Tonsillitis in adults – what it is, symptoms andtreatment, causes, photo and first signs

Tonsillitis is an inflammation in the tonsils, which
occurs due to the impact of bacteria or viruses on the lymphoid
the cloth. When the disease progresses, the focus of inflammation may
spread further, hitting the surrounding soft
tissue. Заболевание может принять острую и хроническую
form. Acute tonsillitis is the well-known name “angina”,
хронический же представляет собой инфекционную болезнь общего
character Next, consider what it is for the disease, which
first symptoms of tonsillitis and treatment methods in adults.

What is tonsillitis?

Тонзиллит

Тонзиллит (лат. Tonsillitis) — это инфекционное
a disease that affects one or several tonsils, most often palatine,
caused by a bacterial or viral infection. Leading
signs of illness in adults – sore throat and unpleasant smell
mouth If you look at the patient’s throat with tonsillitis, you can see
enlarged and inflamed palatine tonsils with a loose surface,
lacunae filled with purulent tubes. Tonsil can
increase to such an extent that they completely close the lumen
pharynx.

Tonsils are essential for the body’s defensive function.
It is the glands that become the first barrier to viruses and
bacteria trying to penetrate the throat or nose. Immune
the system is not always able to cope with attacks of viruses and
bacteria from the environment, and then the tonsils become inflamed.
Perhaps acute and chronic course of the disease.

Is tonsillitis contagious?

Yes. Tonsillitis is a disease with elevated levels
infectiousness. So, if tonsillitis has an infectious
(bacterial) origin, it is 100% contagious. Same
can be said about viral sore throat. If the virus itself possesses
ability to transfer from one person to another, means – and
The opportunity to share with someone with angina is also present.

Only one form of tonsillitis is non-infectious – allergic.
angina. The person who suffers from this disease is absolutely safe.
for others.

Regarding susceptibility to the disease, it can be noted that
it is not the same for each patient, determined in considerable
degree state peculiar to local immunity area
tonsils. So, the lower the immunity, the higher the risk
probabilities of the disease.

The incubation period for tonsillitis can last from 6-12
часов до 2-4 days The deeper tissue is affected, the more difficult it is
disease, the infectious-inflammatory process progresses longer and
higher risk of complications.

ICD Code:

  • Acute tonsillitis: МКБ-10: J03; ICD-9: 034.0
  • Chronic tonsillitis: МКБ-10: J35; ICD-9: 474

The reasons

Causes of tonsillitis are various pathogens.
microorganisms:

  • Streptococcus in the throat;
  • Candida;
  • chlamydia;
  • staphylococcus;
  • adenoviruses;
  • pneumococci;
  • moraxella;
  • herpes viruses;
  • Epstein-Barr virus.

You can also highlight the factors preceding the appearance
diseases. It:

  • reduced immunity;
  • local hypothermia;
  • hit in the throat of allergens that irritate mucous membranes – dust,
    smoke;
  • recent diseases that reduce protective functions
    epithelium, for example, ARD;
  • violation of nasal breathing;
  • overwork;
  • stress;
  • avitaminosis;
  • mucosal injury;
  • body sensitization, or increased susceptibility to
    pathogens disease.

Also, allergies can form the basis of tonsillitis.
reactions that not only affect the progression of the disease,
but also often cause complications.

Classification

Depending on the course of tonsillitis, doctors distinguish acute and
хроническую формы tonsillitis

Acute tonsillitis

Acute tonsillitis (или ангина) — инфекционное
a disease that affects the tonsils, as well as lingual,
laryngeal and nasopharyngeal tonsils. Characterized by fast
fever up to 39 ° C, chills, headache,
sore throat, worse when swallowing, muscle pain and
joints. With the wrong treatment or lack of it, weakened
body or the presence of other chronic diseases acute
tonsillitis can become chronic, which
characterized by periodic exacerbations.

Tonsillitis in the photo looks like inflammation of the tonsils with
porous surface covered with purulent plugs

Chronic tonsillitis

Chronic tonsillitis характеризуется развитием постоянного
inflammatory process in the tonsils, the course of the disease
accompanied by a change in periods of remission
exacerbations. Chronic tonsillitis, симптомы которого не
всегда дают о себе знать,  может стать причиной развития
various pathological processes on the part of almost all systems and
organs. Due to disorders of neuro-reflex and endocrine regulation
the body may experience depression, menstrual disorders
cycle, Meniere’s syndrome, encephalopathy, etc.

There are:

  • primary tonsillitis: acute defeat of the tonsils in the background
    general hypothermia of the body, reduced immunity, due to
    thermal effects on throat tissue;
  • secondary tonsillitis: develops due to other diseases
    (дифтерия, лейкоз, скарлатина), в качестве осложнения или
    concomitant symptom of an infectious disease;
  • specific tonsillitis (caused exclusively by infectious
    agents).

According to the localization process there are the following types:

  • Lacunar – inflammation only in the lacunae;
  • lacunar parenchymatous – is included in the inflammatory process
    lymphoid tissue;
  • parenchymal – tonsillitis develops in the lymphadenoid
    fabrics;
  • склеротический — разрастание соединительной tissue.

Based on the nature of the lesion and its depth,
The following types of tonsillitis:

  • catarrhal sore throat;
  • follicular sore throat;
  • lacunar tonsillitis;
  • некротическая angina.

Of the listed forms of tonsillitis, the easiest course
noted in the catarrhal form of the disease, and the most severe –
with its necrotic form.

Symptoms of tonsillitis

Common symptoms of tonsillitis in adults are:

  • signs of intoxication: pain in muscles, joints, head;
  • malaise;
  • pain when swallowing;
  • swelling of the tonsils, soft palate, uvula;
  • the presence of plaque, sometimes there are ulcers.

Sometimes symptoms of tonsillitis can even be abdominal pain and
ears, as well as the appearance of a rash on the body. But most often the disease
It starts with the throat. Moreover, pain in tonsillitis is different from
similar symptom that occurs with SARS or even flu.
Inflammation of the tonsils makes itself felt very clearly – sore throat
so much so that it is difficult for the patient to simply communicate, let alone
about meals and swallowing.

фото тонзиллита

On the photo – the running stage of tonsillitis

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Symptoms of acute tonsillitis:

  • sore throat when swallowing;
  • temperature increase (up to 40 ° С);
  • redness and enlarged tonsils;
  • purulent formations on the tonsils (purulent plugs);
  • soreness and swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy);
  • headaches;
  • general weakness.

Signs of chronic tonsillitis:

  • Symptoms of tonsillitis в хронической форме схожи, но несколько
    less pronounced.
  • Pain and temperature are usually absent.
  • there may be only a slight pain when swallowing,
  • prevents the feeling of sore throat,
  • неприятный запах изо mouth

The general condition of the body suffers, but not as pronounced as
acute tonsillitis.

Additional symptoms:

  • Pain in the joints;
  • Allergic rashes on the skin, not amenable to
    treatment;
  • �”Lost” in the bones “
  • Weak cardiac colic, malfunction of the cardiovascular
    systems;
  • Pain in the kidneys, urinary disorders
    system.

Diagnostics

On examination, redness and swelling of the mucous membrane is noted.
tonsils and adjacent tissues (see photo). Palpation of the front
ear and cervical lymph nodes are fixed their increase and
soreness

Diagnostics тонзиллита у взрослых проводится с помощью следующих
methods:

  • осмотр ЛОР-врача, сбор анамнеза заболевания;
  • pharyngeal swab on the flora with the determination of sensitivity to
    antibiotics and bacteriophages;
  • complete blood count, urinalysis;
  • blood test for antistreptolysin -O, rheumatoid factor,
    C-reactive protein;
  • ECG;
  • According to the testimony, ultrasound of the kidneys, Echo-KG,
    консультация кардиолога, уролога.

Treatment of tonsillitis in adults

Treatment of tonsillitis is usually done on an outpatient basis.
conditions. Severe its course requires hospitalization.
It is prescribed a sparing type of diet rich in vitamins B and C, and
also drink plenty of detox.

Antiseptics for adults with tonsillitis:

  • Fucorcin;
  • Proposol;
  • Bioparox;
  • Gramicidin;
  • Aqualore;
  • Oracept;
  • Tonsilotren;
  • Givalex and others.

Для смазывания горла используют solutions:

  • Lyugol;
  • Chlorophyllipt.

If it is justified by the indication, the doctor is appointed.
antiviral medications. Often, antivirals have
immunomodulatory effects, therefore, are assigned to support
weakened immunity. But, again, an independent reception
This group of drugs may harm the body, the dosage and
The variation of such drugs is selected according to individual requirements.
attending doctor.

Antibiotics for tonsillitis

Prescribing antibiotics (antibacterial drugs) is
оправданным лишь при тяжелой форме diseases. It usually helps
the body to quickly deal with the microbial agent and bring
recovery, however, it should be remembered that antibiotics are useless in
treatment of viral diseases. This causes the bacteria to
become resistant to antibiotics.

To pick up an antibacterial drug must be made
taking a smear from the lacunae of the affected tonsils to determine the causative agent
diseases.

How to treat chronic tonsillitis?

Chronic tonsillitis должен лечиться комплексно, ведь только
so you can permanently get rid of his symptoms. During exacerbation
проводится такая же терапия, как и при остром воспалении tonsils.
But for complete recovery it is necessary to eliminate not only
symptoms of xp form of the disease, but also its causes.

If you have a chronic sore throat, then the therapy with it is the same as
with acute, but with some features:

  1. Antibiotics are prescribed by determining the causative agent, but the course
    their reception is more durable.
  2. The prevention of exacerbations is very important. Need to lead healthy
    lifestyle, avoid hypothermia, monitor nutrition and
    take all necessary measures in order to strengthen
    the body and protect it.
  3. Immunostimulants and probiotics recommend not drinking when
    exacerbations, and for prevention in those periods when the danger
    getting infected too high.
  4. Gargle with chronic tonsillitis is not always
    appropriate because there are purulent plugs in the lacunae,
    which are too tightly bound to the lymphoid tissue. More
    effective in this washing situation.
  5. It is advisable radical treatment. This removes
    tonsils surgically or otherwise that helps
    minimize the frequency of exacerbations.

Gargling for tonsillitis

Gargling can be done independently at home.
conditions. There is a large selection of different remedies that you can
purchase in pharmacies or cook yourself.

It is very effective to apply the following for rinsing
solutions:

  • Chlorophyllipt;
  • Hexoral;
  • Chlorhexidine;
  • Furacilin;
  • Bicarmint;
  • Iodinol;
  • Lugol.

At home you can use:

  1. Washing the throat with propolis extract. is he
    sold in a pharmacy, is not expensive. Renders very good
    antiseptic action, as well as purulent tonsils cleanse
    traffic jams and plaque. It also has an anesthetic effect on the mucous membrane.
    oral cavity.
  2. Gargling with salt. Preparation method: half
    a teaspoon of salt, add to a glass of water at room temperature.
    Stir. Rinse as often as possible. You can add half of it
    a teaspoon of soda, then the rinse will have a more pronounced
    anti-inflammatory effect.
  3. 15 g finely chopped celandine pour boiling water, give
    infuse for 10-15 minutes. Rinse hold
    using warm solution – before each procedure it is desirable
    warm it up a little.

Physiotherapy:

  • inhalations with herbal decoctions (calendula, chamomile);
  • phonophoresis – ultrasound treatment;
  • UHF-therapy;
  • ultraviolet irradiation;
  • laser therapy.

These methods are used only in combination with the main therapy. is heи
not intended for self treatment of tonsillitis.

Lack of results from several intensive care courses
chronic tonsillitis, frequent (2 to 4 per year) relapses
diseases, as well as signs of rheumatic affection of others
organs (heart, kidneys, joints) are indications for
surgical removal of the tonsils.

Surgical removal of tonsils with tonsillitis

Хирургические методы применяются  для лечения тонзиллита в
in some cases:

  • In the absence of a therapeutic effect with conservative
    methods;
  • In case of development on the background of tonsillitis abscess;
  • If tonsilogenic sepsis occurs;
  • If you suspect a malignant pathology.

Cure tonsillitis forever possible. There are ways to treat
completely different. Sometimes massive therapy is enough.
antibiotics and in some cases without surgery
not enough.

Nutrition and Diet

If you suffer from tonsillitis, it is assumed that you
switch to a liquid diet for several
days  All meals should be consumed steamed, boiled.
or stewed. The emphasis should be on liquid food or food,
which will not cause difficulties when chewing and swallowing.
Therefore, it is recommended to use soups, jellies, compotes, vegetable
puree, ginger tea.

Any food should be consumed in the form of heat (it warms up
tonsils, relieves inflammation and kills germs). Sugar in the period
болезни лучше заменить на мед, а молоко перед приемом немного
warm up.

Recommended Products
  • Bread wheat yesterday’s pastries.
  • Soups meat or fish. Non-fat, non-fat – for this
    drain the first water while cooking meat. Vegetables are added to soups,
    pasta and cereals. Since it is difficult for patients to swallow, soups
    rub or chop with a blender.
  • Low-fat steamed meats, poultry and fish.
    Also recommended steam meatballs, meatballs, meatballs.
  • Dairy products, fresh low-fat cottage cheese, non-spicy cheese.
    Sour cream is used only for dressing dishes.
  • Semi-liquid, viscous cereal from cereals.
  • Vegetable side dishes: mashed potatoes, stews, vegetable caviar.
  • Fresh fruits and berries, not hard and not sour. Jam,
    compotes, jellies, juices diluted with water 1: 1.
  • Honey, marmalade, jam.
  • Напитки: некрепкий чай и кофе, отвар шиповника.
Products to refuse
  • Muffin, rye bread.
  • Fatty fish and meat varieties, broths of them.
  • Smoked products, canned food, salted fish.
  • Barley and pearl barley, millet.
  • Cream, whole milk, sour cream, fat cheeses.
  • Products that enhance gas formation: cabbage, legumes,
    radish, radish.
  • Spices, spicy seasonings.
  • Strong tea, coffee.
  • Alcoholic drinks.

How to treat tonsillitis folk remedies

At home you can use folk remedies from
tonsillitis But, before applying we recommend to consult with
by the attending physician.

  1. Gargling with beet juice. Grate the beets on a fine grater
    and squeeze the juice. To a glass of juice, add 1 tablespoon of table
    vinegar (not essences!). Gargle 5-6 times a day.
  2. Gargling a decoction of white willow bark rakita). 2
    tablespoons chopped bark pour 2 cups of hot water,
    bring to a boil and simmer for 15 minutes over low heat.
  3. Rinsing the throat with a decoction of chamomile, calendula, sage, oak
    bark.
  4. Boil the milk and add a pinch.
    порошка куркумы и перец черный молотый. Drink this mixture
    before going to bed for at least three nights in a row for effective
    treating inflamed tonsils.
  5. Take 1 gram of a mixture of medicinal herbs: camomile
    (flowers), string (grass), black currant (leaves), peppermint
    (leaves), calendula (flowers). All mix and pour a glass
    boiling water. Insist in a thermos, after filtering, use inside
    Half a cup 3-4 times a day.

Prevention

To reduce the incidence of the disease must take
following measures:

  • care must be taken to ensure that nasal breathing is always
    normal
  • eat right and balanced;
  • closely monitor oral hygiene;
  • timely sanitize foci of infection and treat teeth.

After a sore throat should be carried out prophylactic lacunae washing
and lubrication of tonsils with drugs that the doctor will recommend.

Tonsillitis in adults is a serious disease that
нужно начинать лечить как можно раньше. If you take action
in the early stages of the disease, you can recover quickly enough, not
prevent recurrences and complications.

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