Thyrotoxicosis – what it is, symptoms andtreatment, forms, consequences

Thyrotoxicosis (hyperthyroidism) is a pathological condition, with
which produces an excess of thyroid hormones in the body
glands. This state never arises by itself, but
is a “side effect” of other diseases of this organ
(Basedow’s disease, thyroiditis, nodular goiter). Develop pathology
can any person, regardless of gender and age. but
more susceptible to its occurrence representatives of the weak
half of society. Thyrotoxicosis therapy of the thyroid gland should
be expedient and timely.

Тиреотоксикоз щитовидной glands: что это такое?

What is thyrotoxicosis of the thyroid gland? Thyroid
iron is considered a kind of “commander” in human
the body. Violation of its functioning can cause
significant disruptions of the endocrine system. Thyroid железа играет
large role in the organization of healthy metabolic processes, as well as
constructive mutual action of all organs and systems.

Thyrotoxicosis is a syndrome that occurs as a consequence of the influence
на организм избыточного количества гормонов thyroid gland.
An excess of thyroid hormone accelerates the metabolism in
cells, which also, as in hypothyroidism, leads to
polysystem disruption of the body.

Under the influence of a large amount of thyroid hormones in
The body has a number of processes:

  • Heat exchange increases, the use of tissues increases
    oxygen.
  • Changes the normal ratio of sex hormones (estrogen
    to androgens).
  • Fabrics become more sensitive to catecholamines.
    (adrenaline, dopamine, norepinephrine.) and impulses from the vegetative
    the nervous system that is responsible for the work of the internal
    organs.
  • Faster cortisol is destroyed, which is a regulator
    carbohydrate metabolism, due to this there are signs
    adrenal insufficiency (violation of mineral, water
    exchange).

The reasons

ATрачи считают, что тиреотоксикоз, главным образом, развивается
due to diffuse toxic goiter or disease
Graves-Basedow. Three quarters of patients suffering from thyrotoxicosis
Parallel suffered precisely from this disease. Key features
обоих diseases:

  • transmission by genetic inheritance from loved ones
    relatives;
  • compatibility with autoimmune diseases (actually, therefore
    thyrotoxicosis refers to autoimmune diseases).

Endocrinologists and specialists in related medical specialties
It is believed that the most common causes of thyrotoxicosis are:

  • Stressful situations – especially those that occur once
    have significant severity, or, more likely,
    chronic stress, repeated constantly (often).
  • nodular toxic goiter (Plummer’s disease). Wherein
    the disease is not the whole thyroid gland, but only its individual sections
    (in the form of nodes) produces thyroid hormones more actively. More often
    occurs in the elderly;
  • excess iodine intake. It is quite rare
    the cause of thyrotoxicosis, but it cannot be discounted.
    The source of iodine can be not only food, but also
    medications;
  • Infections – their pathogens can both directly damage
    thyroid epithelial cells responsible for making
    hormones that will force them to more actively synthesize these
    substances and general infectious diseases of the body that
    accompanied by abrupt changes in metabolic processes.
  • Intake of large doses of hormones that
    produces the thyroid gland (with hormonal drugs
    by means). Usually observed in the treatment of hypothyroidism;
  • Heredity. If someone from family members
    — носитель как минимум одного гена, имеющего отношение к
    thyrotoxicosis, the onset of symptoms does not take long.

Forms of the disease: mild, moderate and severe

Thyrotoxicosis of the thyroid gland may be differently tolerated.
by the body. AT зависимости от тяжести его течения и уровня гормонов
taken to allocate:

  1. easy Поражаются только ткани thyroid gland. Other
    organs are not involved in the pathological process. AT редких случаях
    manifested tachycardia, but it passes unnoticed by a person, so
    how not to go beyond the established norm;
  2. average. The patient has persistent tachycardia. On the background
    progression of pathological processes in the thyroid gland
    reduced body weight. Soже нарушается функционирование
    certain organs and systems – reduced functioning
    adrenal glands, metabolism is disturbed and the level decreases
    cholesterol;
  3. heavy If the treatment of thyrotoxicosis was not carried out at
    the first two forms, all the symptoms described earlier, amplified.
    The patient has a strong depletion and weakening of the body, and
    также сбой в работе всех organs. Dysfunction can happen
    almost impossible.

ATсе три формы заболевания объединяет единая причина –
токсический diffuse goiter Rarely thyrotoxicosis is caused by excessive
the use of iodine along with drugs. Especially
must be attentive pregnant women – enlarged thyroid gland
increases the risk of thyrotoxicosis in the baby.

Allocate another form of the disease – subclinical
thyrotoxicosis. This form of the disease almost does not cause
complaints in patients.

Subclinical thyrotoxicosis can only be diagnosed
blood test: significantly reduced concentration of hormone TSH
at the level of T3 and T4 in the normal range. Moreover, after
appropriate therapy character changes in the thyroid
glands also have no clinical manifestations, regression
тиреотоксикоза определяется посредством проведения
laboratory research.

Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis

тиреотоксикоз

The photo shows the symptoms of thyroid toxicity of the thyroid gland:
eye protrusion and enlarged gland

When considering such a pathological process as
thyrotoxicosis, it is important to bear in mind that symptoms will largely
depend on the following factors: the duration of the state,
severity and sex of the patient.

Symptoms:

  • drastic weight change;
  • Excessive perspiration, which is not explained by any conditions
    external environment, no physical exertion;
  • Constant feeling of heat that is observed in all parts.
    bodies;
  • Marked increase in heart rate;
  • Появляется дрожание конечностей или всего bodies;
  • The patient gets tired quickly;
  • It becomes difficult for the patient to concentrate on something
    Attention;
  • The representatives of the weaker sex have changes in
    menstrual cycle;
  • In men, there is a decrease in sexual desire.

Существуют также внешние признаки тиреотоксикоза, которые
the patient or his relatives who do not always notice
him constantly, but noticeable gaze experienced doctor any
specialty, especially endocrinologist. To such symptoms
relate:

  • detection of goiter and increase in neck volume
    close collars of clothes that he wears for a long time),
  • swelling of a certain part of the neck,
  • violation of normal swallowing and breathing (if caused
    thyrotoxicosis become pathological processes accompanied by
    noticeable growth of the thyroid gland).

The patient with thyrotoxicosis quickly gets tired, it has frequent and
mood swings, attention dissipates, ability goes out
concentrate, it is difficult to memorize something.

Patients need the help of a specialist, since all of them
mental disorders expressed in the form of aggression are recorded,
easy excitability, excessive fussiness. Their condition is constantly
changes: from a feeling of joy, euphoria, it abruptly turns into
tearfulness, despondency and even depression.

How does thyrotoxicosis in women, men and children

Description and symptoms of the disease
Thyrotoxicosis of the thyroid gland in women Signs of thyrotoxicosis in women, depending on the reasons
caused a pathological condition may have different degrees
expressiveness. In women, thyrotoxicosis manifests itself in many
various symptoms, and leaves its mark, as on the external
the kind of woman and the work of her body:

  • the menstrual cycle is disturbed, monthly bleeding becomes
    scanty and irregular, accompanied by pain and
    deterioration of general well-being;
  • hair becomes thin, dull and brittle, can
    there is detachment of the nail plates;
  • exophthalmos is diagnosed, representing an increase
    the palpebral fissure and bulging of the eyeballs that causes
    swelling of the tissues of the orbit;
  • the heart works in an intense rhythm, and therefore
    arterial hypertension or tachycardia is diagnosed.
Thyrotoxicosis in men In men, it is harder than in women. For representatives
stronger sex more characteristic expressed degree of the syndrome. Besides
Moreover, they have much more often relapses after a conservative
treatment. Men of any age notice when thyrotoxicosis
sheer muscle weakness. These manifestations are especially noticeable with
climbing stairs staying. Musculature loses volume and
functionality Proximals are particularly affected.
groups (muscles of the lower leg, forearm, hand). Patients are concerned about:

  • nervousness and irritability;
  • sleep disorders;
  • sweating;
  • rapid pulse;
  • trembling hands;
  • increased appetite;
  • diarrhea.
Thyrotoxicosis in children  The course of severe thyrotoxicosis in children is different,
first of all, the fact that in most cases they are absent
eye symptoms. Течение тиреотоксикоза у ребенка может
be fast and durable, but usually wears benign
character The disease causes increased nervousness,
restless sleep, irritability, sometimes taking shape
bitterness. Increased nervousness accompanies all cases of severe
and moderate thyrotoxicosis. Of great importance for patients
thyrotoxicosis of children has sufficient and complete nutrition. So
as in most cases, the disease of children thyrotoxicosis
accompanied by weight loss, and sometimes significant emaciation,
it is highly desirable that such patients receive enhanced
nutrition, increasing age physiological norms.

Consequences and complications

With the advanced form of thyrotoxicosis, symptoms of other
chronic diseases:

  • Negative effect on the work of the heart (arrhythmia, heart attack
    myocardium).
  • Expansion of the thyroid gland and difficulty breathing, swallowing.
  • Infertility.
  • Endocrine ophthalmopathy (eye problems).

With timely and adequate treatment, the symptoms are completely
disappear and the body functions are restored.

Diagnostics

Diagnostics начинается с посещения врача-endocrinologist.
Held palpation of the thyroid gland, to identify it
increases, symptoms of a disease are considered on the basis of complaints
the patient.

Diagnostics такого состояния, как тиреотоксикоз, требует
careful analysis and comparison of patient complaints, data
clinical examination hurt in the office of the endocrinologist, and
also the results of instrumental and laboratory examinations,
performed in the direction of the doctor.

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  1. Determining the level of hormones in the blood – the first thing that determines
    disease.
  2. Analysis for the presence of antibodies – previously mentioned autoimmune
    nature of the disease.
  3. Thyroid ultrasound – if the cause of thyrotoxicosis is
    diffuse toxic goiter, an increase in size.
  4. Thyroid scintigraphy – in some cases, with
    determining the cause of thyrotoxicosis.
  5. If necessary, examinations of the organs of vision: ultrasound,
    tomography of the orbital region.

When the diagnosis is confirmed, treatment is started immediately.

Treatment of thyrotoxicosis

To select the most effective treatment method
thyrotoxicosis, the specialist must determine the main
reason.

As modern medical practice shows, most often this
diffuse goiter

The modern development of medical science and practice allows
to carry out therapy for thyrotoxicosis in several directions.

  1. One of them is the method of conservative therapy, including
    in the use of drugs and radioactive
    iodine.
  2. The next possible treatment is considered operating
    methods to remove a lesion formed in the gland or
    same part of her.
  3. In exceptional cases, it is possible to combine both
    the techniques given above.

Conservative treatment means reducing emissions
thyroid hormones with medication. Medicinal
drugs prescribed in this case directly affect
endocrine glands and the autonomic nervous system.

In addition to the means of solving hormonal problems are taken
also sedatives and beta blockers for accompanying therapy for
treatment. To this group can be attributed, and folk remedies
who are able to effectively deal with the disease in
If they take not too severe form.

Operation

The essence of the operation is to remove some or all of the
thyroid gland. Resort to the surgical method when
drug treatment was ineffective when sizes
thyroid glands are so large that they prevent normal
breathing and swallowing, when the gland is compressing the neurovascular bundles
on the neck.

Surgical treatment is to remove part of the thyroid.
glands with surgery. This treatment is indicated for
single node or growth of a separate part of the body,
accompanied by increased function. After deleting a site with a node
iron supports normal function. If large is removed
part then the risk of developing hypothyroidism.

Postoperative sutures, thanks to modern technology of execution,
practically not noticeable. Efficiency returns already on 3-5
day.

Treatment of thyrotoxicosis радиоактивным йодом

Therapy takes place under strict medical supervision and control.
hormone levels in the body. Most often requires radical
intervention, because self is excluded.

Isotope treatments are considered safer than
surgical intervention:

  • The patient does not need to enter into anesthesia;
  • There is no rehabilitation period;
  • Aesthetic defects do not appear on the body – scars and scars;
    Especially valuable is that the neck is not spoiled – for women, her appearance
    makes a huge difference.

The dose of iodine is most often administered to the body once, and if
causes an unpleasant symptom – itchy throat and swelling, it is easy
stop drugs of local action.

Diet

It should be noted that there are basic principles in
рационе при тиреотоксикозе и требуется специальная диета.
It is necessary, of course, to take medication, but the correct
nutrition in this disease plays a big role. Need to exclude
from the diet smoked, fried and salted. Soже нужно уменьшить
carbohydrate intake.

Thyrotoxicosis is a serious condition that
can not in any way. To prevent the development of complications,
It is necessary to adhere to a medical diet constantly. And more
the doctor should tell about it in detail.

Products that should be in the diet:

  • Bakery products: rye, oat or wheat bread
    flour, a variety of biscuits, cookies, and other
    savory baking.
  • Milk and dairy products: milk, non-fat kefir in the form of soups,
    milk porridges, okroshka. Low-fat cottage cheese for casseroles, cheesecakes,
    cottage cheese. Natural yoghurts, sour cream, whey, sour milk.
    Low-fat, unsalted cheese.
  • Groats: all kinds of groats – buckwheat, oatmeal, rolled oats, millet,
    barley and others in the form of porridge or milk soups. Carefully
    eat rice and legumes because they can cause constipation and
    violation of the bowel.
  • Vegetables and fruits: various types of cabbage (cauliflower, broccoli),
    zucchini, pumpkin, leafy salads and more. Beware of fruit
    those that cause bloating and diarrhea (grapes, plums).
  • Meat products: all lean types of meat cooked on
    steamed, boiled or stewed with vegetables.
  • Fish: low-fat varieties of freshwater fish (catfish, pike, rudd
    etc.) you can boil, bake or serve as a fill.
  • Drinks: fruit drinks, compotes, chamomile tea, dogrose broth.

With the development of thyrotoxicosis is strictly prohibited.
to eat:

  • rich broths of meat and fish;
  • fatty meat and fish;
  • sea ​​kale and seafood;
  • spices;
  • spicy seasonings and sauces;
  • chocolate;
  • cakes and cakes with fat cream;
  • coffee, cocoa, alcohol.

Sample diet menu for thyroid toxicity
glands:

  • For breakfast you have oatmeal and cottage cheese casserole.
  • Tea time includes apples baked with cottage cheese and a salad with
    vegetable oil.
  • Lunch consists of cereal soup and steam patty with mashed potatoes.
    Lunch is supplemented with unsweetened biscuit or biscuits.
  • For dinner you have boiled river fish, buckwheat porridge and
    salad.

If you want to eat late in the evening, you can drink ryazhenka or
kefir. Concerning undesirable dishes, then with thyrotoxicosis
Thyroid gland is forbidden to cook soups on a strong pig or
chicken broth. It is advisable not to increase the caloric content at all.
animal help fats.

Special nutrition for hyperthyroidism will help to satisfy
need for vitamins and minerals speed up the process
restoration of the functioning of the thyroid gland, as well as increase
protective functions of the body.

Как лечить щитовидную железу при тиреотоксикозе народными
by means

Before you take folk remedies, be sure to
consult with the endocrinologist.

Traditional recipes for tiretoksikoze:

  1. Beet. It is recommended to use it raw daily. AT
    vegetable contains a lot of iodine, which is an important element for
    normal thyroid function;
  2. Yarrow Alcohol tincture is taken daily for 10
    drops in the morning and evening on an empty stomach, half an hour before meals. Another way –
    2 tbsp. l dry flowers with grass steamed in a thermos 3-4
    hours (water volume 500 ml). Drink 3 times a day in equal parts through
    35-40 minutes after meals.
  3. Rosehip Excellent folk remedy that helps
    stabilize the gland. Rose hips can be taken in
    any kind;
  4. Infusion of hawthorn is a great assistant in the fight against
    disease. shield Tablespoon of fruit should be filled with a glass
    boiling water, and then insist means in a thermos for a couple of hours.
    Процеживаем и пьем по 3 — 4 ст.l несколько раз за day.
    The duration of treatment is no more than three weeks, then it is obligatory.
    break for two weeks, after which, if necessary, you can
    continue treatment
  5. Broth from motherwort, mint, valerian root and hawthorn fruit.
    ATозьмите сушеные растения в пропорции 1:1:1:2. Carefully
    mix, chop to flour consistency. Separate 1 tbsp. l
    The resulting collection and fill with boiling water (glass capacity
    200-250 ml). After half an hour you can take. Doses: ½ cup 2 times
    during the day. Eat 25-30 minutes before meals.

Prevention

Теперь вы знаете, что такое thyrotoxicosis. With the aim of
Prevention of the development of pathology is recommended:

  • lead an active and healthy lifestyle
  • give up bad habits, in particular smoking and
    alcohol abuse
  • eat right and be systematically examined
    endocrinologist.

If your close relatives have diseases
thyroid gland, you are also recommended to periodically perform
Thyroid ultrasound, hormonal studies.

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