Tracheitis – Causes, Signs, Symptoms and Treatmentin adults

Tracheitis is a clinical syndrome characterized by
inflammatory changes in the tracheal mucosa, which is
manifestation of respiratory infections, occurring both acutely and
chronically. As well as respiratory infections, tracheitis
most common in the autumn, winter and spring season.

As a rule, the disease manifests itself not as
independent disease, and develops against the background of other viral
infections. What is this disease, what are the first signs and symptoms,
а также чем лечить трахеит in adults людей, рассмотрим далее.

What is tracheitis?

Tracheitis is called the inflammatory process in the mucous membrane
trachea. Трахеит in adults редко проходит изолированно, чаще всего
he joins rhinitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, forming
Rhinopharyngeal tracheitis, laryngotracheitis, tracheobronchitis.

How long does the disease last? Period of illness and term
recovery always depends on the form of the inflammatory process,
which can be both acute and chronic, that is protracted.
In addition, how long the tracheitis lasts is affected by the condition
immunity of the patient, the more actively the body fights tracheitis, the
faster recovery.

The prognosis for timely treatment is favorable, the duration
The disease ranges from 7 to 14 days.

Depending on the etiological factor of tracheitis is:

  • Infectious:
  • bacterial;
  • viral;
  • mixed or bacterial viral.
  • Allergic.
  • Infectious-allergic.

Depending on combination with other diseases (most
common forms):

  • ринофаринготрахеит – воспаление слизистой оболочки носа,
    pharynx and trachea;
  • ларинготрахеит – воспаление гортани и трахеи;
  • трахеобронхит – воспаление слизистой оболочки трахеи и
    bronchi.

The course of the disease may be:

  • Sharp
  • Chronic.

Acute tracheitis

Occurs more frequently, with course and symptoms
обычное ОРЗ. Acute tracheitis возникает внезапно и имеет
short duration (on average 2 weeks). When you go to
chronic exacerbations are observed which
alternate with periods of remission.

Chronic tracheitis

Chronic tracheitis может быть как следствием острого
tracheitis and other chronic inflammatory processes
(inflammation of the sinuses, nasopharynx). Factors that
contribute to:

  • smoking and alcohol abuse;
  • a strong decrease in immunity;
  • occupational hazards and unfavorable ecology;
  • pulmonary emphysema;
  • heart and kidney disease;
  • хронический насморк, синуситы (воспаление придаточных
    пазух носа, например, гайморовых — гайморит).

In hypertrophic tracheitis, the vessels dilate and mucous
the shell swells. Mucus secretions become intense,
purulent sputum appears.

Atrophic chronic tracheitis causes thinning of the mucous
shell. It takes on a gray color, smooth and shiny look.
may be covered with small crusts and cause a strong cough.
Often atrophic tracheitis occurs with mucosal atrophy.
shell respiratory tract located above.

The reasons

The cause of tracheitis is the same infection that causes
rhinitis, pharyngitis and laryngitis: staphylococcus, streptococcus, etc.
case of insufficient treatment (or lack thereof) of these diseases
the inflammatory process can spread to the trachea, causing
tracheitis.

Some factors can provoke the development of tracheitis:

  • staying for a long time in raw poorly heated
    indoors;
  • breathing in cold, too dry or humid air;
  • respiratory irritation by toxic fumes or
    gases;
  • infectious, contact, food and other types
    allergens;
  • hypothermia;
  • tobacco smoke when smoking;
  • increased dustiness of air.

Allergic tracheitis is an allergic
reaction developing in response to inhalation of various
allergens:

  • home, industrial or library dust,
  • plant pollen,
  • microparticles of animal hair,
  • chemical compounds
  • contained in the air of chemical production premises,
    pharmaceutical and perfume industry.

Tracheitis symptoms

трахеит

The leading sign of acute inflammation of the trachea is hyster
cough worse at night and in the morning. At first he is a dry “barking”
in the subsequent with the release of thick sputum. With a coughing fit
the person begins to feel the smarting pain in the sternum region and in
pharynx that causes problems with breathing movements. With this
pathological condition breathing becomes shallow and
speeded up.

In addition, the general condition of the patient is noticeably worse:

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  • body temperature rises
  • there is increased weakness and drowsiness
  • the patient gets tired quickly
  • lymph nodes may increase.
Types of tracheitis Симптомы in adults
Acute
  • high body temperature (about 380 ° C);
  • general weakness of the body;
  • increased fatigue with minimal physical
    loads;
  • pain in the chest and between the shoulder blades during
    coughing spells;
  • shortness of breath;
  • headaches;
  • insomnia;
  • burning sensation and sore throat;
  • a slight increase in the cervical lymph nodes;
  • hoarseness;
  • wheezing in the lungs;
  • severe runny nose;
  • grayish skin due to impaired process
    breathing;
  • sweating;
  • lack of appetite.
Chronic
  • Manifested in major changes in the mucous throat. She is
    swells, becomes edematous, blood vessels are dilated.
  • Possible accumulation of purulent or mucous contents, which
    drying out gives rise to hard-to-peel crusts.

Acute приступообразный кашель характерен для воспаления
larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs. Any inflammatory process in
The breathing tube is initially characterized by a dry cough. Such a
condition due to a slight sputum
irritation of the nerve receptors of the bronchi, trachea, larynx. Sputum is not
depart independently because they are formed in minor
quantities.

With the presence of concomitant tracheitis pharyngitis
или ларингита пациенты предъявляют жалобы на:

  • burning,
  • tickle,
  • dryness,
  • tickling and other discomfort in the throat.

Complications

One of the complications of tracheitis are changes and
endotracheal neoplasms. They can wear like
benign as well as malignant and arising
due to the constant influence of the inflammatory process and changes
слизистой оболочки trachea.

Possible consequences:

  • bronchitis;
  • pneumonia;
  • bronchial asthma;
  • emphysema;
  • трахеоbronchitis;
  • bronchiolitis;
  • бронхоpneumonia;
  • development of endobronchial tumors.

Diagnostics

If signs of airway inflammation appear,
turn to the district therapist who, after the physical
The survey will certainly recommend visiting an otolaryngologist.
The diagnosis of tracheitis is established based on
clinical and epidemiological data.

Tracheitis is usually diagnosed quickly, but in some cases
(for example, if the patient asked for medical care late,
when the disease progresses actively)
additional examination. These include
procedures:

  • рентгенография органов грудной клетки – таким образом
    doctors exclude pneumonia;
  • spirography – estimated airway patency and
    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or
    бронхиальная астма;
  • sputum lab test – this procedure is required
    to identify the causative agent of the disease, if the intended appointment
    antibacterial drugs (antibiotics).

Tracheitis treatment

Moderate, mild forms of pathology that are combined with
other signs of respiratory infection are treated at home.
(outpatient).

The goals of treatment:

  • identification and elimination of the etiological factor – allergen,
    viruses, bacteria;
  • relief of symptoms of the disease;
  • preventing the development of complications or the transition to chronic
    form.

The greatest effect when conducting medical treatment in
adults can be achieved with the help of drugs produced in the form
aerosols. This form of medicine allows you to penetrate
in all departments of the trachea and bronchial tree.

  • Antibiotics are used for bacterial tracheitis.
    (amoxicillin, ceftrioxon, azithromycin),
  • viral – antiviral agents (proteflazid,
    umifenovir, interferon preparations),
  • with allergies – antiallergic drugs (loratadine,
    dezoloratadin, hifenadin).
  • Expectorant drugs are used (Althea root,
    coltsfoot, thermopsis) and mucolytics (acetylcysteine,
    bromhexine). 

Antibiotics are prescribed for proven bacterial infections.
1-2 results will be required to obtain bacterial culture results.
of the week. During this period, tracheitis should be treated.
Assuming a bacterial infection can be based on an increase
лейкоцитов в крови, сохранения высокой температуры более 3
days

Group of drugs Description
Antipyretic:

  • Analgin;
  • Aspirin;
  • Paracetamol;
  • Ibuprofen (Nurofen).
Antipyretic drugs are used when the temperature rises
body over 38 ⁰C.
Antiallergic:

  • Suprastin;
  • Diazolin;
  • Tavegil;
  • Pipolfen;
  • Zyrtec
Antiallergic drugs are prescribed for viral
tracheitis and acute respiratory infections that are accompanied
pronounced allergic component.
Antiviral:

  • Interferon;
  • Grippferon;
  • Rimantadine;
  • Arbidol.
Antiviral drugs are prescribed when
tracheitis develops in the background of acute respiratory viral
infections.

The greatest effect when conducting medical treatment
can be achieved with the help of drugs produced in the form
aerosols. This form of medicine allows you to penetrate
in all departments of the trachea and bronchial tree.

A gentle treatment is recommended throughout the course of treatment.
chemical, mechanical diet (excludes fatty, spicy,
fried), only warm drinks and drinking large quantities. On
mustard plasters are attached to the chest area, the room is regularly
to air, to carry out wet cleaning.

How to treat chronic tracheitis?

Chronic tracheitis in adults лечится намного дольше, чем его
acute form. This is due to the fact that the treatment of chronic tracheitis
not only aimed at eliminating cough symptom but also on
treatment of complications such as pharyngitis, bronchitis. Chronic form
disease most often has a bacterial etiology,
accordingly, antibiotic therapy is indicated.

  • Antibiotics are used in the discharge of mucopurulent sputum.
    broad-spectrum: ampicillin, doxycycline.
  • Phytoncides inhalations are used: onions, garlic and
    chlorophyllipt.
  • Of the expectorant drugs used abundant
    alkaline drink, 3% solution of potassium iodide, decoctions and althea infusions
    and thermopsis.

Strongly contraindicated:

  • stressful situations;
  • physical exercise;
  • smoking;
  • drinking alcoholic beverages.

How to treat tracheitis folk remedies

Onродная медицина предлагает множество эффективных способов
combat respiratory diseases, but before they begin
application is recommended to consult with a specialist.

  1. You can gargle with infusion of onion peels. 2 dining rooms
    spoon husks pour two glasses of boiling water, insist 2-4
    hours in a thermos and several times a day gargle infusion throat.
  2. Inhalation of tracheitis can be done with the help of mineral
    water, but only alkaline. Thanks to the treatment with their help
    moisten the respiratory tract mucosa and quickly remove the accumulated
    phlegm
  3. Mustard foot baths. To do this, just pour in socks
    dry mustard (in powder) and put them on your feet.
  4. Allergic tracheitis traditional medicine recommends treatment
    infusion of blackberry leaves and fruits. For this 2 tbsp. l mixtures
    залить 500 мl boiling water and let it brew for 1 hour. Drink strained
    solution instead of tea.
  5. Take 1 tablespoon: honey, mustard powder,
    vegetable oil. Mix it up. Onгреть на водяной бане. Add 1.5
    tablespoon of vodka. Wrap in cheesecloth and make a compress.
    Leave overnight.
  6. Licorice root helps with tracheitis. A drug
    possesses a pronounced expectorant and antitussive property. is he
    reduces the number of attacks, but makes them more effective.
    Licorice root syrup is one of the most effective
    herbal remedies.

Prevention

Prevention как острого, так и хронического трахеита направлена
on the timely elimination of the causes of tracheitis, strengthening
organism, especially those prone to acute diseases
upper respiratory tract.

  • Avoid hypothermia, large crowds in
    autumn-winter-spring periods.
  • Healthy lifestyle (good nutrition, walking in the fresh
    air, sports, vitamins), the fight against harmful
    habits
  • Hardening of the body during the period of health (wiping, douche
    cool water).
  • Early treatment for acute respiratory infections and acute respiratory viral infections can prevent
    in some cases, the beginning of tracheitis.
  • Timely treatment of chronic foci of infection and
    associated diseases.

Proper nutrition, healthy lifestyle, attentive attitude
to their health will help avoid the occurrence of such
заболевания, как tracheitis. Симптомы и лечение этого недуга
can only be determined by a specialist.

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