitis.

Tracheitis in children is quite common, because cough –
one of the most frequent complaints that parents turn to
pediatrician.

The disease is more likely to occur in October-April, during the season.
respiratory infections. Susceptible children to infectious tracheitis
all ages. Especially from 6 months to 3 years. The reason for this
serves weak local immunity and lack of previous contact with
pathogens.

The reasons

Children get tracheitis for several reasons:

Viruses

In 90% of cases, the trachea is inflamed due to a virus attack. Here is
the most common pathogens that are capable of adhesion
(sticking) on ​​the mucous: Лечение и симптомы трахеита

  • flu;
  • параflu;
  • adenovirus;
  • respiratory syncytial virus;
  • coronavirus.

Bacteria

  • Pneumococcus;
  • hemophilic bacillus;
  • streptococcus;
  • mycoplasma;
  • chlamydia.

Also, the symptoms of tracheitis can occur during the initial
manifestations of diseases such as whooping cough, parakoklyush, ornithosis.

Various non-infectious stimuli

that are in the air, affect the mucous, causing
her swelling and reflex cough.

  • inhaling cigarette smoke (passive smoking);
  • living near industrial areas that pollute
    air;
  • large concentration of exhaust gases, living near large
    motorways;
  • cool and dry air.

The incidence may increase with reduced local immunity,
the presence of chronic lung disease, allergic diseases.

Symptoms

Most often, inflammation of the trachea occurs in an acute form.
Chronic rarity for them.

Acute form occurs after a short period of discomfort,
a runny nose, pain when swallowing. Probably uplift
body temperature. Clinical manifestations are more dependent
from the causative agent of the disease. So with flu, signs of tracheitis
come to the fore. Trouble sore, dry cough, strong
intoxication, fever, body aches.

When parainfluenza is not without symptoms of laryngitis:

  • hoarseness,
  • dysphonia,
  • barking cough.

Bacterial tracheitis tends to be inhibited, there may be
consequence of untreated ARVI.

  • Initially, coughing with tracheitis is dry, unproductive. Sputum
    either a little or it is poorly separated. Viral sputum is always
    light, transparent. Bacterial sputum is purulent, yellow or
    yellow green Flu can cause streaks
    blood.
  • A child may cough up with attacks, especially if inhaled
    cold air, laugh, cry, scared. Becomes frequent
    cough at night when he lies. In the morning, accumulated sputum gives
    he is a wet character.
  • Older children may complain of sore throat, feeling
    sternity behind the sternum.
  • The temperature in children can stay at a subfebrile level (not
    more than 38 ° C), and rise to high numbers. Sharper and brighter on
    Infections respond to young children.

Features in children of different ages

  • Newborns and infants up to 5-6 months distinguishes
    incomplete cough reflex because of the immaturity of some
    brain structures. Therefore, they have symptoms of cough
    be absent or combined with regurgitation or vomiting. Wherein
    such crumbs can produce fever, be lethargic and
    moody because of intoxication.
  • Preschoolers cough unproductive. Their muscles are still
    insufficiently developed for full expectoration of sputum. therefore
    they get sick with frequent bouts of dry cough, especially by
    nights
  • At schoolchildren, on the contrary, hypersecretion prevails, therefore
    cough quickly becomes wet, with a lot of
    sputum
  • Older age – the temperature may not be high, most often
    low-grade.

Diagnostics

The diagnosis is made after clarification of complaints and inspection. With
listening to the respiratory system, the doctor notes hard breathing,
the appearance of dry rales. After coughing, they may disappear or
change your localization. Changes in blood tests (leukocytosis,
increased ESR, left shift formula, lymphocyte prevalence or
neutrophils) will tell about the presence of inflammation, as well as viral or
the bacterial nature of the disease. X-ray examination
usually not required.

Distinctive features

The fact that the disease is localized in the trachea will help determine
some features of this disease. Since the main feature –
it is a cough, then you need to differentiate the inflammation of the trachea with
laryngitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia.

Difference from laryngitis

The voice when tracheitis is normal, does not disappear, does not wheeze. Cough
dry but not barking. Gradually turns wet. Laryngitis
does not change with auscultation. Maximum hard breathing. But
laryngitis can turn into laryngotracheitis.

Difference from pharyngitis

With воспалении зева больного мучает боль в горле и сухое
cough Cough не превращается во влажный, если not
concomitant rhinitis. Sputum not. This can be mitigated.
gargle or lozenges.

Difference from bronchitis

Bronchitis is more severe, with intoxication, dry and wet.
wheezing. Cough мучительный, обязательно с мокротой. Have small
may be complicated by bronchospasm, which does not happen with tracheitis.
With бронхите наблюдаются изменения на рентгенограмме.

Difference from pneumonia

The doctor will easily distinguish the classic course of pneumonia. But случаются
oligosymptomatic inflammation of the lungs, with a low temperature, to
example, mycoplasma pneumonia when it follows
to differentiate from a protracted cough with tracheitis.

Still acute non-specific tracheitis, it should be differentiated
from:

Whooping cough

Cough долго не проходит. Withступы сопровождаются свистящим
inhalation (reprise) and the separation of the vitreous sputum at the end.
Severe intoxication.

Tuberculosis

Длительный сухой кашель, cough Baby is pale, loses
weight. For a long time the subfebrile temperature worries.

Foreign body

Cough возникает резко, после игры с мелкими деталями. Child
restless, cyanosis of the lips occurs, breathing is difficult, especially inhalation.
Asphyxia is possible.

Treatment in children

Treatment of acute viral tracheitis, not complicated
addition of infection and proceeding classically it is quite possible
cure yourself by referring to the doctor only in order that he
послушал больного, назначил анализы и проверил, not ли угрозы
complications.

An urgent need to consult a doctor in the following cases:

  • The child has a heavy breathing, with shortness of breath. He prefers to sit, and
    do not lie, so it is easier to breathe. This is respiratory
    failure.
  • High temperature, knocked down by antipyretic, rises faster,
    than 3 hours. After several such episodes, hyperthermia is needed
    examination by a pediatrician.
  • During the cough, “whistle” is heard. This is a sign that the infection
    dropped to the level of the bronchi, which responded with spasm.
  • If the child is weak, lethargic, feels very bad.
  • If you are unsuccessfully treating tracheitis for 2-3 weeks.

What will the doctor prescribe?

From cough

Mucolytics if cough 3-4 days after the onset of the disease
become productive. Phlegm is hard to cough because of its increased
viscosity. Fluimucil, Mucobene, ACC, Fluditec, Ambroxol and
Bromhexine. Due to the fact that the chest muscles are still underdeveloped and
the baby cannot cough up sputum, and the preparations make it thin,
mucolytics are not recommended for children under 2 years.

  • Antitussive drugs

For the treatment of tracheitis in children, these drugs are rarely prescribed,
only in the first days of the disease, when the cough is strong, debilitating.
Give non-narcotic means Sinekod, Glauvent, Libeksin,
Bronholitin, Tussin Plus (see antitussives).

  • Coating agents

reduce the reflex challenge of coughing. They create a protective layer on
oropharynx, often used in small quantities. These are lollipops and
syrups, charges containing extracts of eucalyptus, licorice, wild
cherries, white acacia.

  • Expectorants

mostly vegetable, used for the fastest evacuation
sputum Assign them in cases where the cough is rare,
low-productive and low-intensity. These are syrups, drops and pills from
cough with extracts of Althea, anise, Devyasila, ipecacuanas,
plantain, licorice, thyme. Sell ​​them under trade names
Herbion, Linkas, Mukaltin, Doctor Mom, Pertussin, Gedelix,
Bronchipret (see expectorants). However, they are careful
prescribed to young children due to the possible increase
sputum, vomiting and potential asphyxia. It refers to
ipecacuanas. Anise, oregano and licorice have a weak
laxative effect. It is better to choose root-based products.
Althea, anise drops.

Antipyretics

Antipyretics детям показаны при температуре выше 38,
5 ° C, children up to 3 months, as well as in the pathology of the lungs and
hearts.

Antiviral drugs

Some doctors like to prescribe stimulants.
interferon products affecting the immune system. This is viferon,
Cycloferon, Influcidum, Occillococcinum. In terms of evidence
medicines are only effective antivirals against influenza,
Tamiflu, Oseltamivir. If the cause of tracheitis – the flu, then they
will help. Otherwise, it is a waste of money and development risks.
autoimmune processes in the body.

Antibacterial drugs

Antibiotics for tracheitis are prescribed only if
bacterial etiology. With вирусном заболевании они не нужны.
If purulent sputum is available, you can send it for seeding and find out
antibiotic sensitivity. Sometimes they are prescribed empirically,
based on the clinic of the disease. Assign protected amoxicillin
(Augmentin, Amoxiclav), cephalosporins (Zinnat, Cefotacim,
Ceftriacon). With хламидийном или микоплазменном трахеите эффективны
macrolides (Macropen, Fromilid, Sumamed).

How to treat at home?

  • Provide moist air, plenty of drink. Если not высокой
    temperature, let him calmly play. Baby care also
    includes feeding light foods rich in vitamins. Useful
    milk products.
  • Children who have difficulty coughing can be helped by the method.
    postural massage Child ложится на подушку или на колени
    adult belly. After stroking, palm in the shape of a boat
    tapping upwards without touching the area
    spine. After the children become easier to cough up sputum.
    You can drink an expectorant before the procedure (30 minutes)
    means.
  • With отсутствии температуры можно попарить ножки в воде (не выше
    45 ° C) or put mustard plasters on your back.
  • You can make the baby inhalation. But это не должен быть
    scalding steam, so you can cause a burn or laryngospasm.
    Withменяют травяные сборы с солодкой, шалфеем, грудные сборы.
    The main thing – to moisten the mucous membrane and remove phlegm.

How long does the disease last?

From the time of onset of illness until the appearance of classic symptoms
It takes 2-3 days. On average, the acute course of the disease does not last
less than 2 weeks. Another week can last residual
cough

A child in the clinic often make this diagnosis. What can
быть его the reasons?

To begin with, we decide that frequent cases of ARVI are considered
more than 6 episodes per year in children under 3 years old, and more than 5 times a year after
3 years. Frequent tracheitis may occur due to the increased number
contact with potential carriers of infection, while reducing
immune response due to its immaturity. Frequently ill children
immunodeficiency, abnormal development of ENT organs and
bronchopulmonary system, cystic fibrosis.

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